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Бежанидзе Г. В. Проекты устроения высшего управления Русской Церкви середины XIX в. // Вестник ПСТГУ. Серия II: История. История Русской Православной Церкви. 2012. Вып. 5 (48). С. 7-24.
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The article deals with the projects of the arranging of the supreme church management. The author makes the analysis of the projects on the base of a sources study. Some of them were introduced to a scientific historiography for the first time. The author investigates the projects’ creators’ estimates of the synod’s management and their proposals of its reorganization.
church-state relation, supreme church authority, the Holy Synod, the chief procurator of the Holy Synod, the Local Council, st. hierarch Filaret of Moscow
Бежанидзе Г. В. Блаженный Августин и святитель Филарет об участии государственной власти в деле обращения еретиков и раскольников в православие // Вестник ПСТГУ. Серия II: История. История Русской Православной Церкви. 2016. Вып. 5 (72). С. 48-57. DOI: 10.15382/sturII201672.48-57
The article deals with of St. Augustine and St. Filaret’s of Moscow views on state involvement in the conversion of heretics and schismatics to Orthodoxy. The study of St. Augustine and St. Filaret’s views on public authorities involved in the conversion of heretics and schismatics allows to have a fresh look at the value of coercive measures for the mission of the Church. Despite the fact that one of the authors lived at the dawn of the Orthodox Empire, and the other observed its decline, the theological issues of the question of compulsion in matters of faith has not significantly changed. Using measures of the state compulsion does not imply the termination of the church preaching. Without church activity coercion by the state is not generally allowed. These measures, in Saint’s opinion, are necessary to remove obstacles to joining the church unity to those who have already appealed to the Orthodox faith, but because of ingrained habits, are in schism. Of course, the external retaining factors are relevant only for the weak Christians, but it is very difficult for them to overcome external obstacles to the Church without help of the state, and in some cases even impossible.
Saint Philaret of Moscow, Saint Aurelius Augustine, the mission of the Church.

1. Bezhanidze G. V. Konstantin Zedergol'm chinovnik osobykh poruchenii i dukhovnyi syn prepodobnogo Makariia Optinskogo // Perepiska Konstantina Zedergol'ma so startsem Makariem Optinskim. Moscow, 2013. P. 24–25.
2. Bezhanidze G. V. Predstavleniia o sakral'nosti tsarskoi vlasti v Russkoi Tserkvi v Novoe vremia, in Russkoe bogoslovie: traditsiia i sovremennost'. Moscow, 2011. P. 75–89.
3. Bezhanidze G. V. Sviatitel' Filaret i ober-prokuror A. P. Tolstoi, in Filaretovskii al'manakh. Vol. 4. Moscow, 2008. P. 93–121.
4. Belolikov V. Z. Literaturnaia deiatel'nost' blazhennogo Avgustina protiv raskola donatistov. K., 1912.
5. Rodnikov N. P. Uchenie blazhennogo Avgustina o vzaimnykh otnosheniiakh mezhdu gosudarstvom i tserkov'iu sravnitel'no s ucheniem o tom zhe ottsov, uchitelei i pisatelei tserkvi pervykh chetyrekh vekov i srednevekovykh teokraticheskikh bogoslovov zapadnoi tserkvi. Kazan', 1897.
6. Bonner G. St. Augustine of Hippo. Life and Controversies. Norwich, 1986.
7. Willis G. G. Saint Augustine and the Donatist Controversy. L., 1950.
Бежанидзе Г. В., Фирсов А. Г. Обер-прокурор Святейшего Синода А. А. Яковлев и его записки // Вестник ПСТГУ. Серия II: История. История Русской Православной Церкви. 2017. Вып. 76. С. 22-36. DOI: 10.15382/sturII201776.22-36
This paper deals with the sphere of activities of the Chief Procurator of the Holy Synod A. Yakovlev, A. Herzen’s uncle, who left memoirs about his work in the Synod. The paper examines his origins and background, family life and personal qualities. The authors of the paper have compared Yakovlev’s memoirs with archival materials. It is shown that Yakovlev’s memoirs cannot be considered a reliable source. According to the opinion widespread in historiography, Yakovlev’s activities were the fi rst step in increasing the role of the Chief Procurator’s office. Yakovlev’s projects, aimed at strengthening the control functions of the Chief Procurator, gained no support from the Emperor. The monarch did not take the side of the Chief Procurator in his confl ict with the episcopate. Yakovlev’s resignation was caused by the need to find a post for A. Golitsin, the personal friend of Alexander I. Yakovlev did not wish to resign, which led to his resentment being reflected in his notes. This fact cannot be ignored when using Yakovlev’s memoirs as a historical source. The ministerial principle in church administration indeed came to be implemented in the 19th century, but the activities of the Chief Procurator A. Yakovlev had nothing to do with this process.
church-state relationships, supreme church authority, Chief Procurator of the Holy Synod А. А. Yakovlev, A. I. Herzen

Bezhanidze G. V., Firsov A. G., «“Povinen sidet v Sinode i smotret nakrepko…” Instruktsiya Ober-procuroru Svyateishego Synoda», in: Istorichesky Archiv, 2, 2017.
Kondakov Yu. E., Gosudarstvo i pravoslavnaya cerkov v Rossii evolutsiya otnosheny v pervoy polovine XIX veka, Saint Petersburg, 2003.
Passek T. P., Iz dalnikh let, Moscow, 1963, 1.
Shilov D. N., Gosudarstvennye deyateli Rossyskoy imperii, Saint Petersburg, 2001.
Bezhanidze Georgii
Firsov Andrei
Бежанидзе Г. В. Преамбула шестой новеллы св. Юстиниана Великого в русской письменной традиции // Вестник ПСТГУ. Серия I: Богословие. Философия. Религиоведение. 2018. Вып. 80. С. 26-36. DOI: 10.15382/sturI201880.26-36
This article is devoted to the study of perception in the Russian written tradition of the preamble to the sixth novel of St. Justinian the Great. It contains a well-known theory of “symphony”. As follows from the text of the introduction to the novel, the signifi cance of the emperor for the emergence of “good harmony” is great: he must govern the Orthodox state in a fair way, take care of the clergy, monitor the observance of dogmata and canons. The role of the priesthood is reduced to prayer and performance of the sacraments. The preamble to the sixth novel was included in the collection on church issues, later translated into the Slavonic language. There are two versions of the novel in the Slavonic languages, the later of which considerably distorts the meaning of the text of the preamble. According to the later version, both the priesthood and the reign govern the state. Both editions are found in a number of manuscripts and had been circulating in Russia for several centuries. Up to a certain time, the diff erence in translation was not signifi cant for the perception of the preamble. Only in the 17th century, when the later edition of the translation became part of the Russian printed Books of the Helmsman, it infl uenced the formation of the concept of Patriarch Nikon. This concept assumed the existence of the “wise two” in the person of the king and the patriarch, to whom pertained all the duties before God in administrating the Orthodox people, whereas according to St. Justinian, these belonged to the Byzantine emperor.
church-state relations, symphony, empire, church, preamble to the sixth novel, emperor Justinian the Great, patriarch Nikon
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Bezhanidze Georgy
Academic Degree: Candidate of Sciences* in Theology;
Place of work: St. Tikhon’s Orthodox University for the Humanities; 6/1 Likhov pereulok, Moscow 127051, Russian Federation;
Post: Assistant professor of the Depatment of the History of Church and Canonical Law;
ORCID: 0000-0002-9628-9528;
Email: georgy.bezhanidze@gmail.com. *According to the International Standard Classification of Education (ISCED) 2011, the degree of Candidate of Sciences (Cand.Sc.) belongs to ISCED level 8 — "doctoral or equivalent", together with PhD, DPhil, D.Lit, D.Sc, LL.D, Doctorate or similar.
Бежанидзе Г. В. Две версии средневековой модели «симфонии» церковно-государственных отношений // Вестник ПСТГУ. Серия II: История. История Русской Православной Церкви. 2020. Вып. 97. С. 9-22. DOI: 10.15382/sturII202097.9-22
The word συμφωνία is found in two of the most important collections of Byzantine law: novellas and the Eisagoge, where it takes on diff erent meanings. The article analyses the preamble to the sixth novella, the Eisagoge, as well as other medieval texts to establish the meaning of the concept of the “symphony of the kingdom and the priesthood”. The author shows that two diff erent versions of the “symphony” were formed in Byzantium. According to St. Justinian the Great, good harmony, capable of providing all kinds of benefi ts to the human race, does not depend on the relationship between state and church authorities. The “imperial” model of a symphony arises when the kingdom and priesthood properly fulfi ll their ministry before God. The Emperor is obliged to justly rule the Orthodox people, take care of the clergy, and monitor the observance of dogmata and canons. The role of the priesthood is reduced to prayer and the performance of the Sacraments. The second version of the symphony, refl ected in the Eisagoge, on the contrary, involves communication between representatives of the kingdom and the priesthood. The harmony of the two powers is identifi ed with the agreement between the emperor and the patriarch. Only the Patriarch of Constantinople can play such a role. Other hierarchs, including the Eastern Patriarchs, do not matter for achieving “peace and prosperity for the Christian people”. As it is shown in the article, such a separation of the Patriarch of Constantinople from the episcopate can be compared with the ecclesiological model of Roman Catholicism, and the “symphony” of the priesthood and kingdom, presented in Isagogue, with the Latin concept of “the pope behind the back of the emperor”.
church-state relations, symphony, Empire, Church, preamble of the sixth novel, the Eisagoge, emperor Justinian the Great
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Bezhanidze Georgy
Academic Degree: Candidate of Sciences* in Theology;
Place of work: St. Tikhon’s Orthodox University for the Humanities; 6/1 Likhov pereulok, Moscow 127051, Russian Federation;
Post: Assistant professor of the Depatment of the History of Church and Canonical Law;
ORCID: 0000-0002-9628-9528;
Email: georgy.bezhanidze@gmail.com. *According to the International Standard Classification of Education (ISCED) 2011, the degree of Candidate of Sciences (Cand.Sc.) belongs to ISCED level 8 — "doctoral or equivalent", together with PhD, DPhil, D.Lit, D.Sc, LL.D, Doctorate or similar.