/
Search results


Беглов А. Л. Особое совещание для выработки проекта о православном приходе 1907 г. // Вестник ПСТГУ. Серия II: История. История Русской Православной Церкви. 2012. Вып. 5 (48). С. 39-61.
PDF
The article covers one of little-investigated episodes of the preparation of an orthodox parish’s reform in Russian Empire on the eve of the revolution of 1917. In the center of an author’s attention - the work of the Special conference for the project’s development of an orthodox parish. The Special conference was established at the St. Synod in 1907 and continued the works of the Preceding the Local council Office on a parish question. The author studies the circumstances of a conference’s establishment, its structure, the mechanism of functioning and the basic features of the generated project of an orthodox parish, guardianships and brotherhoods.
the history of the Russian Orthodox Church, pre-council discussions, the reform of an orthodox parish, special conference at the Synod, bodies of a parish management, parish property, I. S. Berdnikov, A. A. Papkov
Беглов А. Л. Православный приход Российской империи как объект фискальной политики светских и церковных властей в конце XIX — начале ХХ в. // Вестник ПСТГУ. Серия II: История. История Русской Православной Церкви. 2014. Вып. 2 (57). С. 56-81. DOI: 10.15382/sturII201457.56-81
In the article the system of taxation of Orthodox parishes of the Russian Empire in the late XIX — early XX centuries is reconstructed on the new archival materials and the numerous contributions that the parishes carried out from its own funds in favor of the diocesan institutions and charitable organizations are described. Attempt are made to estimate the number of different charges, which existed in this period (the author now includes over 80 items) and their size and severity for the parish budget. In this regard, it is concluded that such deductions in some cases accounted for more than half of the income of the parish churches. The author describes the reasons for turning the formally voluntary fees in favor of charitable institutions in virtually compulsory. It investigates the failed attempts of the Supreme Church leadership to reform the system of parish charges in the early XXth century, in particular, the work of the two synodal committees (active in 1905 under the chairmanship of Archbishop Nikon (Sofi yskiy) and in 1909, under the chairmanship of Archbishop Anthony (Khrapovitsky)). The author comes to the conclusion that these charges were not the only cause of poverty of many parishes (especially rural parishes in Central Russia), but they weakened the parish as a religious community, for the charges were a pretext for permanent discontent among the parishioners about the parish clergy and diocesan authorities. Not the last role here was played by the fact that the diocesan institutions, which were funded by the parish funds were of an estate character.
The History of the Russian Orthodox Church, discussions about the Church reforms, the reform of the Orthodox parish, fees from the parishes, the fee from selling the candles, charity fees, collections of money during the church services, imposts on the d

1. Beglov A. L. (2012) “Zakonodatel'stvo Rossijskoj imperii o pravoslavnom prihode k nachalu 1890-h gg.: Obzor osnovnyh zakonodatel'nyh aktov” (Laws of Russian Empire about Orthodox Parish in Begin if 1890-s Years), in Religii mira. Istorija i sovremennost'. 2006–2010, M., SPb.: Nestor, 2012, pp. 371–388.
2. Beglov A. L. Zemskie proekty pereustrojstva pravoslavnogo prihoda. 1860–1890-e gg. (Land Projects of Rearrangement of Orthodox Parish. 1860–1890-s Years) (in print).
3. Beglov A. L. (2013) “Soslovnost' pravoslavnogo prihodskogo duhovenstva v Rossii v nachale XX veka: regional'nye osobennosti” (Estateness of Orthodox Parish Clergy in Russia in Begin of XX Century: Regional Features), in Jelektronnyj nauchno-obrazovatel'nyj zhurnal «Istorija», M., 2013. vol. 5/21. URL: http://mes.igh.ru/s207987840000561-6-1 (date: 10.12.2013).
4. Vert P. Pravoslavie, inoslavie, inoverie: Ocherki po istorii religioznogo raznoobrazija Rossijskoj imperii (Orthodoxy, Other Christian Confessions and Other Religions: Essays of History of Religious Diversity of Russian Empire), M., 2012.
5. Emel'jah L. I. Antiklerikal'noe dvizhenie v period pervoj russkoj revoljucii (Anticlerical Movement in Period of the First Russian Revolution), M., 1965.
6. Ivancov-Platonov A. M., prot. O russkom cerkovnom upravlenii. Dvenadcat' statej iz №№ 1–16 gazety «Rus'» 1882 goda (About Russian Church Government. Twelve Articles from vol. 1–16 of the Newspaper “Rus’” of 1882), SPb., 1898.
7. Runovskij N. Cerkovno-grazhdanskie zakonopolozhenija otnositel'no pravoslavnogo duhovenstva v carstvovanie imperatora Aleksandra II (Church-Civil Laws about Orthodox Clergy in Time of Emperor Alexander II), Kazan', 1898.
8. Samarin D. F. Sobranie statej, rechej i dokladov. T. 1: Krest'janskoe delo (Collection of Articles, Speeches and Reports, vol. 1: Peasants’ Affair), M., 1903. T. 2: Stat'i o prihode. Stat'i raznorodnogo soderzhanija (Vol. 2: Articles about Parish. Articles of Different Content), M., 1908.
9. Shevcova V.F. Pravoslavie v Rossii nakanune 1917 g. (Orthodoxy in Russia before 1917), SPb., 2010.
10. (1983) “The Parish Clergy” in Freeze G. L. Nineteenth-Century Russia: Crisis, Reform, CounterReform, Princeton, 1983.
Беглов А. Л. Как можно было реформировать православный приход в 1890-е годы? Епархиальные преосвященные о преобразовании приходских попечительств // Вестник ПСТГУ. Серия II: История. История Русской Православной Церкви. 2014. Вып. 6 (61). С. 35-57. DOI: 10.15382/sturII201461.35-57
In the article for the fi rst time in historiography the reviews of the diocesan bishops of the prospects of the reform of the parish council of trustees (prihodskie popechitel’stva) at Orthodox churches are analysed in details. These reviews were submitted on request of the Ober-Procurator in the 1890s and they are analysed in the context of a more general transformation of the Orthodox parish, planned by K.P. Pobedonostsev. The reviews of the diocesan authorities about the possibilities of reforming the parish council of trustees were in fact revealing their attitude on the possibility of the parish reform in general. The author comes to the conclusion that the main idea of the reviews was to give the council of trustees more «church» character. The hierarchs saw two ways of realising this task. One of them could be called the administrative way, another one — the more natural one. The majority of hierarchy was in favor of the fi rst approach. They wanted to include the council of trustees in the existing system of diocesan administration, but subordinating them to the administrative control of the deans and the Consistory. Another group of hierarchs, which constituted the tenth part of all, who had submitted the reports, saw it necessary to transform the council of trustees into the voluntary parish brotherhoods, thereby choosing the religious active backbone of the parish. It is clear from the reports that they considered the experience of the Western Slavonic brotherhoods and the orthodox charity organisations which existed in America. However, neither of these projects was capable of solving the most important problem of parish life, that is the effi ciency of the parish economy, which was largely dependent on decisions of the peasant community. Bishops considered it possible to seek the help of the civil authorities in collecting the money from the parishioners. And only few were ready to give the parish organization the rights to be economically independent.
History of Russia of the XIX century, the history of the Russian Orthodox Church, Church reform, the reform of the Orthodox parish, the parish council of trustees (prihodskie popechitel’stva), the reform of the council of trustees (prihodskie popechitel’

1. Alekseeva S. I. Svjatejshij Sinod v sisteme vysshih i central'nyh gosudarstvennyh uchrezhdenij poreformennoj Rossii. 1856–1904 gg. (Holy Synode in System of High and Central State Institution of Russa after Reform. 1856–1904), Saint-Petersburg, 2006.
2. Beglov A. L. 2012 “Zakonodatel'stvo Rossijskoj imperii o pravoslavnom prihode k nachalu 1890-h gg.: Obzor osnovnyh zakonodatel'nyh aktov” (Legislation of Russian Empire about Orthodox Parish in Begin of 1890-s Years: Survey of Main Law Acts), in Religii mira. Istorija i sovremennost'. 2006–2010, Moscow, Saint-Petersburg: «Nestor», 2012, pp. 371–388.
3. Beglov A. L. 2014 “Prihodskie popechitel'stva pri pravoslavnyh cerkvah Rossijskoj imperii v 1890-e gg.: itogi 30-letnego razvitija” (Parish Trusteeships by Orthodox Churces in Russian Empire in 1890-s Years: Results of 30-Years of Evolution), in Rossijskaja istorija, 2014, vol. 6, pp. 104–127.
4. Zaozerskij N. A. 1894 “Bratskoe delo v pravoslavnoj Rossii: Po povodu broshjur gospodina Papkova i svjashhennika Fudelja o cerkovnyh bratstvah i prihodskih popechitel'stvah” (Brotherhoods in Orthodox Russia: On Brochures of Mr Papkov and Priest Fudel about Church Brotherhoods and Parish Trusteeships), in Bogoslovskij vestnik, 1894, vol. 4/10, pp. 174–197 (2nd pagination).
5. Kurljandskij I. A. 2004 “Zakonodatel'stvo Rossijskoj imperii i problemy cerkovnoj blagotvoritel'nosti: 1700–1917 gody” (Legislation of Russian Empire and Problems of Church Charity: 1700–1917), in Religii mira: Istorija i sovremennost', 2004, Moscow, 2004, pp. 175–181.
6. Pankrat T. V. Blagotvoritel'naja dejatel'nost' prihodskih popechitel'stv Moskvy: vtoraja polovina XIX — nachalo XX stoletija (Charity Activity of Parish Trusteeships of Moscow: Second Half of XIX — Begin of XX Centuries), Moscow, 2011.
7. Papkov A. Cerkovno-obshhestvennye voprosy v jepohu carja-osvoboditelja (Church-Social Questions in Time of the Tsar-Liberator), Saint-Petersburg, 1902.
8. Polunov A. Ju. Pod vlast'ju ober-prokurora. Gosudarstvo i cerkov' v jepohu Aleksandra III (Under the Reign of Ober-Procurator. State and Church in Time of Alexander III), Moscow, 1996.
9. Rimskij S. V. Rossijskaja Cerkov' v jepohu Velikih reform: Cerkovnye reformy v Rossii 1860–1870-h godov (Russian Church in Time of Great Reforms: Church Reforms in Russia in 1860–1870-s Years), Moscow, 1999.
10. Runovskij N. Cerkovno-grazhdanskie zakonopolozhenija otnositel'no pravoslavnogo duhovenstva v carstvovanie imperatora Aleksandra II (Church-Civil Laws about Orthodox Clergy unter Reign of Emperor Alexander II), Kazan', 1898.
11. Smolich I. K. Istorija Russkoj Cerkvi. 1700–1917 (History of Russian Church. 1700–1917), Moscow, 1996–1997, vol. 1–2.
12. Fedorov V. A. Russkaja Pravoslavnaja Cerkov' i gosudarstvo. Sinodal'nyj period. 1700–1917 (Russian Orthodox Church and State. Synodal Period. 1700–1917), Moscow, 2003.
13. Fudel' I. I., svjashh. K reforme prihodskih popechitel'stv (To a Reform of Parish Trusteeships), Moscow, 1894.
14. Fudel' I. I., svjashh. Osnovy cerkovno-prihodskoj zhizni (Foundations of Church Parish Life), Moscow, 1894.
15. 1983 “The Parish Clergy” in Freeze G. L. Nineteenth-Century Russia: Crisis, Reform, CounterReform, Princeton, 1983.
16. Freeze G. L. 2001 “All Power to the Parish? The Problems and Politics of Church Reform in Late Imperial Russia”, in Madhavan K. Palat (ed.). Social Identities in Revolutionary Russia, Palgrave Macmillan (UK), 2001, pp. 174–208.

Беглов А. Л. Мольбы о помощи. Письма православных верующих Папе Римскому 1931 г.: новые документы из архивов Ватикана // Вестник ПСТГУ. Серия II: История. История Русской Православной Церкви. 2019. Вып. 91. С. 135-152. DOI: 10.15382/sturII201991.135-152
The article makes public new documents from the Vatican archives. These are letters to the pope with requests for help written by Orthodox believers in 1931. The author of the article examines these documents in the context of other attempts of communication of believers in the USSR with citisens of other states and representatives of foreign religious institutions. The latter, it was believed, could put pressure on the Soviet authorities to ease the anti-religious onslaught. Such attempts gained special significance after the “Curzon ultimatum” of 1923, with which Orthodox believers in the USSR associated the release of Patriarch Tikhon from prison. The published letters have a number of common features. All of them are a response to the papal “crusade of prayers”, announced in 1930 in defense of believers in the USSR. As can be seen from these documents, ordinary believers in Soviet Russia positively perceived this maneuver of the Roman pontifex. All letters report some information, which, as their authors supposed, will help the pope to protect believers in the USSR. Thus, the author of one of the letters directly wrote about the possible demolition of the Cathedral of Christ the Saviour in Moscow and asked the pope to prevent this. The authors turn to the pope for help, often quite specifi c (to protect the Church of Christ the Saviour, to prevent the possible expulsion of peasant refugees in the USSR). Thus, the ideas of transmitting information about the situation in the Soviet Union abroad, as well as seeking help from foreign religious leaders were widespread even in the mass consciousness.
Russia (USSR) in 20th century, international relations, Vatican, Vatican archives, “crusade of prayers” of 1930, papal Commission Pro Russia, letters to Vatican, Orthodox believers, Bishop Nestor (Anisimov), Bishop Emmanuel (Shaptal’)
  1. Beglov A. (1998) “Zhiznennyi put’ arkhiepiskopa Varfolomeia” [The Life of Archbishop Varfolomey]. Al’fa i Omega, 4 (18), pp. 119–129 (in Russian).
  2. Beglov A. (2018) “«Krestovyi pokhod molitv» 1930 g. i reaktsiia na nego v SSSR” [“Crusade of Prayers” of 1930 and the Subsequent Response in the USSR]. Istoriia, 9/4 (68), available at https://history.jes.su/s207987840002219-9-1/ (07.11.2019).
  3. Beliakova N. (2017) “Tserkvi v kholodnoi voine. Vvedenie” [Churches in the Cold War. Introduction]. Gosudarstvo, religiia, tserkov’ v Rossii i za rubezhom, 1, pp. 7–18. (in Russian).
  4. Kashevarov A.N. (2005) Pravoslavnaia Rossiiskaia Tserkov’ i sovetskoe gosudarstvo. 1917–1922 [Orthodox Russian Church and the Soviet State. 1917–1922]. Moscow (in Russian).
  5. Kosik O. (ed.) (2005) Vernuvshiisia domoi: Zhizneopisanie i sbornik trudov mitr. Nestora (Anisimova) [The One who Has Returned Home. Life Story and a Collection of Works of Metropolitan Nestor (Anisimov)]. Moscow (in Russian).
  6. Kosik O. (2013) Golosa iz Rossii: Ocherki sbora i peredachi za granitsu informatsii o polozhenii Tserkvi v SSSR (1920-e — nachalo 1930-kh godov) [Voices from Russia: Essays on the Collection and Transmission Abroad of Information on the Situation of the Church in the USSR (1920s — early 1930s)]. Moscow (in Russian).
  7. Krivova N. (1997) Vlast’ i Tserkov’ v 1922–1925 gg. Politbiuro i GPU v bor’be za tserkovnye tsennosti i politicheskoe podchinenie dukhovenstva [State Authorities and the Church in 1922–1925. Politbureau and State Political Directorate in the Struggle for Church Valuables and for Political Submission of the Clergy]. Moscow (in Russian).
  8. Kurenyshev A. (2008) “Krest’ianskie organizatsii russkogo zarubezh’ia” [Peasant Organisations of the Russian Diaspora]. Voprosy istorii, 1, pp. 3–21 (in Russian).
  9. Kurliandskii I. (2011) Stalin, vlast’, religiia (religioznyi faktor vo vnutrennei politike sovetskogo gosudarstva v 1922–1953 gg.) [Stalin, Power, Religion (religious factor in the internal politics of the Soviet state in 1922–1953)]. Moscow (in Russian).
  10. Osipenko M. (2013) “Khraniteli very” [Keepers of the Faith]. Sever, 3–4, pp. 36–37 (in Russian).
  11. Tokareva E. (2016) “Vatican and Catholics in Russia in 1920–1930: Communication Problems”. Procedia — Social and Behavioral Sciences, 236, pp. 379–384.
Beglov Alexey
Academic Degree: Candidate of Sciences* in History;
Place of work: Institute of World History, Russian Academy of Sciences; 37A Leninskiy Prospekt, Moskow 119334, Russian Federation;
Post: senior researcher;
ORCID: 0000-0001-8656-1615;
Email: beglov.al@yandex.ru. *According to the International Standard Classification of Education (ISCED) 2011, the degree of Candidate of Sciences (Cand.Sc.) belongs to ISCED level 8 — "doctoral or equivalent", together with PhD, DPhil, D.Lit, D.Sc, LL.D, Doctorate or similar.
The study was carried out as part of a project supported by the Russian Science Foundation (№ 19-18-00482 “Entangled Histories: Russia and Holy See, 1917-1958”).
Беглов А. Л. Православный приход в Российской империи: защита диссертации на соискание ученой степени доктора исторических наук в Институте всеобщей истории РАН // Вестник ПСТГУ. Серия II: История. История Русской Православной Церкви. 2020. Вып. 94. С. 179-182.
PDF
Beglov Alexey
Academic Degree: Candidate of Sciences* in History;
Place of work: Institute of World History, Russian Academy of Sciences; 37A Leninskiy Prospekt, Moskow 119334, Russian Federation;
Post: senior researcher;
ORCID: 0000-0001-8656-1615;
Email: beglov.al@yandex.ru. *According to the International Standard Classification of Education (ISCED) 2011, the degree of Candidate of Sciences (Cand.Sc.) belongs to ISCED level 8 — "doctoral or equivalent", together with PhD, DPhil, D.Lit, D.Sc, LL.D, Doctorate or similar.
Беглов А. Л. Тайные монашеские общины советского периода. Проблемы типологии // Вестник ПСТГУ. Серия II: История. История Русской Православной Церкви. 2022. Вып. 108. С. 126-151. DOI: 10.15382/sturII2022108.126-151
The purpose of this article is to take the next step in the development of a typology of secret monastic communities of the Soviet period. The author considers the development of a typology of the monastic underground in the USSR as a tool for explaining the diversity of forms of this phenomenon. First, the author raises the question of the evolution of the types of monastic life during the transition from the synodal to the Soviet period, and to solve it, he dwells in detail on the classifications of forms of monasteries and monastic life existing in science in the Russian Middle Ages and the Imperial period. The author then points out that the secret communities differed not only in terms of “objective” (for example, gender or age composition), but also in terms of “subjective” features, for example, in the position of their leaders and members in relation to church divisions, or in relation to the adoption new members. Based on this, the article raises the question of the reasons for the formation of various strategies for the behavior of the monks of the Soviet period, as well as the intellectual attitudes that stood behind these strategies. The author concludes that the position in relation to the admission of new members, or openness vs. the closeness of the secret monastic communities was one of their key characteristics, which determined others, including their “objective” parameters.
History of Russia (USSR) of the 20th century, History of the Russian Orthodox Church, illegal church life, church underground, secret monasticism, typology of monasteries, typology of monastic life
  1. Aristoklii (monk) (2012) Zosimovskii paterik: zhitiia sviatykh i podvizhnikov blagochestiia Sviato- Smolenskoi Zosimovoi pustyni v 2 tomakh [Zosimovsky patericon: lives of saints and ascetics of the Holy Smolensk Zosima hermitage, in 2 vols] (in Russian).
  2. Barsegian T. (1997) “Tipologiia pravoslavnykh monastyrei Rossii” [Typology of Orthodox monasteries in Russia], in V. Osipov (ed) Monastyri v zhizni Rossii: Materialy nauchnoi konferentsii, posviashchennoi 600-letiiu prepodobnogo Pafnutiia Borovskogo i 550-letiiu osnovaniia im Rozhdestva Bogoroditsy Pafnut′ev-Borovskogo monastyria (19–20 aprelia 1994 goda) [Monasteries in the life of Russia: Proceedings of the conference devoted to the 600th anniversary of St. Pafnutiy Borovskiy and the 550th anniversary of the Foundation of Pafnutiev-Borovskiy Monastery of Nativity of Theotokos (19–20 April 1994)]. Kaluga; Borovsk, pp. 6–10 (in Russian).
  3. Beglov A. (2001) “˜Vechnostiiu nerazrushimoe sodruzhestvo″. Stranitsy russkogo starchestva XIX veka: prepodobnyi Zosima (Verkhovskii) i ego dukhovnaia sem′ia v 1818–1825 gg.” [“Community that cannot be destroyed by eternity”. Pages of Russian eldership in the 19th century: St. Zosima (Verkhovsky) and his spiritual family in 1818–1825]. Al′fa i Omega, no. 3 (29), pp. 205–240 (in Russian).
  4. Beglov A. (2003) “Arkhiepiskop Varfolomei (Remov): Argumentum advocati Dei. Nastoiatel′ Vysoko-Petrovskogo monastyria po materialam arkhivov ego prikhozhan” [Archbishop Varfolomei (Remov): Argumentum advocati Dei. Rector of Vysoko-Petrovsky Monastery: based on materials of the archives of his parishioners]. Tserkov′ v istorii Rossii, vol. 5, pp. 228–233 (in Russian).
  5. Beglov A. (2003) “Tserkovnoe podpol′e v SSSR v 1920–1940-kh godakh: strategii vyzhivaniia” [Church underground in the USSR in the 1920s–1940s: survival strategies]. Odissei. Chelovek v istorii, 2003, pp. 78–104 (in Russian).
  6. Beglov A. (2009) “Turinskaia tragediia. Krizis v monasheskoi obshchine prep. Zosimy (Verkhovskogo) 1818–1827 gg.” [Turin tragedy. Crisis in the monastic community of St. Zosima (Verkhovsky) of 1818–1827]. Al′fa i Omega, no. 3 (56), pp. 111–143; 2010, no. 1 (57), pp. 148–174 (in Russian).
  7. Beglov A. (2018) V poiskakh “bezgreshnykh katakomb”. Tserkovnoe podpol′e v SSSR [In search of the “ideal church catacombs”. Church underground in the USSR], 2nd ed. Moscow (in Russian).
  8. [Beglov A.] (1998) “Zhiznennyi put′ arkhiepiskopa Varfolomeia” [The life path of Archbishop Varfolomei]. Al′fa i Omega, no. 4 (18), pp. 119–129 (in Russian).
  9. Beglov A. (2013) “Soslovnost′ pravoslavnogo prikhodskogo dukhovenstva v Rossii v nachale XX veka: regional′nye osobennosti” [Estates of the Orthodox parish clergy in Russia at the beginning of the 20th century: regional features]. Elektronnyi nauchno-obrazovatel′nyi zhurnal “Istoriia”, no. 5 (21), available at http://mes.igh.ru/s207987840000561-6-1 (accessed 13.02.2022) (in Russian).
  10. Beliakova E., Beliakova N., Emchenko E. (2011) Zhenshchina v pravoslavii: tserkovnoe pravo i rossiiskaia praktika [Woman in Orthodoxy: church law and Russian practices]. Moscow (in Russian).
  11. Emchenko E. (2002) “Zhenskie monastyri v Rossii” [Women’s monasteries in Russia], in Monashestvo i monastyri v Rossii. XI–XX veka: Istoricheskie ocherki [Monasticism and monasteries in Russia. 11th — 20th cc. Historical essays]. Moscow, pp. 266–274 (in Russian).
  12. Fedorov V. (2003) Russkaia Pravoslavnaia Tserkov′ i gosudarstvo. Sinodal′nyi period. 1700–1917 [Russian Orthodox Church and the state. Synodal period. 1700–1917]. Moscow (in Russian).
  13. Ignatiia (Petrovskaia, nun) (1996) “Vysoko-Petrovskii monastyr′ v 20–30 gody” [Vysoko- Petrovsky Monastery in the 20–30s]. Al′fa i Omega, no. 1 (8), pp. 114–135 (in Russian).
  14. Ignatiia (nun) (1999) Starchestvo na Rusi [Spiritual eldership in Russia]. Moscow (in Russian).
  15. Ignatiia (nun) (2001) Starchestvo v gody gonenii. Prepodobnomuchenik Ignatii (Lebedev) i ego dukhovnaia sem′ia [Spiritual eldership in the years of persecution. Saint martyr Ignatiy (Lebedev) and his spiritual family]. Moscow (in Russian).
  16. [Without author] (2002) “Igumen Varsonofi i i ego vklad v deiatel′nost′ Aleksandro-Nevskogo bratstva” [Hegumen Varsonofi y and his contribution to the activities of Alexander Nevsky Brotherhood], in Varsonofii (Verevkin, hegumen). Uchenie o molitve po Dobrotoliubiiu [The teaching about prayer according to the Dobrotoliubie]. Rybinsk, pp. 26–44 (in Russian).
  17. Ioann (Maslov, schema-archimandrite) (1994) Glinskaia pustyn′. Istoriia obiteli i ee dukhovnoprosvetitel′ skaia deiatel′nost′ v XVI–XX vekakh [Glinskaya Hermitage. The history of the monastery and its spiritual and educational activities in the 16th — 20th cc.]. Moscow (in Russian).
  18. Ioann (Vendland, metropolitan) (1999) Kniaz′ Fedor (Chernyi). Mitropolit Gurii (Egorov): Istoricheskie ocherki [Prince Fedor (Cherny). Metropolitan Guriy (Egorov): Historical essays]. Yaroslavl (in Russian).
  19. Karpuk D. “Istoriia uchenogo monashestva” [History of the learned monasticism], available at http://spbda.ru/publications/istoriya-uchenogo-monashestva/ (accessed 03.03.2022) (in Russian).
  20. Kenworthy S. M. (2010) The Heart of Russia: Trinity-Sergius, Monasticism, and Society after 1825. New York.
  21. Khodzinskii P. (archpriest) (2017) Nezrimaia obitel′, ili Kratkaia povest′ o zhizni diveevskikh monakhin′ v muromskom izgnanii: s prilozheniem podlinnykh dokumentov, pisem i vospominanii [The invisible convent, or a brief tale of the life of Diveevo nuns in Murom exile: with original documents, letters, and memoirs]. Moscow (in Russian).
  22. Levin O., Prosvetov R., Allenov A. (1999) Kirsanov Pravoslavnyi [The Orthodox city of Kirsanov]. Moscow (in Russian).
  23. Vorob′ev V. (archpriest) (ed.) (2016) Otdelenie Tserkvi ot gosudarstva i shkoly ot Tserkvi v Sovetskoi Rossii. Oktiabr′ 1917–1918 g.: Sbornik dokumentov [The separation of the church from the state and the school from the church in Soviet Russia. October 1917–1918: Collection of documents]. Moscow (in Russian).
  24. Serafi m (Tomin, schema-archimandrite) (1991) “Glava prepodobnogo Siluana Afonskogo” [Head of St. Silouan of Athos]. Khristianos. Al’manakh, no. 1, pp. 77–78 (in Russian).
  25. Sergii (Savel′ev, schema-archimandrite) (1998) Dalekii put′: Istoriia odnoi khristianskoi obshchiny [The long way: a story of one Christian community]. Moscow (in Russian).
  26. Shevchenko T. (2018) Valaamskie inoki v epokhu gonenii: Moskovskoe podvor’e Valaamskogo monastyria i ego nasel’niki posle revoliutsii 1917 goda [Valaam monks in the era of persecution: Moscow house of Valaam Monastery and its residents after the Revolution of 1917]. Moscow (in Russian).
  27. Shkarovskii M. (2018) “Podvig muchenichestva i ispovednichestva Aleksandro-Nevskogo bratstva (po arkhivnym dokumentam 1930-kh godov)” [The feat of martyrdom and confession of Alexander Nevsky Brotherhood (based on archival documents of the 1930s)]. Svet Khristov prosveshchaet vsekh: Al’manakh Sviato-Filaretovskogo pravoslavno-khristianskogo instituta, no. 25, pp. 57–74 (in Russian).
  28. Sinitsyna N. (2002) “Tipy monastyrei i russkii asketicheskii ideal (XV–XVI vv.)” [Types of monasteries and the Russian ascetic ideal (15th — 16th cc.], in Monashestvo i monastyri v Rossii. XI–XX veka: Istoricheskie ocherki [Monkhood and monassteries in Russia. 11th — 20th cc. Historical essays]. Moscow, pp. 116–149 (in Russian).
  29. Smolich I. (1996–1997) Istoriia Russkoi Tserkvi. 1700–1917 [History of the Russian Church. 1700–1917]. Moscow (in Russian).
  30. Smolich I. (1999) Russkoe monashestvo. 988–1917. Zhizn’ i uchenie startsev [Russian monkhood. 988–1917. The life and teachings of the spitirual elders]. Moscow (in Russian).
  31. Solov′ev I. (priest) (ed.) (2004) Otzyvy eparkhial’nykh arkhiereev po voprosu o tserkovnoi reforme [Comments of diocesan archpriests on the issue of church reform]. Moscow (in Russian).
  32. Solov′ev K. (2013) Tipologiia i novye formy pravoslavnykh monastyrei Rossiiskoi imperii na rubezhe XIX–XX vekov [Typology and new forms of Orthodox monasteries in the Russian Empire at the turn of the 19th — 20th cc.]. Moscow (in Russian).
  33. Sukhova N. (2007) “Uchenoe monashestvo v Rossii: nauchno-bogoslovskaia deiatel′nost′ i problema konsolidatsii” [Scholarly monks in Russia: academic and theological activity and the problem of consolidation], in Vertograd nauk dukhovnyi: Sbornik statei po istorii vysshego dukhovnogo obrazovaniia v Rossii XIX — nachala XX veka [Orchard of spiritual sciences: Collection of papers on higher spiritual education in Russia of the 19th — early 20th cc.]. Moscow, pp. 304–325 (in Russian).
  34. Varfolomei (Remov, archbishop) (1996) “Pis′ma i avtobiografi ia” [Letters and autobiography]. Al′fa i Omega, no. 2/3 (9/10), pp. 353–378 (in Russian).
  35. Vasil′eva O. (2002) “Sud′by russkikh monastyrei v XX veke” [The fates of Russian monasteries in the 20th century], in Monashestvo i monastyri v Rossii. XI–XX veka: Istoricheskie ocherki [Monkhood and monasteries in Russia. 11th — 20th cc. Historical essays]. Moscow, pp. 332–342 (in Russian).
  36. Wynot J. (2004) Keeping the Faith: Russian Orthodox Monasticism in the Soviet Union, 1917–1939. Texas.
  37. Zyrianov P. (1999) Russkie monastyri i monashestvo v XIX i nachale XX veka [Russian monasteries and monkhood in the 19th and early 20th cc.]. Moscow (in Russian).
Beglov Alexey
Academic Degree: Candidate of Sciences* in History;
Place of work: Institute of World History, Russian Academy of Sciences; 37A Leninskiy Prospekt, Moskow 119334, Russian Federation;
Post: senior researcher;
ORCID: 0000-0001-8656-1615;
Email: beglov.al@yandex.ru. *According to the International Standard Classification of Education (ISCED) 2011, the degree of Candidate of Sciences (Cand.Sc.) belongs to ISCED level 8 — "doctoral or equivalent", together with PhD, DPhil, D.Lit, D.Sc, LL.D, Doctorate or similar.
The author expresses his heartfelt gratitude to the colleagues who participated in the discussion of this article: N.A. Belyakova, A.B. Vankova, M.V. Vinogradova, A.V. Visivanyuk, G.M. Zapalsky, O.A. Rodionov, E.S. Tokareva, I.A. Fadeev.