/
Search results


Аникеева Е. Н. О доказательствах существования Бога/Ишвары в индийской философии // Вестник ПСТГУ. Серия I: Богословие. Философия. 2014. Вып. 4 (54). С. 49-63. DOI: 10.15382/sturI201454.49-63
Indian culture, like other polytheistic religions and philosophies, does not exclude a certain acceptance of a relative theism, which naturally differs from the absolute type of Christian theism or from monotheism. Indian philosophy seems to use the notion Ishvara for the concept of a personal deity and the teaching about this deity or Indian theism is known as Ishvara - vada. The proofs for the existence of God in the Indian philosophical tradition according to the rules of logical argumentation (Ishvaranumana) are best studied in the traditional Hindu darshana nyaes and in the vaysheshika (nyaya-vaysheshika). These contain the proofs for the essential attributes of Ishvara (the source of the movement of the universe, of the rationality and the purpose of the world) together with his personal attributes (the benevolent Guardian and Guide of all that lives). Usually, the work known as the Nyaya-kusmanjali written in the tenth century by Udayana are considered to contain the most complete formulation of the doctrine of Ishvaranumana. After refuting the arguments of the Indian anti-theists or Nirishvaravadins, Udayana proceeds to define the celebrated eight arguments for the existence of God: 1) as the active cause (karya); 2) as the originator of the bringing together of the atoms (ayojana); 3) as the conserver (dhrti) and the destroyer (samhara) of the world: 4) on the basis of words (padat); and 5) sentences (vacyat); 6) because of authority (pratyaya); 7) revelation (shruti); and 8) number, or the numerical structure of the universe (samkhya). Certain proofs (1, 2, 3 and 8) are cosmological in character; others (4, 5, 6 and 7) are ethical or pragmatic.
theism, Ishvara, nirishvada-vada, nyaya, vaysheshika, Ishvaranumana

1. Bronkhorst J. 1996 “God’s Arrival in the Vaişeşika System” in: Journal of Indian Philosophy, 1996, vol. 24, pp. 281–294.
2. Bulcke C. The Theism of Nyaya-vaisesika, its Origin & Early Development, Delhi, 1968.
3. Carpenter J. E. Theism in Medieval India, New York, 1980.
4. Chemparathy G. 1968 “The Īśvara Doctrine of Praśastapāda” in: Vishveshvaranand Indological Journal, 1968, vol. 6, pp. 65–87.
5. Cultural Heritage of India, London, 1958.
6. Dasgupta S. N. History of Indian Philosophy, Delhi, 1975.
7. [Gaņgeša]Tattvacintāmaņi. Delhi, 1974r.
8. Jacobi H. Die Entwicklung der Gottesidee bei den Indern, Berlin, 1923.
9. Langbauer D. Indian Theism and Process Philosophy in: http://www.religion-online.org/showarticle.asp?title=2357.
10. Macdonell A. A. India’s Past: A Survey of her Literature, Religions, Languages, and Antiquities, London, 1956.
11. Macnicol N. Hindus Theism: from the Vedic to the Muhammadan Period, Bombay, 1955.
12. Thakur A. (ed.) Nyāyā Bhāşyavārttika of Bhāradvāja Uddyotakara, N. Delhi, 1997.
13. Sinha B. (ed.) Nyayakusumanjali: Hindus Rational Enquiry into the Existing of God — Interpretative Exposition of Udayanachacharya’s Auto Commentary with translations of Karikas, N. Delhi, 1999.
14. Jha V. N. (trans.) Nyayamanjari of Jayantabhatta. Ahnika I, Patna; Satguru, 1995.
15. Sharma S. Theistic and non-theistic Hindus Philosophiers in: http://www.oocities.org/lamberdar/aastika_nastika.html.
16. The Nyāyakusumaņjali of Udayanāchācharya / N. S. Dravid, trans., ed. N. Delhi, 1996. Vol. 1
17. Dravid N. S. (ed.) Udayana Ātmatattvaviveka, Shimla, 1955.
18.Woods J. H. (ed.) [Vāchaspatimiçra. Tattva-Vaiçāradī] The Yoga System of Pataņjali, or… Yoga-Sūtras of Pataņjali and the Comment, Called Yoga-Bhāshya,.. and the Expanation, called Tattva-Vaiçāradī, of Vāchaspatimiçra, Delhi, 1992r.
19. Visvesvari A. Udayana and his Philosophy, Delhi, 1985.
20. Jelty J. S. (ed.) [Udayana. Kiranāvalī] Prabhāşyam Prašastsapādabhāshyam with the Commentary Kiranāvalī of Udayanāchācharya, Baroda. 1971.
21. Raviraj G., Šastri D. (eds.) Vyomavatī, Benares, 1924–1931.
22. Anikeeva E. N. Osnovy indijskoj religioznosti: dialektika lichnogo — bezlichnogo (Foundation of Indian Religiosity: Dialectics of Personal / Impersonal), Moscow, 2010.
23. Anikeeva E. N. Problemy indijskogo teizma: filosofsko-komparativnyj analiz (Problems of Indian Theism: Philosophical-Comparative Analysis), Moscow, 2013.
24. Kupreeva I. V. (ed.) Ansel'm Kenterberijskij. Sochinenija (Anselm of Canterbury. Writings), Moscow, 1995.
25. Semencov V. S. (ed.) Bhagavadgita, Moscow, 1992.
26. Kanaeva N. A. 2009 “Nav'ja-n'jaja” (Navya-Nyāya) in: Indijskaja filosofija: Jenciklopedija, Moscow, 2009, pp. 544–545.
27. Kochergina V. A. Sanskritsko-russkij slovar' (Sanskrit-Russian Dictionary), Moscow, 1978.
28. Shohin V. K. (ed.) N'jaja-sutry. N'jaja-bhash'ja (Nyāya Sūtras. Nyāya Bhagya), Moscow, 2001.
29. Lysenko V. G. (ed.) Prashastapada. «Sobranie harakteristik kategorij» («Padartha-dharma-sangraha») s kommentariem «Cvetushhee derevo metoda» («N'jaja-kandali») Shridhary (Prashastapada. “Collection of Properties of Matter” with Commentary “Kanada”), Moscow, 2005.
30. Radhakrishnan S. Indijskaja filosofija (Indian Philosophy), Moscow, 1956.
31. Syrkin A. Ja. (ed.) Upanishady: V 3 kn. (Upanishads: in 3 Volumes), Moscow, 2000.
32. Shohin V. K. 2008 “Teisticheskaja doktrina Shridhary. Shridhara. N'jajakandali” (Theistic Doctrine of Shridhara. Shridhara. Nyāya Kanada) in: Vestnik RUDN. Serija «Filosofija», 2008, vol. 3, pp. 72–83.
33. Shohin V. K. 2009 “Udajana” (Udayana) in: Indijskaja filosofija: Jenciklopedija, Moscow, 2009, pp. 807–810.
34. Shohin V. K. 2013 “Filosofskij teizm Uddjotakary. Uddjotakara. N'jaja-vartika IV. 1. 19–21” (Philosophical Theism of Uddyotakara. Uddyotakara. Nyāya vārṭika) in: Filosofija religii. Al'manah. 2012–2013, Moscow, 2013, pp. 290–332.