Search results

Самохвалова Н. Е. Парфянская держава в географической картине мира Страбона // Вестник ПСТГУ. Серия II: История. История Русской Православной Церкви. 2011. Вып. 4 (41). С. 92-96.
ancient geography, Parthia, Barbara
Samokhvalova Natal'ia
Валова Е. А. Синтаксические свойства русской энклитической частицы же // Вестник ПСТГУ. Серия III: Филология. 2014. Вып. 4 (39). С. 16-33. DOI: 10.15382/sturIII201439.16-33
The purpose of this paper is to describe syntactic properties of the Russian enclitic particle же. Clitics are defi ned as unaccented dependent words that cannot form full sentences and perform a single accentual unit with the lexical word. They also have no own stress and, according to Wakkernagel’s law, follow the fi rst lexical word (clitic-host) in a sentence. This rule operates in the Old Russian language, though in the modern Russian we fi nd exceptions. This paper is based on data from the Russian national corpus and takes a deeper view on the use of же in a diachronic aspect, on syntactic positions that this particle can take and on factors that aff ect the choice of its position. For our research, we have selected sentences with же and two types of noun phrase as a clitic-hosts, proper noun groups and groups that consist of an adjective and a noun. We argue that the particle can occupy the second and the third positions in such sentences: after the fi rst word or after the whole noun phrase. According to our data, же does not always follow Wakkernagel’s law and can go after a noun complex in its emphatic and adversative meaning. It usually follows two foreign proper nouns, titles of books or fi lms, place-names and fi xed expressions. In other cases, же mainly occupies the second position. Moreover, when the sentence contains a negation operator не, the enclitic же is usually placed in the second position after the fi rst word of a noun phrase. We can therefore suppose that in the modern Russian language the strict operation of Wakkernagel’s law is no more obligatory for this clitic and that its positions can vary.
clitics, particles, word order, Wackernagel’s law, Russian language, corpusbased study

1. Bonno K., Kodzasov S. V. 1998 “Semanticheskoe var'irovanie diskursivnyh slov i ego vlijanie na linearizaciju i intonirovanie (na primere chastic zhe i ved')” (Semantic Diversity of Discourse Words and Its Influence in Linearisation and Intoning (on Example of Particles zhe and ved’)), in Diskursivnye slova russkogo jazyka: opyt kontekstno-semanticheskogo opisanija, Moscow, 1998, pp. 382–446.
2. Valova E. A. “Sintaksicheskie svojstva jenkliticheskoj chasticy zhe v diahronicheskom aspekte: korpusnoe issledovanie” (Syntax Features of Enclitic Particle zhe in Diachronic Aspect: Corpus Study), in Nauchno-tehnicheskaja informacija (in print).
3. Dal' V. I. Tolkovyj slovar' zhivogo velikorusskogo jazyka (Explanatory Dictionary of Live Great Russian Language), Moscow, 1956.
4. Dobrushina E. R. 2014 “Videv i uvidja: zhizn' i smert' deeprichastij, obrazovannyh po neproduktivnym modeljam” (Videv and uvidja: Life and Death of Verbal Adverbs, Made from Non-Productive Models), in Korpusnye issledovanija po morfemnoj, grammaticheskoj, leksicheskoj semantike russkogo jazyka, Moscow, 2014, pp. 96–119.
5. Zaliznjak A. A. Drevnerusskie jenklitiki (Old Russian Enclitics), Moscow, 2008.
6. Ljashevskaja O. N., Sharov S. A., Chastotnyj slovar' sovremennogo russkogo jazyka (na materialah Nacional'nogo korpusa russkogo jazyka) (Frequency Dictionary of Modern Russian Language (on Materials of National Corpus of Russian Language)), Moscow, 2009.
8. Ozhegov S. I. Slovar' russkogo jazyka (Dictionary of Russian Language), Moscow, 1989.
9. Plungjan V. A. Obshhaja morfologija. Vvedenie v problematiku (General Morphology. Introduction in Problematic), Moscow, 2003.
10. Russkaja grammatika (Russian Grammar), in http://rusgram.narod.ru (Date: 12.01.2013).
11. Ushakov D. N. Tolkovyj slovar' russkogo jazyka (Explanatory Dictionary of Russian Language), Moscow, 1948.
12. Paducheva E. V. La particule ŽE: semantique, syntaxe et prosodie. Les particules énonciatives en Russe contemporain, 3, Paris, 1987, pp. 11–44.
13. Spencer A., Luis Ana R. Clitics: an Introduction, Cambridge, 2012.
14. Wackernagel J. 1892 “Über ein Gesetz der indogermanischen Wortstellung“, in Indogermanische Forschungen, Strassburg, 1892, vol. 1, pp. 333–434.
Шаповалова Е. В. «Тайна беззакония» Филиппа Дюплесси-Морне: к вопросу о роли Франции в поддержании «черной легенды» папы Александра VI // Вестник ПСТГУ. Серия II: История. История Русской Православной Церкви. 2018. Вып. 80. С. 45-60. DOI: 10.15382/sturII201880.45-60
This article is devoted to the famous book by Philippe Duplessis-Mornay “The Mystery of Iniquity”. This book is an example of the French church historiography of the early 17th century and of inter-confessional polemic. The purpose of the study is an analysis of the image of Pope Alexander VI as it is presented in “The Mystery of Iniquity”. The “black legend” of Borgia had existed before the creation of “The Mystery of Iniquity”. Duplessis-Mornay included some elements of this “black legend” in the text; the present article analyses them. Above all, these elements are historical events which contrasted the Pope to Charles VIII, King of France. These events are connected with the Italian campaign of the king. An important aspect is the religious interpretation of this opposition and the idea of “royalism”, namely “Pope-devil” versus “King of France”. The murder of the King of France, Henri IV, became one of the reasons for writing this book. Another reason was the fact that King Louis XIII was a minor and his entourage pursued the policy coordinated with Rome. Duplessis-Mornay reminds to the King that Rome was always the antagonist of French monarchy. The image of Pope Alexander VI was extended on the entire Catholic Church.
Ph. Duplessis-Mornay, Pope Alexander VI, the Borgia, Charles VIII, Louis XIII, the black legend, royalism, Reformation, Gallicanism, France, Church of France, Papacy
  1. Bloch M., Les rois thaumaturges. Etude sur le caractère surnaturel atribué à la puissance royale particulièrement en France et en Angleterre, Paris, 1983.
  2. Cloulas I., Les Borgia, Paris, 1987.
  3. Crouzet D., La nuit de la Saint-Barthélemy. Un rêve perdu de la Renaissance. Postface inédite, Paris, 2012.
  4. Daussy H., Les huguenots et le roi. Le combat politique de Philippe Duplessis-Mornay (1572–1600), Genève, 2002.
  5. Daussy H., Servir Dieu, le roi et l’État. Philippe Duplessis-Mornay (1549–1623). Études réunies par Hugues Daussy et Véronique Ferrer, Paris, 2006.
  6. Daussy H., “En débattant la religion, les religieux se gâtent. Duplessis-Mornay, Languet et Danzay en guerre contre les théologiens”, in: L’Humaniste, le Protestant et le Clerc, 18, 2003, 93–103.
  7. Delumeau J., Uzhasy na Zapade: Issledovanie protsessa vozniknoveniya strakha v stranakh Zapadnoj Evropy, XIV–XVII vv., Moscow, 1994.
  8. Hillgarth J. N., “The image of Alexander VI and Cesare Borgia in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries” in: Journal of the Warburg and Courtauld Institutes, 59, 1996, 119–129.
  9. Kantorowicz E., Dva tela korolia. Issledovanie po srednevekovoi politicheskoi teologii, Moscow, 2014.
  10. Le Roy Ladurie E., The Royal French State: 1460–1610, Oxford, 1994.
  11. Mousnier R., L’assassinat d’Henri IV, Paris, 1964.
  12. Razuvaev V., Kommentarii k “Gosudariu” Makiavelli, Moscow, 2014.
Shapovalova Elena
Academic Degree: Candidate of Sciences* in History;
Place of work: Russian University for the Humanities; 15 Chayanova, Moscow 111399, Russian Federation;
Post: Associate Professor;
ORCID: 0000-0002-9146-0760;
Email: e.sokhina@gmail.com. *According to the International Standard Classification of Education (ISCED) 2011, the degree of Candidate of Sciences (Cand.Sc.) belongs to ISCED level 8 — "doctoral or equivalent", together with PhD, DPhil, D.Lit, D.Sc, LL.D, Doctorate or similar.