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Давыдов И. В. (Епископ Якутский и Ленский Зосима). Якутский протоиерей Николай Миронович // Вестник ПСТГУ. Серия II: История. История Русской Православной Церкви. 2010. Вып. 2 (35). С. 32-51.
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The Polish Autocephalous Orthodox Church, Pskov Orthodox Mission, Metropolitan Sergius (Voskresensky), Yakutsk diocese
Bishop of Yakutsk and Lensk Zosima (Davydov I.)
Сак К. В. "Самая большая гордость - быть твоим первым и самым верным подданным": вел. кн. Константин Николаевич и вел. кн. Константин Константинович на службе престолу // Вестник ПСТГУ. Серия II: История. История Русской Православной Церкви. 2011. Вып. 4 (41). С. 15-29.
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The Romanov dynasty, Grand Duke Konstantin Nikolaevich, Grand Duke Konstantin Konstantinovich, the Establishment of the Imperial family, the Great reforms, counter-reforms, the Russian revolution, generation
Олевская В. В. Живая история Церкви в эпоху гонений // Вестник ПСТГУ. Серия II: История. История Русской Православной Церкви. 2012. Вып. 2 (45). С. 127-135. — Rev. op.: Пономаренко Д., диак. Епископ Стефан (Никитин): Жизнеописание, документы, воспоминания. М.: Изд-во ПСТГУ, 2010. 960 с. (Материалы по новейшей истории Русской Православной Церкви / Редкол.: прот. Владимир
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Андреев А. В. [Review] // Вестник ПСТГУ. Серия I: Богословие. Философия. 2012. Вып. 3 (41). С. 135-138. — Rev. op.: Тисельтон Э. Герменевтика / О. Розенберг, пер. Черкассы: Коллоквиум, 2011. 430 с.
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Чепурин А. В. [Review] // Вестник ПСТГУ. Серия I: Богословие. Философия. 2012. Вып. 4 (42). С. 139-144. — Rev. op.: After the Postsecular and the Postmodern: New Essays in Continental Philosophy of Religion / A. P. Smith, D. Whistler, eds. Newcastle: Cambridge Scholars, 2010. 415 p.
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Гвоздев А. В. [Review] // Вестник ПСТГУ. Серия I: Богословие. Философия. 2013. Вып. 5 (49). С. 145-150. — Rev. op.: Венелин Ю. И. Истоки Руси и славянства / П. В. Тулаев, сост., предисл. и коммент., О. А. Платонов, отв. ред. Институт русской цивилизации, 2011
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Лебедев В. В. Лексемы со значением «Бог» в богослужебных книгах арабов-христиан // Вестник ПСТГУ. Серия III: Филология. 2013. Вып. 5 (35). С. 46-58.
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The lexemes allahu, 'ilahun, 'allahumma in all word forms encountering in the service texts of the Christian Arabs is a test subject in the given article, the objective of the study is a clarification of their grammatical identification and semantics. Certain aspects relating to a functioning of the Arabic language as a sign system, certain peculiarities of the Arabic linguistic tradition and certain aspects of the Arabic cases, the Arabic article, appositive word combination and possessiveness relating to the test subject are considered in the article as well.
God, Christian Arabs, sign systems, lexeme, word-form, context.
1. Ahmad Sulajman Jakut. Zjahirat al-i ^ b fi-n-nahv al-'arabijj, Algeria, 1983.
2. Gabuchan G. M. Teorija artiklja i problemy arabskogo sintaksisa (Theory of Article and Problems of Arabic Syntax), Moscow, 1972.
3. Gabuchan G. M. Arabskoe slovoizmenenie: Dis... d-ra filol. nauk (Arabic Inflection: Dissertation), Moscow, 2000.
4. Zhurinskaja M. A. 1990 “Posessivnost'” (Possessivity), in Lingvisticheskij jenciklopedicheskij slovar', Moscow, 1990, p. 389.
5. al-Klmus al-dzhadid li-t-tullab, Tunis, Algeria, 1985.
6. Lebedev V. V. Uchis' chitat' Koran po-arabski (Learn how to Read Quran in Arabic), Moscow, 2002.
7. as-Sa ^ as-saharijja... Hidmat al-Kudads al-Ilahijj li-l-kiddis Juhan t az-Zahabijj al-fam, Amman, 2003.
8. Tammam Hassan. Al-Luga al-'arabijja: Ma'naha va-mabnaha, Kasablanka, [s.a.].
9. al-Fjruzabadj. Al-^mu s al-Muhit, Bejrut, 1993.
Абраменкова В. В. Царские игрушки как инструмент семейного воспитания династии Романовых (к 400-летию Дома Романовых) // Вестник ПСТГУ. Серия IV: Педагогика. Психология. 2014. Вып. 1 (32). С. 70-80. DOI: 10.15382/sturIV201432.70-80
Article is devoted to the analysis of the gaming environment and, first of all of children's toys, Russian tsars of the Romanov dynasty. The method of historical reconstruction identifies practical reasons for the creation of a children's environment is the description of game sets, the source of their occurrence. Based on the analysis of historical works, letters and memoirs of the author provides a brief overview of the game in the Royal families of the late XVI — early XX centuries. Extends the provision that a toy for a child — not just fun, but a cultural weapon with which he develops a huge and complex world, understands the laws of human relationships and eternal truths. More details's environment children of the last Russian Emperor of the Holy Tsar Nicholas the Second, which is characterized by exceptional severity selection of gaming material from the moral point of view. The author describes the traditional toys for the little princesses and princes in accordance with the future responsibilities of boys and girls. The article reveals the importance of the traditional Russian toys as a universal category of being a child, a basis for building them a picture of the world, cognition of the spiritual foundations of life. Russian traditional folk toy is the perfect image of the world, expressed in the objective form, and the doll — image of the ideal man, the image of God. In conclusion, a conclusion is made that the game set toy Imperial children contained a special pedagogical potential: communion future rulers to popular culture and oriented on the values and meanings kingly service of an Orthodox ruler.
game, toys, games, traditional culture, education, toy as a cultural weapon, the Royal dynasty of the Romanovs, the Royal children, pedagogical potential.

1. Abramenkova V. V. Vo chto igrajut nashi deti. Igrushka i antiigrushka (What Do Our Children Play with. Toy and Antitoy), Moscow, 2010.
2. Zabelin I. E. Domashnij byt russkih carej v XVI i XVII stoletijah (House Life of Russian Tsars in XVI and XVII Centuries), Moscow, 2005.
3. Kononov A., svjashh. Duhovnyj smysl narodnoj igrushki (Spiritual Sense of Folk Toy), in http://folkportal.3dn.ru/publ/dukhovnyj_smysl_narodnoj_igrushki_iz_ocherkov_po_filosofii_igrushki_ierej_andrej_kononov/6-1-0-85
4. Kravcova M. Vospitanie detej na primere svjatyh Carstvennyh Muchenikov (Education of Children on Example of St. Tsar Martyrs), Moscow, 2002.
5. Lotman Ju. P. Kukly v sisteme kul'tury. Izbrannye stat'i (Dolls in Culture Systems. Selected Articles), Tallinn, 1992, vol. 1.
6. Na detskoj polovine. Detstvo v carskom dome. OTMA i Aleksej. Katalog vystavki (On Children Half. Childhood in Tsar House. OTMA and Alexej), GIM, 2000.
7. Rozhdestvenskij S. V. Ocherki po istorii sistem narodnogo obrazovanija v Rossii XVIII–XIX vv. (Essays in History of Systems of People Education in Russia in XVIII–XIX Cent.), Saint-Petersburg, 1912, vol. 1.
8. Florovskij G. Puti russkogo bogoslovija (Ways of Russian Theology), Kiev, 1991.
9. Hrenov N. A. «Chelovek igrajushhij» v russkoj kul'ture (“Playing Human in Russian Culture”), Saint-Petersburg, 2005.
10. Boneckaja N. K. (ed.) Carskie deti (Tsar Children), Moscow, 2005.
Дюмина С. В. Формирование универсальных учебных действий обучающихся как объект управленческой деятельности // Вестник ПСТГУ. Серия IV: Педагогика. Психология. 2014. Вып. 3 (34). С. 17-29. DOI: 10.15382/sturIV201434.17-29
One of the main targets of modern education is the development of universal educational activities for schoolchildren. It is clear that achieving positive results are possible purposeful activities of teachers, pupils and parent groups. In this regard, of particular urgency is the problem of managing the development of universal educational activities for schoolchildren. This article summarizes the results of research of problems of management of formation of universal educational activities for schoolchildren under a regional experiment: development and testing of a model of administrative activity that meets the logic of construction of the educational process in the conditions of the implementation of the GEF. Managing the development of a universal educational activities for schoolchildren is considered as purposeful, specially organized interaction of leaders, teachers, pupils and their parents on the basis of evidence-based analysis of the educational process of schools, planning, management, organization, control and reflexive analysis in the system «lesson - curricular activities - home-educational work».
management activities, management, formation of universal educational activities between subjects of the educational process

1. Babanskij Ju. K. Optimizacija processa obuchenija (Obshhedidakticheskij aspekt) (Optimization of Educational Process (General Didactic Aspect)), Moscow, 1977.
2. Belencov S. I. 2005 “Vzaimootnoshenija shkoly i sem'i na rubezhe XIX–XX vv.: vzaimodejstvie ili vzaimnye pretenzii” (Relations of School and Family at Turn of XIX–XX Cent.: Interaction or Mutual Claims), in Narodnoe obrazovanie, 2005, vol. 2, pp. 185–188.
3. Belencov S. I. Problema grazhdanskogo vospitanija v russkoj pedagogike i shkole v konce XIX — nachale XX v. Avtoref. diss. … kand. ped. nauk (Problem of Civil Education in Russian Pedagogic and School in End of XIX — Begin of XX Cent. Dissertation Abstract), Kursk, 2000.
4. Asmolov A. G. (ed.) Kak proektirovat' universal'nye uchebnye dejstvija v nachal'noj shkole. Ot dejstvija k mysli: posobie dlja uchitelja (How to Project Universal Educational Actions in Elementary School. From Action to Thought: Handbook for Teacher), Moscow, 2010.
5. Lerner I. Ja. 1984 “Uchebnye umenija i ih funkcii v processe obuchenija” (Educational Skills and Their Functions in Educational Process), in Rol' uchebnoj literatury v formirovanii obshhih uchebnyh umenij i navykov shkol'nikov, Moscow, 1984.
6. Churakova R. G. Desjat' bazovyh principov jeffektivnogo upravlenija. Realizacija standarta vtorogo pokolenija (Ten Basic Principles of Effective Administration. Realization of 2nd Generation Standard), Moscow, 2011.
7. Shamova T. I., Davydenko T. I. Upravlenie obrazovatel'nym processom v adaptivnoj shkole (Administration of Educational Process in Adaptive School), Moscow, 2001.
Андреев А. В. [Review] // Вестник ПСТГУ. Серия I: Богословие. Философия. 2015. Вып. 1 (57). С. 131-135. — Rev. op.: Традиционные богословские вопросы в свете современной полемики
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Andreev Aleksei, priest
Андреев А. В. Дискуссия об историчности Иисуса Христа в советском религиоведении // Вестник ПСТГУ. Серия I: Богословие. Философия. 2015. Вып. 2 (58). С. 73-88. DOI: 10.15382/sturI201558.73-88
The article discusses the history of the controversy regarding the historicity of Jesus Christ in the academic literature of the Soviet period. It summarizes the position of the classics of Marxism-Leninism on the issue, which for many decades served for scientists as «starting point» in their studies. The article outlines the main work of Soviet religious scholars, historians and philologists, engaged in the research of the New Testament. It presents the basic arguments for and against a real earthly existence of Jesus Christ. It identifies the major milestones in the development of this issue throughout the Soviet period: the period from 20’s, which is characterized by the dominance of the ideas of the so-called «Mythological school» and tough anti-religious propaganda; the period from the late 50’s to early 80’s, when the mythological nature of Jesus was questioned; and the third period, which began in the late 80s, and which is marked the transition of Soviet (and later Russian) New Testament studies in the context of a new paradigm that recognizes the fact of the historical existence of Jesus Christ as self-evident. The article also raises the question of why the Soviet studies of the New Testament literature were not integrated in the international debate, in particular, in the «Quest for the historical Jesus.» Aside from the obvious factors such as total indoctrination of science and the difficulty of international contacts, it is hypothesized that the crucial diffi culty in the development of Soviet Biblical Studies was in excessive use of sociological research methods of the New Testament, to the detriment of philological criticism of the Biblical text
Jesus, religious studies, Soviet, history, New Testament, mythological school, Bible studies, history of religion, Marxism, early Christianity

1. Bogoraz V. G. Hristianstvo v svete jetnografii (Christianity in Light of Ethnography), Moscow, 2011.
2. Garadzha V. I. Religiovedenie (Religion Studies), Moscow, 1995.
3. Ljozov S. V. Popytka ponimanija. Izbrannye raboty (Attempt of Understanding. Selected Works), Moscow; Saint-Petersburg, 1999.
4. Men' A., prot. Syn chelovecheskij (Son of Man), Brussel, 1981.
5. Trofimova Z. P. 2006 “Mifologicheskaja i istoricheskaja shkoly v religiovedenii” (Mythological and Historical Schools in Religion Studies), in Religiovedenie: Jenciklopedicheskij slovar', Moscow, 2006, pp. 645.
Andreev Aleksei, priest
Суханов А. В. Докладные записки А. П. Успенского в Совет министров Временного Сибирского правительства (вступ. ст., публ. и примеч. А. В. Суханова) // Вестник ПСТГУ. Серия II: История. История Русской Православной Церкви. 2015. Вып. 3 (64). С. 124-144. DOI: 10.15382/sturII201564.124-144
This publication offers a previously unknown memoranda by representative of the diocesan assembly of deputies of the clergy and laity of the Tomsk diocese A. P. Uspensky, addressed to the Council of Ministers of the Provisional Siberian government in July 1918. A.P. Uspensky solicited for formation of the Ministry of confessions in the Provisional Siberian government. Memoranda are initiative documents to the Statute on the Chief Administration of religious denominations adopted by the Council of Ministers of the Russian government on December 27, 1918.
Russian Civil war, the Provisional Siberian government, Chief Administration of religious denominations, Alexander Petrovich Uspensky, freedom of conscience, separation of Church and state.
Кривцова С. В. Духовность в школе: феноменологический взгляд // Вестник ПСТГУ. Серия IV: Педагогика. Психология. 2015. Вып. 3 (38). С. 65-74. DOI: 10.15382/sturIV201538.65-74
The article deals with an actual problem for modern school-spirituality of the person and the possibility of its study and development. The phenomenological method (Husserl, Heidegger) allows us to consider the process of spiritual and moral education of referring to the underlying spiritual experiences. Dedicated invariant content structure of various spirituality experiences of man, arising from various aspects of life, opens up approaches to the description of the essential content of spirituality as “deep personal impression of those grandiose inconceivable structures that exceed the human being” (A. Laengle). The article shows how the experience can be investigated outrageous peak spiritual experiences (C. Jaspers). Reliance on a structural model of existence (models four fundamental motivations A. Laengle ) allows us to study the natural religiosity of man by identifying peak spirituality experiences. The fundamental motivation A.Laengle (fundamental trust in the world, and your belief in a superior order, gratitude for life and reverence for Personality of Other) are compared in the article with descriptions of religious experiences made by Russian religious philosopher S. L. Frank.
Spirituality natural religiosity, phenomenological method, education, peak experiences

1. Ljengle A. 2011 “Duh i jekzistencija: o duhovnom nachale, immanentno prisushhem jekzistencial'nomu analizu” (Spirit and Existence: about Spiritual Principle, Immanent to Analysis, Peculiar to Existential), in Jekzistencial'nyj analiz, 2011, vol. 3, pp. 11–23.
2. Ljengle A. 2005 “Psihoterapija: nauchnyj metod ili duhovnaja praktika“ (Psychotherapy: Scientific Method or Spiritual Practice), in Person. Jekzistencial'no-analiticheskaja teorija lichnosti, Moscow, 2005.
3. Ljengle A. 2001 “Jekzistencial'nyj analiz — najti soglasie s zhizn'ju” (Existential Analysis — to Find Accordance with Life), in Moskovskij psihoterapevticheskij zhurnal, 2001, vol. 1, pp. 5–23.
4. Pomeranc G. S., Mirkina Z.A. V teni vavilonskoj bashni (In Shadow of Tower of Babel), Moscow, 2004.
5. Frank S L. 1992 “S nami Bog” (God with Us), in Duhovnye osnovy obshhestva, Moscow, 1992, pp. 253–254.
6. Frank S L. Chelovek v poiskah smysla (Human in Search of Reason), Moscow, 1990.
Мельникова И. Е., Олевская В. В. Из истории пребывания епископа Кириона (Садзаглишвили) на покое в период 1908–1910 гг. // Вестник ПСТГУ. Серия II: История. История Русской Православной Церкви. 2011. Вып. 6 (43). С. 50-57.
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Bishop Kirion (Sadzaglishvili), the murder of the Exarch of Georgia, Archbishop Nikon (Sofia), the Autocephalous Georgian Church, the Exarch of Georgia Vladimir Bogoyavlensky, Chairman of the Belgian League for the rights of man and citizen, George Laure
Mel'nikova Iia
Olevskaia Vera
Васильева Н. В. Кружение вокруг посада // Вестник ПСТГУ. Серия III: Филология. 2016. Вып. 1 (46). С. 10-14. DOI: 10.15382/sturIII201646.10-14
The paper attempts to interpret the poem «Metel’» (‘Snowstorm’) by B. Pasternak on the ground of the immanent analysis of the poetic world. Special attention is paid to the image of the herald as a dynamic centre of the poem. The technique of the analysis, conditioned by structural features of the text, establishes a correlation between the dynamics of the form and dynamics of the content, with the following comprehension of the semantic tension emerging within this correlation. The paper therefore establishes horizontal and vertical axes of the poem. The factual basis of the interpretation is constituted by the predicativity of the poetic world, which is taken as the invariant and in which the unmade statement of the character about the posad (‘trading quarter outside the city walls’) plays the plot-forming role. Proceeding from the inference about the bifurcating space, the paper deals with the image of the window as a boundary between the worlds and establishes a special quality of the herald, namely his ability to freely transcend this boundary. This quality makes possible the interaction between the herald and the lyrical hero, the clue to which, according to the author of the paper, is the image of the mysterious her, who has sent the herald. The author of the paper makes assumptions about the nature of the «female» image proceeding from characteristic features of the herald-leaf, its colour and metaphoric size («whiter than linen») and making a case for the openness of the image, which is represented in the poem only by a pronoun. In the interpretation of the finale of the poem, an emphasis is placed on the presence of an optimistic tendency in the outcome of the situation with the hero, who has «gone astray». This assumption is made on the basis of the interrelationship between the images of the hero and the herald. This interrelationship allows us to believe that in search of the addressee of the unnamed message, both the hero and the herald will somehow or other reach their goal.
immanent analysis, poetic world, invariant, vertical axis, dynamics of form, horizontal axis, dynamics of content.

1. Skljarov O. N. 2016 “V kraju «dushegubov»: drama prostranstva v «Meteli» B. Pasternaka“ (In Land of “Murderers”: Drama of Space in “Snowstorm” of B. Pasternak”), in Vestnik PSTGU. Serija Sh: Filologija, 2016, vol. 1/46, pp. 24–36.
2. Smirnov I. P. B. 1983 “Pasternak. Metel'” (Pasternak. Snowstorm), in Fridlender G. M. (ed.) Pojeticheskij stroj russkoj liriki, Leningrad, 1973, pp. 236—253.
3. Sokolov M. N. 1988 “Okno” (Window), in Tokarev S. A. (ed.) Mify narodov mira, vol. 2, Moscow, 1988.
Аншакова В. В. Православная мысль о личности и нравственном совершенствовании // Вестник ПСТГУ. Серия IV: Педагогика. Психология. 2016. Вып. 1 (40). С. 105-120. DOI: 10.15382/sturIV201640.105-120
The author of this article addresses to patristic literature and represents patristic experience in the field of education, personality development and moral perfection of the person. The analysis of the texts of ecclesiastical literature (Saint Ignatij (Bryanchaninov), Bishop Fyodor (Pozdeevsky), Bishop Anthony (Khrapovitsky), Bishop Barnabas (Belyaev), Nesmelov V. I., Zenkovsky V. V. and others) allowed to articulating the concepts of spiritual life, morals, conscience, spirituality, to emphasize existence own «spirituality fields» of the personality on which the individual interior depends. The purpose and the sense of human existence, moral virtues, their development in the family and in the process of self-education, ways of struggling against vices and passions, an appeal to “mind weeping”, cultivating good practices, strong will and spiritual vivacity, “urging oneself to good”, moral consciousness are profoundly elucidated in the patristic heritage of the end of the nineteenth century and the beginning of the twentieth century. The optimistic view of man as a subject “building his/her own life” gradually developing and perfecting it is extremely symbolic. Lessons and ideas of patristic thinkers presented in the article ring quite modern and timely in view of the tasks of personality moral perfection.
spiritual and moral school, spirituality, moral education, moral person, morals, conscience, lust, vices, virtues.

1. Berdjaev N. A. 1993 “Chelovek. Mikrokosm i makrokosm” (Human. Microcosm and Macrocosm), in Fenomen cheloveka: Antologija, Moscow, 1993, p. 30.
2. Vernadskij V. I. 1981 “Ocherki po istorii sovremennogo nauchnogo mirovozzrenija. Lekcii 1–3. O nauchnom mirovozzrenii” (Essays on History of Modern Scientific Worldview. Lectures 1–3. About Scientific Worldview), in Izbrannye trudy po istorii nauki, Moscow, 1981, p. 48.
3. Vystuplenie Svjatejshego Patriarha Moskovskogo i vseja Rusi Kirilla na zakrytii V Obshherossijskoj olimpiady shkol'nikov po Osnovam pravoslavnoj kul'tury 18 aprelja 2013 g. v Zale cerkovnyh soborov kafedral'nogo sobornogo Hrama Hrista Spasitelja v Moskve (Speech of His Holiness Patriarch of Moscow and All Russia Kirill on Closing of V Russian Olympics of School Pupils for Grounds of Orthodox Culture on 18th April 2014 in Hall of Church Councils of Cathedral of Christ the Savior in Moscow), in http://oldsite.radonezh.ru/news/18058.html.
4. Doklad Svjatejshego patriarha Kirilla na otkrytii XXIII Mezhdunarodnyh Rozhdestvenskih obrazovatel'nyh chtenij «Knjaz' Vladimir. Civilizacionnyj vybor Rusi» 21 janvarja 2015 g. (Report of His Holiness Patriarch Kirill on Opening of XXIII International Christmas Educational Conference “Prince Vladimir. Civilization Choice of Rus’” on 21st January 2015), in www.patriarchia.ru/db/text/3957820.htm1/.
5. Antonij (Hrapovickij), ep. 1900 “Vozmozhna li nravstvennaja zhizn' bez hristianskoj religii” (Is a Moral Life Possible withouy Christian Religion), in Polnoe sobranie sochinenij, Kazan', 1900, vol. 3/1: Stat'i filosofskie i kriticheskie, p. 286.
6. Varnava (Beljaev), ep. Osnovy iskusstva svjatosti. Opyt izlozhenija pravoslavnoj asketiki (Ground of Art of Holiness. Experience of Statement of Orthodox Ascesis), Nizhnij Novgorod, 1997, vol. 2.
7. Feodor (Pozdeevskij), ep. K voprosu o nravstvennom (To Question about Moral), Har'kov, 1911.
8. Nesmelov V. I. Nauka o cheloveke (Science about Human), Kazan', 1906.
9. Psihologija: Slovar' (Psychology: Dictionary), Moscow, 1990.
10. Hristianskoe vospitanie detej (Christian Education of Children), Moscow, 1905.
Андреев А. В. Кем был Иисус из Назарета: реконструкции образа исторического Иисуса конца XX — начала XXI века // Вестник ПСТГУ. Серия I: Богословие. Философия. 2016. Вып. 6 (68). С. 9-25. DOI: 10.15382/sturI201668.9-25
The article deals with diff erent reconstructions of the personality, life and teaching of the historical Jesus. These reconstructions were made by the most prominent members of the ‛Search for the historical Jesus’ movement from the late 20th to the beginning of the 21st century. The article explores the specifi cs of the current stage of the ‛Search for the historical Jesus’ movement in its distinction from the earlier era (the middle of the 18th – the beginning of the 20th century). For the purpose of the article works of Edward Parish Sanders, John Mayer, John Dominic Crossan, Marcus Borg, Nicholas Thomas Wright are thoroughly examined. The article provides the summary of major works of these scholars. In the end of the article it is shown in which aspects reconstructions of these authors diff er from each other. Reconstructions are compared on the following parameters: how the historical Jesus of the specifi c reconstruction fi ts the Judaism of His epoch, and how the specifi c reconstruction deals with the question of eschatology. Some suggestions are made concerning the question of why there is a decline in current stage of the ‘Quest for the historical Jesus’ and how this movement could be revitalized.
Jesus, New Testament, Bible studies, Sanders, Mayer, Crossan, Borg, Wright

1. Aslan R. Zealot. Iisus: Biografiia fanatika. Moscow, 2014.
2. Borg M. Buntar' Iisus: Zhizn' i missiia v kontekste dvukh epokh. Moscow, 2009.
3. Vermesh G. Khristianstvo: Kak vse nachinalos'. Moscow, 2014.
4. Rait N. T. Voskresenie Syna Bozh'ego. Moscow, 2011.
5. Rait N. T. Iisus i pobeda Boga. Moscow, 2004.
6. Rait N. T. Novyi Zavet i narod Bozhii. Cherkassy, 2013.
7. Sanders E. P. Iisus i iudaizm. Moscow, 2012.
8. Sravnitel'noe bogoslovie. Nemetskii protestantizm XX veka: Teksty s kommentariiami. Moscow, 2009.
9. Flusser D. Iisus, svidetel'stvuiushchii o Sebe. Cheliabinsk, 1998.
10. Iastrebov G.G. «Poisk istoricheskogo Iisusa»: vykhod iz tupika?, in Al'manakh Sviato-Filaretovskogo pravoslavno-khristianskogo instituta. 2014. Vol. 12. P. 11–33.
11. Borg M. Jesus in Contemporary Scholarship. Atlanta, 1994.
12. Borg M. Jesus: A New Vision. N. Y., 1987.
13. Borg M. Meeting Jesus for the First Time: The Historical Jesus and the Heart of Contemporary Faith. N. Y., 1994.
14. Bronkamm G. Jesus of Nazareth. N. Y., 1960.
15. Bultmann R. Jesus and the Word. N. Y., 1934.
16. Crossan J. D. Jesus and the Kingdom // Jesus at 2000 / M.Borg, ed. N. Y., 1996.
17. Crossan J. D. Jesus: A Revolutionary Biography. N. Y., 1994.
18. Crossan J. D. The Birth of Christianity: Discovering What Happened in the Years Immediately After the Execution of Jesus. San Francisco, 1998.
19. Crossan J. D. The Historical Jesus: The Life of a Mediterranean Jewish Peasant. San Francisco, 1991.
20. Dunn J. Review of «The New Testament and the People of God» by N. T. Wright, in Journal of Theological Studies. 1995.Vol. 46.
21. Eddy P. Jesus as Diogenes? Refl ections on the Cynic Jesus Thesis, in Journal of Biblical Literature. 1996. Vol. 115/3.
22. Kasemann E. The Problem of the Historical Jesus, in The Historical Jesus. Critical Concepts in Religious Studies / C. Evans, ed. N. Y., 2004.Vol.1.
23. Martin R. The Elusive Messiah. A Philosophical Quest for the Historical Jesus. Oxford, 1999.
24. McKnight E. What Is Form Criticism? Philadelphia, 1969.
25. Meier J. A Marginal Jew: Rethinking the Historical Jesus. Yale, 1991.Vol. 1.
26. Meier J. A Marginal Jew: Rethinking the Historical Jesus. Yale, 1994.Vol. 2.
27. Meier J. A Marginal Jew: Rethinking the Historical Jesus. Yale, 2001.Vol. 3.
28. Powell M. A. Jesus as a Figure of History. How Modern Historians View the Man from Galilee. Louisville, 1998.
29. Sanders E. P. The Historical Figure of Jesus. N. Y., 1993.
30. Schweitzer A. The Quest of the Historical Jesus. L., 1910.
31. Smith M. Jesus the Magician. N. Y., 1978.
Andreev Aleksei, priest
Academic Degree: graduate student;
Place of work: Moscow State University 27/4 Lomonosovsky prospekt, Moscow 119991, Russian Federation;
Email: email: alexey.andreevtf@gmail.com.
Васильев А. В. [Review] // Вестник ПСТГУ. Серия I: Богословие. Философия. 2016. Вып. 6 (68). С. 148-152. — Rev. op.: Willert T. S. New voices in Greek Orthodox thought: untying the bond between nation and religion. Aldershot: Ashgate, 2014
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Vasil'ev Aleksei, priest
Academic Degree: Candidate of Sciences* in Politics;
Place of work: St. Tikhon’s Orthodox University for Humanities 6/1 Likhov pereulok, 127051 Moscow, Russian Federation;
Email: email: alexv@pstgu.ru. *According to the International Standard Classification of Education (ISCED) 2011, the degree of Candidate of Sciences (Cand.Sc.) belongs to ISCED level 8 — "doctoral or equivalent", together with PhD, DPhil, D.Lit, D.Sc, LL.D, Doctorate or similar.
Морозан В. В. Экономическое положение Кишиневской епархии в XIX - начале ХХ в. // Вестник ПСТГУ. Серия II: История. История Русской Православной Церкви. 2016. Вып. 6 (73). С. 55-68. DOI: 10.15382/sturII201673.55-68
The article dwells, on the basis of archival materials for the first time in the national and foreign historiography, on the economic situation of Kishinev Eparchy within the Russian Orthodox Church in the period from Bessarabia’s accedence to the Russian Empire till early 20th century. An important indicator of the priests’material well-beingis sufficiency of their land estates and emoluments. In this context, the author focused on the size of land holdings of particular clergy parishes and the financial allowance of the clergy. The essay also pays attention to the revenues of particular clergy parishes from occasional services and sale of candles. The study revealed that most of the venues from candle trading could not be used by the members of clergy parishes for their needs, but were transferred to the general beudget of the eparchy. The clergy spent a signifi cant portion of their income on renting and upkeeping of housing. With regard for this circumstance, an attempt was made to determine the extent of suffi ciency of housing for this category of clergy. In the course of research, the author managed to fi nd the information on the number of Bessarabian priests’children in their care at the time the country has joined the Russian Empire, and on their level of education. These data are extremely important for comprehending the private life of the clergy and inancial standing of their families, as such information is found in the documentary materials of early 19th century extremely seldom, regardless of diocesan affi liation of priests.
church, eparchy, clergy parish, landestate, emoluments, the Russian Empire, Bessarabia
Пруцкова Е. В., Маркин К. В. [Review] // Вестник ПСТГУ. Серия I: Богословие. Философия. 2017. Вып. 69. С. 158-164. — Rev. op.: Lee L. Recognizing the Non-Religious: Reimagining the Secular. Oxford University Press, 2015
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Prutskova Elena
Place of work: St. Tikhon’s Orthodox University for Humanities 6/1 Likhov pereulok, 127051 Moscow, Russian Federation;
Email: email: evprutskova@gmail.com.
Markin Kirill
Academic Degree: graduate student;
Place of work: St Tikhon’s Orthodox University Lihov per., 6–1 Moscow 127051 Russia;
Email: email: markink20@gmail.com.
Антощенко А. В. "Только духовная или сакраментальная связь, но никакой административной зависимости" Письма Г. П. Федотова Ф. Г. Спасскому 1946, 1947 гг. // Вестник ПСТГУ. Серия II: История. История Русской Православной Церкви. 2017. Вып. 74. С. 155-167. DOI: 10.15382/sturII201774.155-167
In the introduction to published letters there are characteristics of major activities of the well-known emigre historian George Fedotov on on the eve of the 7th All-American Council of the Russian Orthodox Church in North America (ecclesiastical province), which took place in Cleveland (Ohio) in November 1946. He elaborated the project of transforming St. Vladimir’s Seminary in the academy, and participated in the drafting of “Memorandum of five professors,” which defined the relationship of the ecclesiastical province with the Moscow Patriarchate as well as with the Synod of the Russian Orthodox Church Abroad. In the first of published letters the historian described the essence of the “Memorandum” that required only a spiritual or sacramental bond of the ecclesiastical province with the Moscow Patriarchate, but denied any administrative dependence on it. He analyzed social composition of the Council delegates, who adopted a decision, similar to the proposal of “five professors”. In the letter written a year later, George Fedotov determined the future development of relations with the Moscow Patriarchate as steps to autocephaly of the ecclesiastical province. Published sources provide readers with valuable information about the situation of the Russian Orthodox Church in North America in 1946–1947s, as well as with significant events in the historian biography during the so-called “American period” of his life.
George Fedotov, Feodosy Spassky, 7th All-American Council (Sobor) of the Russian Orthodox Church in North America (ecclesiastical province) at Cleveland (Ohio), Metropolitan Theophilus (Pashkovsky), Archbishop Vitaly (Maximenko), Archbishop Leonty (Turke
Antoshchenko Aleksandr
Андреев А. В. Проблема использования иудейских текстов для интерпретации евангельского материала // Вестник ПСТГУ. Серия I: Богословие. Философия. 2017. Вып. 73. С. 131-134. — Rev. op.: Тарасенко А. А. Иисус из Назарета — учитель, пророк, Мессия: Некоторые аспекты деятельности Иисуса в контексте мессианских ожиданий в начале новой эры. СПб.: ИЦ «Гуманитарная академия», 2017. 368 с.
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Andreyev Alexey, priest
Academic Degree: Master of Ttheology;
Place of work: Moscow State University, St. Tikhon’s Orthodox University for the Humanities; 6/1 Likhov pereulok, Moscow 127051, Russian Federation;
Post: Graduate Student;
ORCID: 0000-0001-6034-9704;
Email: alexey.andreevtf@gmail.com.
Петров И. В. «Образованный, умный, хорошо владеющий собой, обладающий немалой долей хитрости и интеллекта»: к вопросу об особенностях характера главного ренегата ХХ века Александра Осипова до его перехода на службу атеистическому государству. // Вестник ПСТГУ. Серия II: История. История Русской Православной Церкви. 2017. Вып. 79. С. 106-117. DOI: 10.15382/sturII201779.106-117
This article deals with the personality of archpriest Alexander Osipov, the prominent Orthodox priest, who in the middle of the 20th century renounced his faith in God and became an active fi ghter against the Russian Orthodox Church. The main purpose of the article is to comprehend main reasons for Osipov’s abandoning religion, his psychology and main lines of behaviour. Contrary to the lay opinion, this priest, still serving in non-Soviet Estonia, was extremely ambitious and wished rapid promotion. The article specifi cally demonstrates how the renegade could fi nd his key to hearts of various representatives of church and state authorities, how he altered his own political views and denominational preferences. The article shows how he managed to ingratiate himself with representatives of the Orthodox Church, then literally betrayed them and passed compromising judgments to Soviet security offi cers. The article does not raise the issue of where and when Osipov lost his way to God because excessive ambition and envy were always typical of the renegade, and his conversion to atheism was nothing but a tactical step determined by the inception of the new phase of religious persecutions. The article draws on archival materials, both church and secular: Archive of St Petersburg diocese, Central State Historical Archive of St Petersburg, Estonian Historical Archive in Tartu. Besides, the study made use of the historiography of life and work of archpriest Alexander Osipov.
Alexander Osipov, Estonia, Orthodox Church, atheism, Offi cial Expert on the Russian Orthodox Church, Isidor Bogoyavlensky, Sergy Voskresensky
  1. Petrov I., “Repressii protiv RSHD v Estonii v 1940–1941 gg.”, in: Svet Hristov prosveschaet vseh! Almanah Svyato-Filaretovskogo pravoslavno-hristianskogo institute, 13, 2015, 86–94.
  2. Plyukhanov B., RSHD v Latvii i Estonii. Materialy k istorii Russkogo studencheskogo hristianskogo dvizheniya, Рaris, 1993.
  3. Firsov S., “Ateist Aleksandr Osipov” i jepoha hrushhevskih gonenij na Russkuju Pravoslavnuju Cerkov’, St. Petersburg, 2004.
  4. Shkarovskij M., Russkaya Pravoslavnaya Tserkov i Sovetskoe gosudarstvo v 1943–1964 gg. Ot peremiriya k novoy voyne, St. Petersburg, 1995.
  5. Shkarovskij M., “Sankt-Peterburgskie (Leningradskie) duhovnyie shkolyi vo 2-y polovine XX — nachale XXI veka”, in: Vestnik tserkovnoy istorii, 4(12), 2008, 171–210.
Petrov Ivan
Academic Degree: Candidate of Sciences* in History;
Place of work: St. Petersburg State University; 13B Universitetskaya Emb., St Petersburg 199034, Russian Federation;
Post: Research Assistant in Institute of History;
Email: ivanpet1990@hotmail.com. *According to the International Standard Classification of Education (ISCED) 2011, the degree of Candidate of Sciences (Cand.Sc.) belongs to ISCED level 8 — "doctoral or equivalent", together with PhD, DPhil, D.Lit, D.Sc, LL.D, Doctorate or similar.
Маньков А. Е., Подосинов А. В. Энний. Анналы. Книга Первая (перевод и комментарий) // Вестник ПСТГУ. Серия III: Филология. 2018. Вып. 54. С. 123-142. DOI: 10.15382/sturIII201854.123-142
Quintus Ennius (239‒169 BC) was a Latin poet who introduced hexameter to Latin poetry. His main work, Annales, an epic poem consisting of 18 books, is devoted to the history of Rome. Its text is preserved in fragments, the size of the greater part of which does not exceed one line. The total number of lines is 676 (in O. Skutsch’s edition). This publication is a result of the work of a seminar on translating Latin writers under guidance of Prof. A. Podossinov. In this seminar the entire preserved text of the Annals has been translated into Russian in hexameter for the fi rst time. Some fragments were earlier translated by S. Osherov for the “Anthology of Early Roman Literature”; these translations are included in our publication. Translations made by participants of the seminar are marked with *. The translation is based on E.H. Warmington’s edition; the Latin text is given according to this edition as well. In preparing the commentary we also used the edition by O. Skutsch. The authors of translation and commentaries are A. Denisov, E. Denshchikova, S. Fedotov, A. Ivlev, A. Mankov, Yu. Pekov, A. Podossinov, O. Ryabenko, I. Smirnova, S. Tereshkov, A. Voskresensky. We are grateful to E. Ilyushechkina for her help in preparing this publication.
Ennius, Latin epos, archaic Latin, Latin language, history of Rome, Annales, epic poetry
  1. Benvenist E., Slovar’ indoevropeiskikh sotsial’nykh terminov, Moscow, 1995.
  2. Diels H., Kranz W., Hrsg., Die Fragmente der Vorsokratiker. 9. Aufl ., 1. Bd., Berlin, 1960.
  3. Ernu A., Istoricheskaia morfologiia latinskogo iazyka, Moscow, 1950.
  4. Lindersky J., “The Augural Law”, in: Aufstieg und Niedergang der römischen Welt. Geschichte und Kultur Roms im Spiegel der neueren Forschung, 1986, II, 16 (3), 2146‒2312.
  5. Niderman M., Istoricheskaia fonetika latinskogo iazyka, Moscow, 2004.
  6. Podosinov A. V., Ex oriente lux! Orientatsiia po stranam sveta v arkhaicheskikh kul’turakh Evrazii, Moscow, 1999.
  7. Polonskaia K. P., Poniaeva L. P. Khrestomatiia po rannei rimskoi literature, Moscow, 2000.
  8. Shantren P., Istoricheskaia morfologiia grecheskogo iazyka, Moscow, 2001.
  9. Skutsch O., The Annals of Q. Ennius., Oxford, 1985.
  10. Smorchkov A. M., Religiia i vlast’ v rimskoi respublike: magistraty, zhretsy, khramy, Moscow, 2012.
  11. Tronskii I. M., Istoricheskaia grammatika latinskogo iazyka. Obshcheindoevropeiskoe iazykovoe sostoianie (voprosy rekonstruktsii), Moscow, 2001.
  12. Vaan, M. de, Etymological Dictionary of Latin and the other Italic Languages, Leiden, 2008.
  13. Warmington E. H., Remains of Old Latin. Vol. 1: Ennius and Caecilius, Cambridge, Massachusetts; London, 1935.
Mankov Alexander
Academic Degree: Candidate of Sciences* in Philology;
Place of work: St. Tikhon’s University for the Humanities; 6 Likhov Pereulok, Moscow 127051, Russian Federation; National Research University “Higher School of Economics”; 12 Malaia Pionerskaia Str., Moscow 115054, Russian Federation;
Post: Senior Research Fellow; lecturer;
ORCID: 0000-0002-5735-0955;
Email: mankov2017@gmail.com. *According to the International Standard Classification of Education (ISCED) 2011, the degree of Candidate of Sciences (Cand.Sc.) belongs to ISCED level 8 — "doctoral or equivalent", together with PhD, DPhil, D.Lit, D.Sc, LL.D, Doctorate or similar.
Podossinov Alexander
Academic Degree: Doctor of Sciences* in History;
Academic Rank: Professor;
Place of work: Moscow State University; 27/4 Lomonosovskii Prospect, Moscow 119192, Russian Federation; Institute of World History, Russian Academy of Sciences; 32A Leninskii Prospect, Moscow 119991, Russian Federation;
Post: Professor; Chief Research Fellow;
ORCID: 0000-0003-2295-9290;
Email: svenskbysite@gmail.com. *According to ISCED 2011, a post-doctoral degree called Doctor of Sciences (D.Sc.) is given to reflect second advanced research qualifications or higher doctorates.
We are grateful to E. Ilyushechkina for her help in preparing this publication.
Сапсай А. В. К вопросу о динамике численности и состава православных общественных организаций во второй половине XIX – начале XX вв. (на примере Пермской епархии) // Вестник ПСТГУ. Серия II: История. История Русской Православной Церкви. 2018. Вып. 81. С. 36-51. DOI: 10.15382/sturII201881.36-51
This article considers the intensive process of forming civil society in Russia in the late 19th — early 20th centuries by means of developing a network of non-governmental organisations; the reasons for their growth and recession are being studied as well. The activities of secular non-governmental organisations were focused on uniting people in order to solve mainly economic and social problems. After the church reforms, a great number of Orthodox public organisations arose to revive parish life, to improve spiritual and moral state of the population. In Perm’ diocese, there were a number of Orthodox public organisations, the most numerous and effi cient being the Orthodox Missionary Society, the Imperial Orthodox Palestinian Society, the Brotherhood of St. Stephen of Perm’, parish trusteeships, the Society of Orthodox Devotees. Their admission requirements were practically identical; however the members’ status was varied in accordance with their individual contribution. After a sharp increase in the number of society members in the early years of their operation, a gradual decrease in the membership took place as a result of political, economic and social changes. Nevertheless, this experience of strengthening people’s unity is very valuable nowadays; it should be carefully analysed and employed in the development of civil society in modern Russia.
civil society, non-governmental organisations, membership dynamics, Perm’ diocese, Missionary Society, Palestinian Society, Brotherhood of St. Stephen of Perm, parish trusteeship, Society of Orthodox Devotees, admission requirements, members’ status, people’s unity
  1. Nechaeva M. Y., Pravoslavnye obshchestvennye organizacii Srednego Urala serediny XIX — nachala XX v., Yekaterinburg, 2008.
  2. Rimskij S. V., Rossijskaya Cerkov’ v ehpohu velikih reform, Moscow, 1999.
Sapsay Andrey, archpriest
Place of work: Perm’ Theological Seminary; 185 Shosse Kosmonavtov, Perm’ 614036, Russian Federation;
Post: Deputy Vice-Rector;
ORCID: 0000-0003-1470-9574;
Email: andrey-sapsay@rambler.ru.
Андреев А. В. Переосмысление объекта «Поиска исторического Иисуса» в XX — начале XXI века // Вестник ПСТГУ. Серия I: Богословие. Философия. 2019. Вып. 84. С. 11-26. DOI: 10.15382/sturI201984.11-26
This article deals with the historical Jesus as an object of biblical studies. It shows that, beginning with Reimarus, who is considered to be the founder of the “Quest for the Historical Jesus”, up to the middle of the 20th century, the participants of the “Quest...” had believed that they were reconstructing the life, teaching, and personality of the “real” Jesus of Nazareth. The article demonstrates that such understanding of the object of study gave rise to the controversy between the participants of the “Quest...” and the majority of traditional theologians who believed that the attempt to change the image of Christ attested in the Gospels undermines the very foundations of the faith. In the second half of the 20th century, J. Robinson and J. Meyer proposed to rethink the object of the “Quest...”. Both scholars argued that the programme of the “Quest for the Historical Jesus” requires changes in its paradigm. This is caused by the new understanding of historical science that had developed by the middle of the 20th century, and is also due to the very small amount of scientifi cally verifiable material in the Gospels. Robinson and Meyer claimed that in the modern context, the “historical Jesus” can no longer be understood as the “real” Jesus of Nazareth; the designation “historical Jesus” should become a specifi c term referring to a fragmented theoretical construct based on current methods of historical science. The article discusses the arguments of Robinson and Meyer, and shows how a paradigmatic rethinking of the concept of “historical Jesus” can infl uence the relationship between confessional theology and the project of the “Quest…”.
Bible, New Testament, Jesus Christ, historical Jesus, Biblical Studies, Quest for the Historical Jesus, historical science, theology, John Meyer, James Robinson
  1. Alfeev Ilarion, metropolitan (2016–2018) Iisus Khristos. Zhizn’ i uchenie [Jesus Christ. Life and Teaching], vols. 1–6. Moscow (in Russian).
  2. Buchanan G. (1970) The Consequence of the Covenant. Leiden.
  3. Bultmann R. (2009) “Jesus”, in Zagadka Khrista. Dve epokhal’nye raboty ob Iisuse [The Mystery of Christ. Two Ground-Breaking Works on Jesus], Moscow, pp. 219–458 (Russian translation).
  4. Crossan J. (1991) The Historical Jesus: The Life of a Mediterranean Jewish Peasant. San Francisco.
  5. Deines R. (2009) “Can the “Real” Jesus be Identifi ed with the Historical Jesus? A Review of the Pope’s Challenge to Biblical Scholarship and the Various Reactions it Provoked”. DIDASKALIA, 2009, vol. 39, pp. 11–46.
  6. Dibelius M. (1965) From Tradition to Gospel. New York.
  7. Ehrman B. (2012) Did Jesus Exist: The Historical Argument for Jesus of Nazareth. Moscow (Russian translation).
  8. Evans C. (2011) Fabricating Jesus: How Modern Scholars Distort the Gospels. Moscow (Russian translation).
  9. Farnell D. (2012) “Three Searches for the Historical Jesus”. Master’s Seminary Journal, 2012, vol. 1 (23), pp. 7–42.
  10. Funk R. and the Jesus Seminar (1998) The Acts of Jesus. What Did Jesus Really Do? San Francisco.
  11. Funk R., Hoover R. and the Jesus Seminar (1993) The Five Gospels. What Did Jesus Really Say? New York.
  12. Habermas G. (2013) The Historical Jesus: Ancient Evidence for the Life of Christ. Simferopol (Russian translation).
  13. Harnack A. (2010) Das Wesen des Christentums. Moscow (Russian translation).
  14. Johnson L. (1997) The Real Jesus: The Misguided Quest for the Historical Jesus and the Truth of the Traditional Gospels. San Francisco.
  15. Longenecker R. (2004) “Literary Criteria in Life of Jesus Research: An Evolution and Proposal”, in C. Evans (ed.) The Historical Jesus. Critical Concepts in Religious Studies. Vol. I, New York, pp. 451–464.
  16. Ludemann G. (2001) Jesus after 2000 Years: What He Really Said and Did. New York.
  17. Martin R. (1999) The Elusive Messiah. A Philosophical Quest for the Historical Jesus. Oxford.
  18. McKnight E. (1969) What Is Form Criticism? Philadelphia.
  19. Meier J. (2011) “Basic Methodology in the Quest for the Historical Jesus”, in T. Holmén, S. Porter (eds.) Handbook for the Study of the Historical Jesus. Vol. I, Boston, pp. 291–331.
  20. Meier J. (1991) A Marginal Jew: Rethinking the Historical Jesus. Vol. I: The Roots of the Problem and the Person. New York.
  21. Oakman D. (2012) The Political Aims of Jesus. Minneapolis.
  22. Porter S. (2011) “The Criteria of Authenticity”, in T. Holmén, S. Porter (eds.) Handbook for the Study of the Historical Jesus. Vol. I, Boston, pp. 695–714.
  23. Postmodern Bible (1997). New York.
  24. Ratzinger J. (2009) Jesus von Nazareth. Band 1: Von der Taufe im Jordan bis zur Verklärung. St. Petersburg (Russian translation).
  25. Ratzinger J. (2014) Jesus von Nazareth. Band 2: Vom Einzug in Jerusalem bis zur Auferstehung. Moscow (Russian translation).
  26. Ratzinger J. (2015) Jesus von Nazareth. Prolog. Die Kindheitsgeschichten. Moscow (Russian translation).
  27. Reimarus H. (1970) “Concerning the Intention of Jesus and His Teaching”, in H. S. Reimarus Fragments, Philadelphia, pp. 59–269.
  28. Robinson J. (1970) A New Quest for the Historical Jesus. London.
  29. Schillebeeckx E. (1989) Jesus: An Experiment in Christology. New York.
  30. Schlosser J. (2011) “Scholarly Rigor and Intuition in Historical Research into Jesus” in T. Holmén, S. Porter (eds.) Handbook for the Study of the Historical Jesus. Vol. I, Boston, pp. 475–508.
  31. Sravnitel’noe bogoslovie. Nemetskii protestantizm XX veka. Teksty s kommentariiami (2009) [Comparative Theology. German Protestantism of the 20th Century. Texts with Commentaries]. Moscow (in Russian).
  32. Swales J. (2008) Historical Jesus: Quest, Methods and Criteria. Bristol.
  33. Tatum B. (2009) Jesus. A Brief History. Oxford.
  34. Walter K. (2005) Jesus the Christ. Moscow (Russian translation).
  35. Wright N. T. (2013) The New Testament and the People of God. Cherkasy (Russian translation).
Andreyev Alexey, priest
Academic Degree: Master of Ttheology;
Place of work: St. Tikhon’s Orthodox University for the Humanities; 6/1 Likhov pereulok, Moscow 127051, Russian Federation;
Post: Professor of the Department of Biblical Studies;
ORCID: 0000-0001-6034-9704;
Email: alexey.andreevtf@gmail.com.
Шевченко П. В. Средние военно-учебные заведения России первой половины XIX века глазами их воспитанников // Вестник ПСТГУ. Серия II: История. История Русской Православной Церкви. 2019. Вып. 89. С. 83-96. DOI: 10.15382/sturII201989.83-96
Russian military educational institutions of the former half of the 19th century are generally described as an embodiment of the worst features of Nikolay’s military system with its unreasonable drilling. Rare positive assessments refer to the contribution of cadet corps to the development of the gentry education in Russia. Opinions that the military schools nourished the true fi ghter’s spirit are very rare. Daily life of the students conformed to the atmosphere of a strictly determined order which was necessary to follow obediently. The whole day had a strict timetable: time of awakening, intake of meals, study time, military exercises, doing the homework and having a rest. The immediate control over the students was exercised by offi cers-tutors. Certain offi cers were loved and respected by the students, others, on the contrary, were afraid of and disliked. Unfortunately, not all tutors always understood their tasks properly, their eff orts were often limited to maintaining purely outward order. However, the shortcomings in this education were sometimes due to the level of pedagogy of that time which was not particularly high. The attitude to the teachers in cadet corps was similar. If the teacher was able to teach his subject in such a fashion that the students were interested, he was respected and popular among the students. Memoirs of the former cadets demonstrate that their opinions as to the study in cadet corps was rather positive. The skills and qualities acquired there made up a foundation for their future service as offi cers of the Russian army. The reform of the 1860s, which abolished cadet corps, did not take into account the experience and opinions of their alumni.
military education, fi rst half of 19th century, history of everyday life, cadet corps
  1. Alpatov N. (1958) Uchebno-vospitatel’naia rabota v dorevolutsionnoi shkole internatnogo tipa [Educational Work in the Pre-Revolutionary Boarding School]. Moscow (in Russian).
  2. Aurova N. (2003) Sistema voennogo obrazovaniia v Rossii: kadetskie korpusa vo vtoroi polovine 18 — pervoi polovine 19 veka [Military Education System in Russia: Cadet Corps in the Second Half of the 18th — First Half of the 19th Centuries]. Moscow (in Russian).
  3. Kersnovskiy A. (1993‒1994) Istoriia russkoi armii [The History of the Russian Army], 2‒3. Moscow (in Russian).
  4. Kochakov B. M. Pedagogicheskie kadri voenno-uchebnih zavedeniy v zarskoy Rossii [Teaching staff of military schools in tsarist Russia]. Trudy Vysshego voenno-pedagogicheskogo instituta imeni M. I. Kalinina [Works of the Higher military pedagogical institute named after M. I. Kalinin]. Leningrad, 1947, vol. 2, pp. 154–189 (in Russian).
  5. Vlasov N. (2018) Gelmut fon Moltke. Otets sovremennoi voiny [Helmut von Moltke. Father of the Modern War]. St Petersburg (in Russian).
  6. Volkov S. (1993) Russkiy ofi tserskii korpus [Russian Offi cer Corps]. Moscow (in Russian).
  7. Zaionchkovskiy P. (1952) Voennye reformy 1860 — 1870 gg. v Rossii [Military Reforms of the 1860s — 1870s in Russia]. Moscow (in Russian).
Shevchenko Polina
Student status: Graduate student;
Place of study: Lomonosov Moscow State University; 27/4 Lomonosovskiy prosp., Moscow 119192, Russian Federation;
ORCID: 0000-0001-9976-3857;
Email: scharlotte@inbox.ru.
Казанцева Д. В. Поэтика гимнографического текста службы святителю Филиппу, митрополиту Московскому, в ранней соловецкой редакции // Вестник ПСТГУ. Серия V: Вопросы истории и теории христианского искусства. 2019. Вып. 34. С. 85-110. DOI: 10.15382/sturV201934.85-110
Metropolitan Philip is one of the prominent fi gures in the history of Russian Orthodox Church. The development of hagiographic complex dedicated to him still poses certain questions. This article discusses problems associated with the date of his canonisation, history of formation of his Vita, time of compiling the service and its singing embodiment. At present, it is known that the singing copies of service to Metropolitan Filipp appear in the mid-17th century and are represented by several versions, i.e. the early and late ones from Moscow, as well as the one from Solovki. This article mainly deals with poetics of the hymnigraphic and musical texts of the sticheron on the 50th psalm and with slavniki of the service to St. Filipp, Metropolitan of Moscow, in the early Solovki edition according to the newly-found copy of 1661 from the State Archive in Tobolsk. The study of the structure of the liturgical text is based on the technique developed by R. Picchio. The analysis of the musical text follows traditions of poetics of Ancient Russian church singing and rhetoric established in Russian musical medieval studies. The study of verbal and musical components of the relevant chants allowed us to fi nd the principles of the correlation on the level of compositional structures and rhetoric techniques. This, in turn, makes it possible to claim that this version is authentic and represents a specimen of original hymn-writing of monks of Solovki monastery.
Metropolitan of Moscow and All Rus’ Filipp, Zmamenny Chant, hymnographic text, poetics, melodic formula, edition, textology
  1. Alekseeva G. (1983) Drevnerusskoe pevcheskoe iskusstvo: Muzykal'naia organizatsiia znamennogo rospeva [Old Russian Art of Singing. Musical Structure of Znamenny Chant]. Vladivostok (in Russian).
  2. Bogoslovsko-liturgicheskii slovar' [Theological and Liturgical Dictionary] (1983), in Nastol'naia kniga sviashchennosluzhitelia [Priest’s Handbook], in 7 vols. Moscow (in Russian).
  3. Dergacheva-Skop E., Romodanovskaia E. (1975) “Sobranie rukopisnykh knig Gosudarstvennogo arkhiva Tiumenskoi oblasti v Tobol'ske” [Collection of Manuscript Books of the State Archive of Tyumen’ Region in Tobolsk]. in Arkheografiia i istochnikovedenie Sibiri [Archaeography and Source Criticism in Siberia]. Novosibirsk (in Russian).
  4. Grigor'ev E. (2001) Posobie po izucheniiu tserkovnogo peniia i chteniia [Manual for the Study of Church Singing and Reading]. Riga (in Russian).
  5. Kazantseva T. (2016) Pevcheskie rukopisi XVII–XX vekov Gosudarstvennogo arkhiva v g. Tobol'ske: katalog [Singing Manuscripts of the 17th — 20th Centuries of the State Archive in Tobolsk: Catalogue]. Novosibirsk (in Russian).
  6. Kazantseva T. (2016) “Solovetskii Stikhirar' iz fondov Gosudarstvennogo arkhiva v g. Tobol'ske: k voprosu o lichnosti pistsa” [Solovetskiy Sticherarion from the State Archive of Tobolsk: On Personality of the Scribe], in Dukhovnaia kul'tura i obshchestvennaia mysl' Rossii v literaturnykh i istoricheskikh pamiatnikakh XVI–XXI vv. [Spiritual Culture and Social Thought of Russia in Literary and Historical Monuments of the 16th — 21st Centuries]. Novosibirsk, pp. 3–20 (in Russian).
  7. Khachaiants A., Ziuzin A., Popkova N. (eds.) (2001) Pevcheskie rukopisi XVII–XIX vekov: Katalog [Singing Manuscripts of the 17th — 19th Centuries]. Saratov (in Russian).
  8. Kositskaia A. (2010) “Pervonachal'naia redaktsiia sluzhby na pamiat' mitropolita Filippa (Kolycheva)” [Initial Version of the Service for the Memory of Metropolitan Filipp (Kolychev)], in Knizhnye tsentry Drevnei Rusi. Knizhnoe nasledie Solovetskogo monastyria [Centres of Booklore of Ancient Rus’. Book Heritage of Solovetskiy Monastery]. St. Petersburg, pp. 337–360 (in Russian).
  9. Kruchinina A. (2002) “Popevka znamennogo rospeva v russkoi muzykal'noi teorii XVII v.” [Melodic Formula of Znamenny Chant in Russian Musical Theory of the 17th Century], in Pevcheskoe nasledie Drevnei Rusi (istoriia, teoriia, estetika) [Heritage of Ancient Russian Singing (History, Theory, Aesthetics)]. St Petersburg, рp. 46–150 (in Russian).
  10. Kruchinina A. (2011) “Pesnopeniia ravnoapostol'nomu velikomu kniaziu Vladimiru v russkoi pevcheskoi knizhnosti XVI–XIX vekov (istochnikovedenie, tekstologiia, poetika)” [Chants to Saint Prince Vladimir in Russian Singing Booklore of the 16th — 19th Centuries (Source Criticism, Textology, Poetics)]. Drevnerusskoe pesnopenie. Puti vo vremeni, 5. St. Petersburg, pp. 140–170 (in Russian).
  11. Lobakova I. (2006) Zhitie mitropolita Filippa: Issledovanie i teksty [Vita of Metropolitan Filipp: Study and Texts]. St Petersburg (in Russian).
  12. Panchenko F. (ed.) (2001) Pevcheskie knigi vygoleksinskogo pis'ma. XVIII — pervaia polovina XIX v. [Singing Books of Vygoleksinskoye Pis’mo. 18th — First Half of the 19th Centuries]. St. Petersburg.
  13. Picchio R. (2003) Slavia Orthodoxa: Literatura i iazyk [Literature and Language]. Moscow (in Russian).
  14. Putsko V. (2007) “Sviatitel' Filipp mitropolit Moskovskii i vsia Rusi v ikonopisi i litsevom shit'e XVII v.” [St. Filipp, Metropolitan of Moscow and All Rus’, in Icon-Painting and in Embroidery of the 17th Century]. Al'manakh “Solovetskoe more”, 6 (available at http://solovki.info/?action=archive&id=383, 28.05.2019, in Russian).
  15. Ramazanova N. (1997) “«Russkogo svetil'nika, Filippa premudrago, voskhvalim» (sluzhba Sviatomu v istochnikakh XVII–XVIII vv.)” [“Let us Praise the Russian Lantern, Filipp the Wise” (Service to the Saint in Sources of the 17th — 18th Centuries)]. Rukopisnye pamiatniki. Publikatsii i issledovaniia (St. Petersburg), vol. 4, pp. 7–18 (in Russian).
  16. Ramazanova N. (2004) Moskovskoe tsarstvo v tserkovno-pevcheskom iskusstve XVI–XVII vekov [Tsardom of Moscow in the Art of Church Singing of the 16th — 17th Centuries]. St. Petersburg (in Russian).
  17. Ramazanova N. (2013) “Vospevanie sviatitelia Filippa v muzykal'no-poeticheskom tvorchestve solovetskikh inokov” [Praising of St. Filipp in Musical and Poetic Art of Monks of Solovki], in N. Zabolotnaia (ed.) Muzykal'naia arkheografi ia [Musical Archaeography]. Moscow, pp. 14–33 (in Russian).
  18. Shekhovtsova I. (1994) “Gimn i propoved': dve traditsii v vizantiiskom gimnografi cheskom iskusstve” [Hymn and Sermon: Two Traditions in Byzantine Hymnographic Art], in Muzykal'naia kul'tura pravoslavnogo mira: traditsii, teoriia, praktika: Materialy nauchnykh konferentsii 1991, 1993, 1994 gg. [Musical Culture of Orthodox World: Traditions, Theory, Practice. Proceedings of Conferences of 1991, 1993, 1994]. Moscow. Pp. 8–33 (in Russian).
  19. Spasskii F. (2008) Russkoe liturgicheskoe tvorchestvo [Russian Liturgical Art]. Moscow (in Russian).
  20. Taranovskii K. (2000) O poezii i poetike [On Poetry and Poetics]. Moscow (in Russian).
Kazantseva Daria
Student status: Graduate student;
Place of study: Novosibirsk State Conservatory; 31 Sovetskaya Str., Novosibirsk, 630099, Russian Federation;
ORCID: 0000-0002-7030-0960;
Email: dariaveretennikova@rambler.ru.
Морозан В. В. Материальное обеспечение приходского духовенства соборов С.-Петербурга в XIX - начале XX века // Вестник ПСТГУ. Серия II: История. История Русской Православной Церкви. 2020. Вып. 94. С. 31-44. DOI: 10.15382/sturII202094.31-44
This article studies the improvement in the fi nancial situation of priests of St. Peterburg cathedrals during the 19th — early 20th centuries. Work at cathedrals of the capital city was regarded as prestigious and lucrative. However, not all parishes of St. Petersburg were suffi ciently supported fi nancially. The clergy of certain churches, as well as many uyezd priests of the diocese, experienced fi nancial diffi culties and suffered from bad accomodation. Despite their high level of education, the clergy of St. Petersburg cathedrals often had to look for additional income. Most often, this category of parish clergy taught religion at the city’s educational institutions, less often other subjects. Particularly vulnerable were those who due to their age and bad health were not able to continue their work full time. The article examines the fi nancial situation of the largest cathedrals of St. Petersburg, i.e. Isaakievskiy, Kazanskiy, Andreevskiy, Morskoy Bogoyavlenskiy, Troitse-Petrovskiy, and Petropavlovskiy. Each of them had its glorious history and own traditions. The financial situation was not the same and was not always good. Living conditions were also of varied levels. Sometimes the clergyrented out parts of the houses to outsiders, sometimes they had to rent apartments themselves.
parish clergy, monetary allowances and support, housing, cathedral, clergymen
  1. Belonogova Iu. (2007) “Sluzhba i material'noe obespechenie prikhodskogo dukhovenstva Moskovskoi eparkhii v nachale XX v.” [Work and fi nancial situation of parish clergy of Moscow diocese in the early 20th century]. Vestnik PSTGU. Ser. II: Istoriia. Istoriia Russkoi Pravoslavnoi Tserkvi, 3 (24), pp. 54–78 (in Russian).
  2. Smirnov S. (2012) “Deiatel'nost' prikhodskikh popechitel'stv po uluchsheniiu material'nogo obespecheniia prikhodskogo dukhovenstva (na materialakh Kostromskoi eparkhii)” [Activity of parish committees for improvement of fi nancial situation of parish clergy (materials of Kostroma diocese)]. Vestnik KGU im. N. A. Nekrasova, 2, pp. 176–179 (in Russian).
Morozan Vladimir
Academic Degree: Doctor of Sciences* in History;
Place of work: St. Petersburg State University; 7‒9 Universitetskaya nab., St. Petersburg 199034, Russian Federation;
Post: Professor;
ORCID: 0000-0003-4312-0566;
Email: v_moga@mail.ru. *According to ISCED 2011, a post-doctoral degree called Doctor of Sciences (D.Sc.) is given to reflect second advanced research qualifications or higher doctorates.
Крестьянинов А. В., Астафьев В. В. «Увещевания к старообрядцам» приходского священника В. Я. Смелова // Вестник ПСТГУ. Серия II: История. История Русской Православной Церкви. 2020. Вып. 97. С. 159-174. DOI: 10.15382/sturII202097.159-174
This article publishes several reports on the exhortations of the parish priest of the village of Gryaznukha of Kazan Diocese, Vasily Yakovlevich Smelov, to his parishioners, who are accused of deviating from the Old Belief (Spasovo denomination). Texts of exhortations date to 1857 and 1858. In conditions when the transfer of Orthodox believers to other faiths was prohibited, the responsibility for the return of those who refused to go back to Orthodoxy was associated with parish priests and pious people, who were to exhort the accused. In this situation was V. Ya. Smelov. The spiritual consistory required from him regular reports on the results of exhortations. The logic of the parish priest’s exhortations with Old Believers is quite typical for polemic conversations. However, their content is unique, as V. Ya. Smelov, guided by the book tradition of Old Believers, tried to formulate polemic arguments of his own. In addition, the exhortation reports also refl ect certain religious views on the Orthodox parish and the Church of the Old Believers of Spasovo denomination, which is still poorly studied in historiography.
Old Believers, Spasovo denomination, V. Y. Smelov, Orthodox parish, polemics, apostasy, Kazan Diocese, exhortations, parish priests
  1. Ageeva Elena A., Robson R. R., Smilianskaia Elena B. (1997) “Staroobriadtsy spasovtsy puti narodnogo bogosloviia i formy samosokhraneniia traditsionnykh-obshchestv v Rossii XX stoletiia” [Old Believers-spasovtsy: Ways of folk theology and forms of self-preservation of traditional societies in Russia in the 20th century]. Revue des Études Slaves, 69–1–2, p. 101–117 (in Russian).
  2. Ageeva Elena A. (2011) “Staroobriadcheskii polemicheskii sbornik XIX v.: k voprosu o brake u staroobriadtsev vestnik” [Old Believers’ polemic collection of the XIX century: to the question of marriage of Old Believers]. Vestnik tserkovnoi istorii, 3–4 (23–24), pp. 191–218 (in Russian).
  3. Firsov S. L. (2009) “ Pravoslavnoe gosudarstvo i russkie staroobryadtsy-popovtsy v epohu imperatora Nikolaya I” [Orthodox state and Russian Old Believers in the era of Emperor Nicholas I]. Vestnik Sankt-Peterburgskogo universiteta, Ser. 6, 1, pp. 6 — 15 (in Russian). Gusarov Iu. Vasilii Iakovlevich Smelov, available at http://enc.cap.ru/?t=prsn&lnk=2665 (07.12.2019) (in Russian).
  4. Kuzoro K. ( 2009) “Napravleniya issledovaniya staroobryadchestva v Sinodal’noj (cerkovnoj) istoriografi i poslednej treti XIX — nachala XX v.” [The directions of research of Old Believers in the Synodal (Church) historiography of the last third of XIX — beginning of XX centuries]. Vestnik Tomskogo universiteta, 320, p. 115–118 (in Russian).
  5. Maltsev A. (2006) Staroobriadcheskie bespopovskie soglasiia v XVIII — nachale XIX: problemy vzaimootnoshenii [Old Believers’ Bespopovsky denominations in the 18th — early 19th centuries: problems of relations]. Novosibirsk (in Russian).
  6. Marsden T. (2015) The crisis of Religious toleration in imperial Russia: Bibikov’s system for the Old Believers, 1841–1855. Oxford.
  7. Nikanorov I. (2012) “Polemika v fedoseevskom soglasii v nachale XIX vekapo povodu sbornika «Otecheskoe zaveshchanie»” [A polemic in Fedoseyev’s denomination at the beginning ofthe 19th century about the collection “Otecheskoe zaveshchanie”]. Istoricheskii ezhegodnik, p. 56–63.
  8. Tsapina O. (2014) «Smekha dostojnoe pozorishche»? Diskussiya o veroterpimosti i obraz staroobryadcev v Rossii epohi Prosvshcheniya [“A pitiful view that deserves laughter”? Discussion about tolerance and the image of Old Believers in Enlightenment Russia], in O vere i sueveriyah. Sbornik statej v chest’ E. B. Smilyanskoj. Moscow, pp. 207–256 (in Russian).
Krestyaninov Artem
Academic Degree: Candidate of Sciences* in History;
Place of work: Kazan Federal university; 44 Levo-Bulachnaya, 420111, Kazan, Russian Federation;
Post: Lecturer;
ORCID: 0000-0001-9833-1817;
Email: artkres@mail.ru. *According to the International Standard Classification of Education (ISCED) 2011, the degree of Candidate of Sciences (Cand.Sc.) belongs to ISCED level 8 — "doctoral or equivalent", together with PhD, DPhil, D.Lit, D.Sc, LL.D, Doctorate or similar.
Astaviev Vladimir
Academic Degree: Candidate of Sciences* in History;
Academic Rank: Associate Professor;
Place of work: Kazan Federal University; 44 Levo-Bulachnaya, 420111, Kazan, Russian Federation;
Post: associate professor;
ORCID: 0000-0002-2996-903X;
Email: emich06@gmail.com. *According to the International Standard Classification of Education (ISCED) 2011, the degree of Candidate of Sciences (Cand.Sc.) belongs to ISCED level 8 — "doctoral or equivalent", together with PhD, DPhil, D.Lit, D.Sc, LL.D, Doctorate or similar.
Егоров И. В., Тулуш А. В. Взаимосвязь академической успешности и представлений студентов различных форм обучения о личности преподавателя вуза // Вестник ПСТГУ. Серия IV: Педагогика. Психология. 2021. Вып. 63. С. 97-113. DOI: 10.15382/sturIV202163.97-113
The article analyses result of research of the link of student’s perception teacher’s personal qualities and academic’s perfomance. The analysis of theory shows the advantages and disadvantages of each form of education. There are determined the reasons for the decrease or increase in the academic success of education, and prospects for the use of each of the forms of education in higher education in the future. Among the most popular reasons for the decline in academic success of students and full-time and distance learning are: organizational difficulties; psychological difficulties. Specific difficulties for distance learning students are: problems of "beginners" (low computer literacy); technical difficulties (work in different programs); psychological difficulties (lack of live interaction with all members of the educational process, a sense of loneliness). The aim of the study was to identify the relationship between students' ideas about the personality of a university teacher and the academic performance of distance learning students in comparison with full-time students. To achieve the goal of the study, the authors relied on the methodological approaches of A.A. Bodaleva, A.A. Reana, J.L. Kolominsky on the social and perceptual side of communication in the educational process. In the empirical part of the study, the following methods were used: T. Leary's questionnaire, analysis of educational documentation, methods of descriptive and inductive statistics, the method of correlation pleiades. The results of the empirical study showed statistically significant, direct relationships between the academic success of students of both forms of education (full-time and distance learning) and the authoritarian personality traits of the teacher. But, at the same time, among full-time students, a direct relationship was found between academic performance and egocentricity, distance and rivalry of the teacher. And for distance learning students, a statistically significant relationship was found between academic success and the teacher's mistrustful and skeptical attitude towards other people in his character traits. At the same time, among full-time students, a statistically significant inverse relationship was found between academic success and dependence on others, a willingness to listen to the opinions of others.
Full-time education, distance education, academic performance, student’s opinion on unversity’s teachers, personal qualities, real image, correlation analysis
  1. Antsiferova A. (2016) “Vzaimodeistvie prepodavatelia i studenta kak faktor vozdeistviia na lichnostnyi i professional′nyi rost obuchaiushchegosia” [The interaction of a teacher and a student as a factor infl uencing the personal and professional growth of a student]. Elektronnyi nauchno-metodicheskii zhurnal Omskogo GAU, 2016, vol. 3 (6), pp. 144–147 (in Russian).
  2. Ashmarov I. (2014) “Vliianie lichnostnykh kachestv studentov v protsesse obucheniia na rezul’tativnost’ protsessa professional’nogo stanovleniia i razvitiia” [The infl uence of students’ personal qualities in the learning process on the eff ectiveness of the process of professional formation and development]. Professional′naia orientatsiia, 2014, vol. 1, pp. 2–19 (in Russian).
  3. Ashyrbekova A. (2019) “Psikhologo-pedagogicheskie faktory akademicheskoi uspevaemosti i neuspevaemosti studentov v protsesse stanovleniia spetsialistami” [Psychological and pedagogical factors of academic performance and academic failure of students in the process of becoming specialists]. Sovremennye problemy nauki i obrazovaniia, 2019, vol. 3, pp. 42–60 (in Russian).
  4. Bostanov R., Gerbekov Kh., Khalkecheva I. (2017) “Vozmozhnosti distantsionnykh obrazovatel’nykh tekhnologii dlia povysheniia kachestva i dostupnosti obucheniia” [Opportunities of distance learning technologies to improve the quality and accessibility of education]. Vestnik RUDN. Seriia: Informatizatsiia obrazovaniia, 2017, vol. 3, pp. 365–370 (in Russian).
  5. Egorov I. (2013) “Issledovanie predstavlenii studentov ob obraze prepodavatelia pedagogicheskogo vuza” [Research of students’ ideas about the image of a teacher of a pedagogical university]. Vestnik PSTGU. Ser. IV. Pedagogika. Psikhologiia, 2013, vyp. 4 (31), pp. 123–134 (in Russian).
  6. Eyong B., Schniederyans M. (2004) “The role of personality in web-based distance education courses”. Communications of the ACM, 2004, vol. 47, issue 3, pp. 95–98.
  7. Guzhva I., Pobokin P. (2020) “Obraz prepodavatelia v predstavlenii sovremennykh studentov v usloviiakh uchebno-vospitatel£nogo processa” [The image of a teacher as seen by modern students in the context of educational process]. Yaroslavskii pedagogicheskii vestnik, 2020, vol. 6 (117), pp. 139–145 (in Russian).
  8. Lapshova A. (2018) “Vliianie lichnosti prepodavatelia na kachestvo professional£noi podgotovki studentov vuza” [The infl uence of the teacher’s personality on the quality of professional training of university students]. Problemy sovremennogo pedagogicheskogo obrazovaniia, 2018, vol. 60, pt. 3, pp. 198–200 (in Russian).
  9. Mineva S. (2021) “Distantsionnoe universitetskoe obrazovanie: mezhdu akademicheskoi traditsiei i tsifrovoi dementsiei” [Distance university education: between academic tradition and digital dementia]. Noosfernye issledovaniia, 2021, vol. 1, pp. 99–105 (in Russian).
  10. Pereslegin S., Koroliov A., Kurashova S. (2019) “Distantsionnoe obrazovanie. Principial£nye problemy. Opyt aprobatsii v tekhnicheskom universitete” [Distance education. Fundamental problems. Approbation at a technical university]. Sovremennoe pedagogicheskoe obrazovanie, 2019, vol. 3, pp. 24–30 (in Russian).
  11. Rudykh L. (2020) “Distantsionnoe obuchenie v vuze: problemy i perspektivy” [Distance learning at a university: problems and prospects”]. Molodiozhnyi vestnik IrGTU. Gumanitarnye nauki, 2020, vol. 10, no. 2, pp. 158–162 (in Russian).
  12. Shishliannikova L. (2019) “Primenenie korreliatsionnogo analiza v psikhologii” [Correlation analysis in psychology]. Psikhologicheskaia nauka i obrazovanie, 2009, vol. 14, no. 1, pp. 98–107 (in Russian).
  13. Vaindorf-Sysoeva M. (ed.) (2017) Metodika distantsionnogo obucheniia [Distance learning methodology]. Moscow (in Russian).
  14. Vodolad S., Zaikovskaia M., Kovaleva T., Savel'eva G. (2010) “Distantsionnoe obuchenie v vuze” [Distance learning at a university]. Uchenye zapiski: elektronnyi nauchnyi zhurnal Kurskogo gosudarstvennogo universiteta, 2010, vol. 1(13), pp. 129–138 (in Russian).
Egorov Ilya
Academic Degree: Candidate of Sciences* in Psychological Sciences;
Academic Rank: Associate Professor;
Place of work: Moscow City University 4; 2nd Sel'skokhoziaistvennyi proezd, Moscow, 129226, Russian Federation;
Post: Associate Professor;
ORCID: 0000-0002-7302-5335;
Email: egorov_cpti@mail.ru. *According to the International Standard Classification of Education (ISCED) 2011, the degree of Candidate of Sciences (Cand.Sc.) belongs to ISCED level 8 — "doctoral or equivalent", together with PhD, DPhil, D.Lit, D.Sc, LL.D, Doctorate or similar.
Tulush Anastasia
Place of work: National Research University of Electronic Technology (MIET); 1 Pl. Shokina, Zelenograd 124498, Russian Federation;
ORCID: 0000-0001-5804-0193;
Email: anastacia.tulush@yandex.ru.
Яблонская О. В. Библия и лопата – путь спасения бедняков Э. Брентона // Вестник ПСТГУ. Серия II: История. История Русской Православной Церкви. 2022. Вып. 108. С. 34-46. DOI: 10.15382/sturII2022108.34-46
The article, through the activities of the English philanthropist E. Brenton, examines the problem of pauperization of the population of Great Britain in the 19th century, the causes of pauperization, the consequences and solutions are clarified. The results of the analysis of narrative sources and scientific literature are presented, reflecting the difficult socio-economic situation in the country and the activities of E. Brenton aimed at improving the lives of the poor and their children. The philanthropist notes the relationship between industrialization and the growth of unemployment, linking this with the displacement of man from the productive sphere by mechanisms. He rightly condemns the deep property differentiation of society, the unfair wages of workers, the system of enclosures that deprived the peasants of their land. Brenton saw the devastating consequences of pauperization in the spiritual degradation of people, the criminalization of the lower classes, the growth of crimes among minors. His articles criticize the existing system of helping the poor, workhouses, noting that they temporarily alleviated the situation of the poor and encouraged parasitism. E. Brenton developed ways to solve problems based on Christian spiritual values and the Christian principle of tireless work as "God's work". The author of the article comes to the conclusion that the eradication of poverty was utopia, with the help of the de-urbanization of the poor population of cities, the allocation of land in rural areas, the refusal to use mechanisms in the production of products. The program to save children from the city's slums was more realistic. E. Brenton rightly establishes the relationship between ignorance and the growth of deviations among minors. Its goal is to create a system of crime prevention through education, where the habits of hard work, order and Christian virtues were instilled in children. The paper considers the implementation of tasks through the "Society of Children's Friends" and schools. The author believes that the institutions of E. Brenton, where students received knowledge, religious, labor education, mastered professions, were effective in preventing delinquency and shaping the moral lifestyle of poor children, despite the failures in the implementation of the plan for labor emigration of minors to South Africa.
Great Britain, XIX century, education, pauperization, E. Brenton, emigration, workhouses, children
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  8. Pollock J. (1986) Shaftesbury. The Poor Man’s Ear. London.
  9. Sokolov A. (2021) “Britanskie pedagogi XVIII — pervoi poloviny XIX veka o telesnykh nakazaniiakh” [British educationalists of the 18th — fi rst half of the 19th cc. on corporal punishment]. Prepodavanie istorii v shkole, 2021, vol. 10, pp. 25–32 (in Russian).
Yablonskaya Olga
Academic Degree: Candidate of Sciences* in History;
Academic Rank: Associate Professor;
Place of work: National Research Lobachevsky State University of Nizhny Novgorod, Arzamas branch, 36 K. Marx St., Arzamas, 607220, Russia;
Post: Assistant Professor, Department of History, Social Studies and Law;
ORCID: 0000-0002-5479-5561;
Email: oyablonskii@yandex.ru. *According to the International Standard Classification of Education (ISCED) 2011, the degree of Candidate of Sciences (Cand.Sc.) belongs to ISCED level 8 — "doctoral or equivalent", together with PhD, DPhil, D.Lit, D.Sc, LL.D, Doctorate or similar.