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Арутюнова-Фиданян В. А. Армяно-халкидонитская аристократия на службе империи: полководцы и дипломатические агенты Константина VII Багрянородного // Вестник ПСТГУ. Серия III: Филология. 2012. Вып. 3 (29). С. 7-17.
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The paper examines the social status and administrative activities of Chalcedonian Armenians in the service of the empire in IX–X centuries according to the treatise of Constantine Porphyrogennetos “On the Governance of the Empire”. The information on Trans-Caucasian matters in the treatise is characterised by accuracy and precision because it was provided by immediate participants of events — Chalcedonian Armenians in the service of the Byzantine Empire. he imperial orthodoxy guaranteed Constantinople the loyalty of its Armenian diplomats, military leaders and interpreters, while their belonging to the Armenian ethnicity, language and culture made it possible for them to orient themselves in the Armenian world with ease unattainable to their Greek colleagues. Armenian aristocracy, naturally incorporated into the Byzantine ruling class (the milieu from which Constantine’s advisers originated), represents a phenomenon of synthesis, the result of interaction and mutual infl uence of the two worlds and the two cultures. These particular people created the deological component in the formation of the integrated contact zone.
interaction of Byzantine and Armenian civilisations, Constantine Porphyrogennetos, political ideology, military leaders, diplomatic agents.
Arutiunova-Fidanian Viada
Арутюнова-Фиданян В. А. Армяне-халкидониты. Терминология // Вестник ПСТГУ. Серия III: Филология. 2013. Вып. 5 (35). С. 9-20.
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Armeno-Chalcedonians is a scholarly term created in modern times, which has aptly and functionally replaced the double ethnic names used in medieval Greek and Armenian sources. The term is not a mere combination of an ethnicon and a confession name devised with the sole aim of distinguishing an Armenian Chalcedonian from a non-Chalcedonian. Armeno-Chalcedonians (as well as the medieval counterparts of this term) is an ethnic, confessional, political and cultural concept with an inbuilt multiplicity of meanings, encoding the emergence and evolution of the Armenian Orthodox community, its social, political and administrative, confessional and cultural characteristics.
Armeno-Chalcedonian community, phenomenon and terminology, Byzantine Armenians, Georgians, Tsats
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Arutiunova-Fidanian Viada
Арутюнова-Фиданян В. А. «Повествование о делах армянских» (VII в.) и «Типик Григория Пакуриана» (XI в.): греческий язык армяно-халкидонитских памятников // Вестник ПСТГУ. Серия III: Филология. 2014. Вып. 5 (40). С. 9-21. DOI: 10.15382/sturIII201440.9-21
The Armeno-Chalcedonian community could not emerge prior to the Council of Chalcedon (451). If we take into account the almost century-long lacuna between this Council and the perception of its decisions in Armenian Church and society, then we have to assign its emergence to an even later date. It was only at the turn of the 7th century that the non-Chalcedonian Armenian Church worked out its distinctive doctrine. The unity of the ethnic conscience of the Armenians was secured by their common origins, the common territory, historical memories, everyday life, culture and beliefs shared by them, but fi rst and foremost — by their common language. Armenia was not characterized by the linguistic pluralism of the great empires; however, its contacts with the neighboring states introduced into communication their respective languages, among which the most signifi cant were Greek and Georgian. They were penetrating into the Armenian world as means of political, diplomatic, administrative, cultural and confessional communication. From the end of the 10th century onwards the Armeno-Chalcedonians referred to themselves as not only Armenians ethnically, but also as Romaioi or Iberoi — denominationally. Orthodox Armenians which formed a signifi cant part of the Armenian ethnos emerged as a result not of ethnic, but of cultural transformations. These transformations, however, had their own linguistic boundaries. The Greek and Georgian languages, entering Armeno-Chalcedonian culture through liturgical books, secular literature and even through everyday communication, did not push Armenian to the periphery. An analysis of two Armeno-Chalcedonian sources demonstrates that the Armenian linguistic substratum showed itself both in the anonymous work of an author who lived in Armenia in the 7th century and in the Typicon by Gregory Pakurian, written for his monastery in the Balkans which was built in the 11th century. These observations could noticeably undermine the a priori assumption that the members of the Armeno-Chalcedonian community were Hellenized, especially outside the boundaries of Armenia proper, on the territory of Byzantine Empire.
Christian Orient, Armeno-Chalcedonian community, ethnic and denominational conscience, interaction among languages of culture and religious denominations, source study analysis, Narratio de rebus Armeniae (7th cent.), Typicon by Gregory Pakurian (11th ce

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Арутюнова-Фиданян В. А. Богословская полемика в Армении VII-IX вв // Вестник ПСТГУ. Серия III: Филология. 2015. Вып. 5 (45). С. 9-19. DOI: 10.15382/sturIII201545.9-19
The article deals with the uncompromising stand taken by the Armenian Chalcedonian community in support of the oros of the Council of Chalcedon. The author of the Narratio de rebus Armeniae (7th cent.) expounds more on the history of continuous unions and severances between the Churches of Armenia and Greece than on the mere history of unions. Both this author and his dramatis personae were staunch supporters of Orthodoxy. One of the most important stages of the fight for the Chalcedonian doctrine in Armenia was the uncompromising polemics against Julianism. The Council of Karin (633) adopted the Chalcedonian symbol for the whole of the Church of Armenia; later, during the tenure of Catholicos Nerses II, his infl uential Monophysite theologian and vardapet Hovhan Mayragometsi was accused not only of favoring Julianism but also of belonging to the aktistitai heresy and exiled from Armenia. The Council of Manazkert held in 726 condemned extreme Julianism; however, the symbol which the Armenian Church adheres to even today confesses that “the body of Christ was incorruptible from its very birth from the Virgin, eternally, not naturally, but out of the ineff able union”. The second half of the 9th century witnessed not only a renewal of contacts between Armenia and Byzantium but also a recommencement of theological disputes. An attempt at achieving a union between Armenian Monophysites and Chalcedonians was undertaken toward the end of the 9th century. Certain Armenologists underline the wish of the Monophysites to tone down their rhetoric and to create a terminology which would be shared by them and the Chalcedonian party. Preparations for the Council of Sharakavan were underway, but one has to admit that the decisions of this council were confined to the “Sharakavan dossier”, as all the pan-Armenian councils were mentioned in the Book of Canons while the Council of Sharakavan is not mentioned there. In other words, there was no union between Chalcedonians and Monophysites in the end of the 9th century.
Chalcedonianism, non-Chalcedonianism (Monophysitism), union, Julianism, aktistitai, Second Council of Dvin (555), Council of Karin (633), “Sharakavan dossier” (end of the 9th cent.), Catholicos Ezra (630-641), Catholicos Nerses III the Builder (641-661),

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Арутюнова-Фиданян В. А. Христианизация на цивилизационном пути Армении // Вестник ПСТГУ. Серия III: Филология. 2016. Вып. 4 (49). С. 9-23. DOI: 10.15382/sturIII201649.9-23
In this article the author discusses means and opportunities, as well as the timeframe of the preliminary stage of the civilization convergence using the evidence of the interactions between the Eastern Roman (Byzantine) Empire and Armenia. These countries originally both used to represent different civilizational types, Graeco-Roman and Iranian-Transcaucasian respectively — the premise which would exclude, as it might seem, any possibility of creating a common inter-space, or contact zone, between them. However, such contact zone began to form already in the sixth and seventh centuries and reached its highpoint in the tenth and eleventh centuries. The starting point for this civilizational rapprochement should be seen already in the third century when certain political and religious factors led to gradual alienation of Armenia from the Iranian world. In other words, one may assert that there are compelling results of a successful dialogue between the two states and cultures despite the initial unlikelihood that such a dialogue could even occur. In the early fourth century Armenia converted to Christianity, but pagan beliefs and practices endured for a long time among elite and non-elite people alike. The adoption of Christianity not only as a state, but also a folk religion, and further distancing of Armenia from the Iranian world became possible only after the emergence of the Armenian alphabet and literature. Translators of the so called Hellenizing school introduced to their nation works on liturgics, philosophy, rhetoric and science, thus covering the educational palette of the Middle Ages. The Hellenophile translators also composed original works in Armenian. Armenian historical prose might be considered the beginning of the Christian historiography. The defense of their faith and customs, resistance to the cultural and religious assimilation in the work of the vardapets went along with their struggle for the independence and revival of the ancient Armenian kingdom.
the Byzantine Empire, Iran, Armenia, the Greco-Roman and Iranian-Transcaucasian civilizations, the civilization types, the civilizational convergence, christianization, creating of written language, the national historiography of the 5th century, the Hel

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Arutiunova-Fidanian Viada
Арутюнова-Фиданян В. А. Объекты экспансии Византийской империи на Восток (X–XI вв.). Терминология // Вестник ПСТГУ. Серия III: Филология. 2017. Вып. 53. С. 11-23. DOI: 10.15382/sturIII201753.11-23
This article deals with the development of main terms referring to spatial and administrative objects of expansion of the Byzantine Empire to the East. In the “Caucasian Dossier” by Constantine Porphyrogennetos most often occur the terms chora and chorion. In everyday speech these terms were synonymous but the authors of the “Caucasian Dossier” diff erentiate them (at least, with regard to the size). An analysis of verbal elements in this material is made more diffi cult by the fact that the Armenian-Chalcedonite nobility habitually used the phrase ašxarh hayoċ to refer to land possessions of Armenian rulers that came to be in the sphere of infl uence of the Empire, and in their reports to the Byzantine court used the lexeme chora as an equivalent to ašxarh. The “land” of the Taronites, the “land” of the Iberian Bagratids is a common possession of noble families, and the eff orts of Byzantine emperors to get a hold on lands of a certain aristocrat usually faced active resistance of his family. Agreements of this period with the Taronites and the Iberian Bagratids demonstrate initial stages in the process of transition from allies’ relationship to that of vassals.
Byzantine Empire, medieval Armenia, terminology of objects of expansion of the empire, chora, chorion, choropolis, interaction of civilisations, territories of contact
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  5. Arutyunova-Fidanyan V. A., “Khristianizatsiia na tsivilizatsionnom puti Armenii”, in: Vestnik PSTGU III: Filologiia, 4 (49), 2016, 9–23.
  6. Bol’shakov O. G., Srednevekovyi gorod Blizhnego Vostoka VII–XIII vv., Мoscow, 1984.
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Arutyunova-Fidanyan Viada
Academic Degree: Doctor of Sciences* in History;
Place of work: Institute of World History, Russian Academy of Sciences; 32A Leninsky Prospekt, 119334, Moscow, Russian Federation;
ORCID: 0000-0003-4900-1736;
Email: nikitatal@mail.ru. *According to ISCED 2011, a post-doctoral degree called Doctor of Sciences (D.Sc.) is given to reflect second advanced research qualifications or higher doctorates.
Арутюнова-Фиданян В. А. Субъекты экспансии Византийской империи на Восток (X–XI вв.). Терминология // Вестник ПСТГУ. Серия III: Филология. 2018. Вып. 57. С. 11-23. DOI: 10.15382/sturIII201857.11-23
This article deals with the terminology of those subjects of expansion of the Byzantine Empire to Asia Minor that emerged at the beginning of the movement of the Empire to the East and accompanied this process in the 10th–11th centuries. The emergence of new terms (Greek κλεισουράρχης, τοπάρχης), transformation of old (τοποτηρητής), as well as their situation-related manifold content responded to the conditions of genesis and functioning of the interspace between diff erent worlds of civilisation, i.e. the contact zone, where the mainstream socio-administrative and cultural processes were determined by the synthesis of Byzantine and Armenian institutions. Kleisourarches, toparches and topoteretes are the terms that appear to accompany the stages in the movement and the establishment of the Byzantine Empire in Armenian lands. Kleisourarches belongs to the fi rst stage of the conquest and disappears in the latter half of the 10th century. Toparches marks the genesis and functioning of contact zones in Armenia and the Balkans in the 11th century. By the 11th century, topoteretes loses its historical connection with the military system of themata and comes to be a synonym to toparches. Byzantine sources of the 10th–11th centuries, particularly the texts of Constantine Porphyrogennetos and Kekaumenos, provide the scholar with unique data that allow him to observe and analyse the living interconnection of civilisational types and those mechanisms that have formed the new social model as the result of the meeting and deep contact of the two civilisations.
Byzantine Empire, mediaeval Armenia, Asia Minor, expansion of empire, terminology of subjects of expansion, kleisourarches, toparches, topoteretes, contact of civilisations, territory of cultural contact
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Arutyunova-Fidanyan Viada
Academic Degree: Doctor of Sciences* in History;
Place of work: Institute of World History, Russian Academy of Sciences; 32A Leninsky Prospekt, 119334, Moscow, Russian Federation;
ORCID: 0000-0003-4900-1736;
Email: nikitatal@mail.ru. *According to ISCED 2011, a post-doctoral degree called Doctor of Sciences (D.Sc.) is given to reflect second advanced research qualifications or higher doctorates.
Арутюнова-Фиданян В. А. Контакты Древней Руси и Армении. Начало // Вестник ПСТГУ. Серия III: Филология. 2019. Вып. 61. С. 11-27. DOI: 10.15382/sturIII201961.11-27
The sources that shed light on military and commercial, information-related and cultural contacts between mediaeval Armenia and Kievan Rus’, in spite of their sparseness, give an opportunity for an insight into the views of Armenians about Rus’. Armenians had links with Rus’ and its inhabitants through merchants, soldiers and diplomats on the paths of migration, trade and war, through the Byzantine Empire and Russian and Armenian communities. Initially, the immediate contacts turned into military clashes (the battle at Partav, battles in the Balkans). And at fi rst we encounter the image of the “unfamiliar and alien people of the Ruziks”. Russian trading soldiers found their way far into the East, particularly during the period of military expeditions to the regions around the Caspian Sea. Since the 10th century, the Russian detachment that had been sent by Prince Vladimir to Basil II was incorporated into the Byzantine army, and during the 11th century we fi nd Russian troops in the imperial service in a number of places, “anywhere a military action took place” (by V.G. Vasil’yevskiy’s expression), including Transcaucasia. The turning point in the evolution of the image of the “Ruzes” in Armenia came to be the inclusion of Rus’ in the family of Christian peoples. The spiritual affi nity of the Orthodox Armenians and Orthodox Russians is expressed in the similarity between the decor and iconographic programmes of the churches of North-Eastern Rus’ and Armenian Chalcedonian churches. The most significant phenomena in the confessional contacts between Armenia and Rus’ became the veneration in Rus’ of St. Gregory the Illuminator and veneration of Saints Boris and Gleb in Armenia.
Ancient Rus’, mediaeval Armenia, images of Ruzes in Armenian historiography, Christianisation, spiritual affi nity of Orthodox Armenians and Russians, confessional contacts, St. Gregory the Illuminator, St. Boris, St. Gleb
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Arutyunova-Fidanyan Viada
Academic Degree: Doctor of Sciences* in History;
Place of work: Institute of World History, Russian Academy of Sciences; 32A Leninsky Prospekt, 119334, Moscow, Russian Federation;
ORCID: 0000-0003-4900-1736;
Email: nikitatal@mail.ru. *According to ISCED 2011, a post-doctoral degree called Doctor of Sciences (D.Sc.) is given to reflect second advanced research qualifications or higher doctorates.
Арутюнова-Фиданян В. А. Обмен идеологемами в межцивилизационном диалоге: армяно-византийская контактная зона // Вестник ПСТГУ. Серия III: Филология. 2020. Вып. 65. С. 11-21. DOI: 10.15382/sturIII202065.11-21
Contact zones emerging between civilisations are a distinctive geopolitical, historical and cultural phenomenon with explicit conceptual and discourse-related characteristics. They occur at an intersection of real-life and mental dimensions. Between Armenia and Byzantium, there were two stages of proximity. The fi rst can be defined as an incomplete model of a contact zone of the 6th — 7th centuries, in which the ideological component did not play a prominent role. The second is a fusional zone of the 10th — 11th centuries, the emergence of which had been prepared since the mid- 10th century through an active exchange of ideologemes of the contacting parts. The array of ideological notions that had developed by the 10th — 11th centuries in Byzantium, had a significant impact on the social and political theory of Armenians, namely the acknowledgment of the “family of rulers and nations”, the political orthodoxy, i. e. a symphony of the church and the state, the correlation between the earthly and heavenly kingdoms, as well as a set of ideological and political beliefs (Constantinople as the Second Rome, Romania as the East Roman Empire, the Rhomaioi as its citizens). It should be noted that Armenian ideologemes came to be incorporated in the narrative of Byzantine historiographers, i.e. the axiom of preeminent position of Shirak’s Bagratides among Caucasian rulers, acknowledgment of Byzantine sovereignty and of Byzantium’s image as a great Christian state which is a natural ally to Armenia in its struggle against the Muslim world. During the period of civilisational alignment, there took place an integration of the dynastic idea into the system of the supreme power of Byzantium, i.e. the “family” found a place in the political system of the empire that had not initially been provided for it. The Armenian nobility that belonged to a dynastic type of society and was included in the “Komnenoi’s clan” benefi ted the establishment of the role of the “family” in ruling the empire.
Armeno-Byzantine contact zone (10th — 11th centuries), exchange of Byzantine and Armenian ideologemes, concept of “political orthodoxy”, correlation between earthly and heavenly kingdoms, ethno-political ideas of Byzantium, empire as an alley of Christian Armenia, aristocratisation of Byzantine social thought in 11th century, image of a knight-king, dynastic principle, dynasty of Komnenoi
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Arutyunova-Fidanyan Viada
Academic Degree: Doctor of Sciences* in History;
Place of work: Institute of World History, Russian Academy of Sciences; 32A Leninsky Prospekt, 119334, Moscow, Russian Federation;
ORCID: 0000-0003-4900-1736;
Email: asya1pobednaya25@gmail.com. *According to ISCED 2011, a post-doctoral degree called Doctor of Sciences (D.Sc.) is given to reflect second advanced research qualifications or higher doctorates.
Арутюнова-Фиданян В. А. Роль «образа другого» во взаимодействии цивилизаций. Армяно-византийская контактная зона (X–XI вв.) // Вестник ПСТГУ. Серия III: Филология. 2021. Вып. 69. С. 11-22. DOI: 10.15382/sturIII202169.11-22
Armenian medieval historiographers, scholars-monks (vardapets), who belonged to the intellectual elite of the Armenian society, were closely linked with the ruling houses and the top clergy of the country. They were the creators of the ideas concerning the Byzantine Empire. Their desire to introduce the lands of Armenia into the sphere of Byzantine political influence was logically interwoven into their doctrine with the introduction of Byzantine ideological values into Armenian social and political thought. All these factors determined the creation of a positive image of Byzantium — a legal suzerain of the Armenian kingdom and the only supporter of the Armenians in the struggle against the Persians, Arabs and Turks. Therefore, they purposefully diminished the influence of two major «instruments of alientation», political and confessional, which divided Byzantium and Armenia. What is more, they see an ideal of rulers in the persons of the Byzantine emperors. For armenian medieval historiographers the existence of the armenian lands as a part of the «Greek country» at the beginning of the 10th cent. was convenient, and at the end of the 11th cent. — natural and common. The historiographers demonstate tolerance towards the imperial orthodoxy, and the set of ideological and political understandings formed by the 10th cent. in Byzantium has a serious impact on the socio-political theory of the armenians these days. During the desintegration of the armeno-byzantine contact zone the armenian social conscience under pressure of seljuks reliases itself from the influence of the byzantine ideological values, Byzantium starts to estrange itsef from the armenian world, wherease it’s image is considerably fading. And from the end of the 11th – beginning of the 12th cent., after the utlimate collapse of the contact zone, the image of Byzance becomes totally negative (in all of its aspects: government, ethnos, confession). This negative modification of Byzantine Empire’s image goes over from the medieval to the new and newest armenian historiograpgy. The fall of the armeno-byzantine contact zone entailed not only disappointment in the might of the Byzantine state, but also changes in the mentality of the armenian society.
the image of the other, the interaction of civilizations, the exchange of ideologemes, the im-age’s transformation, byzantine and armenian historiographers of the 10–11 cent., the in-struments of assumption, the instruments of substraction
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Arutyunova-Fidanyan Viada
Academic Degree: Doctor of Sciences* in History;
Place of work: Institute of World History, Russian Academy of Sciences; 32A Leninsky Prospekt, 119334, Moscow, Russian Federation;
ORCID: 0000-0003-4900-1736;
Email: asya1pobednaya25@gmail.com. *According to ISCED 2011, a post-doctoral degree called Doctor of Sciences (D.Sc.) is given to reflect second advanced research qualifications or higher doctorates.