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St. Tikhon’s University Review . Series V: Problems of History and Theory of Christian Art

St. Tikhon’s University Review V :3 (19)

ARTICLES

Urbanovich Iurii

Features of the North African early Christian architecture (4th±5th centuries) in connection with the tradition of remembrance and veneration of the martyrs

Urbanovich Iurii (2015) "Features of the North African early Christian architecture (4th±5th centuries) in connection with the tradition of remembrance and veneration of the martyrs ", Vestnik Pravoslavnogo Sviato-Tikhonovskogo gumanitarnogo universiteta. Seriia V : Voprosi istorii i teorii hristianskogo iskusstva, 2015, Iss. 19, pp. 7-26 (in Russian).

DOI of the paper: 10.15382/sturV201519.7-26
The article analyzes the peculiarities of the development of the North African Church in connection with the local tradition of the veneration of martyrs and confessors, which goes back to pre-Christian traditions of commemoration. Archaeological and literary studies allow us to conclude that the Church in North Africa in the 4–5 centuries experienced a serious influence of the pagan attitude towards death and the dead ancestors, which was partly manifested in architecture, theology (donatism), and everyday religious practice. Only by the 6th century, when the vandal North Africa was conquered by Byzantine troops, this local practice of honoring the dead was brought into accordance with the Byzantine liturgical and architectural tradition.
martyr, tomb, martirium, North Africa, st. Augustine, donatism, funerary meal, the altar, mensa, the Basilica, the apse

1. Golubcov A. P. Iz chtenij po Cerkovnoj Arheologii i Liturgike (From Readings for Church Archaeology and Liturgics), Saint-Petersburg, 1995.
2. Sergeeva E. V. 2007 “Pervye hristianskie obshhiny v Severnoj Afrike” (First Christian Communities in Northern Africa), in Frolov Je. D. (ed.) Mnemon. Issledovanija i publikacii po istorii antichnogo mira, Saint-Petersburg, 2007, vol. 6, pp. 421–432.
3. Sh.-Andre Zhjul'en. Istorija Severnoj Afriki. Tunis. Alzhir (History of Northern Africa. Tunis. Algeria), Moscow, 1961.
4. Cintas J., Duval N. 1976 “Le martyrium de Cincari et les martyria triconques et tétraconques en Afrique”, in Mélanges de l'Ecole française de Rome. Antiquité, 1976, vol. 88/2, pp. 853–927.
5. Cintas M., Duval N. 1978 “Basiliques et mosaïques funéraires de Furnos Minus”, in Mélanges de l'Ecole française de Rome. Antiquité, 1978, vol. 90/2, pp. 871–950.
6. Delehaye H. Les origines du culte des martyrs, Bruxelles, 1912.
7. Duval Y. 1984 “Densité et répartition des évêchés dans les provinces africaines au temps de Cyprien”, in Mélanges de l'Ecole française de Rome. Antiquité, 1984, vol. 96/1, pp. 493–521.
8. Duval N. 1987 “Une basilique chrétienne à deux absides à Sabratha (Tripolitaine)? La basilique I: une révision récente. Études d'Archéologie chrétienne nord-africaine. XVI”, in Revue des Etudes Augustinniennes, 1987, vol. 33, pp. 269–301.
9. Duval N. 1968 “L'église de l'évêque Melleus à Haïdra (Tunisie): la campagne franco-tunisienne de 1967”, in Comptes-rendus des séances de l'Académie des inscriptions et belles-lettres, 1968, vol. 112/2, pp. 221–244.
10. Duval N., Barrate F. Les ruines de Sufetula Sbeitla, Tunis, 1973.
11. Jensen R. M. 2008 “Dining with the Dead: From the Mensa to the Altar in Christian Late Antiquity”, in Brink L., Green D. (eds.) Commemorating the Dead. Texts and Artifacts in Context. Studies of Roman, Jewish, and Christian Burials, Berlin, New York, 2008, pp. 107–143.
12. Krautheimer R. Mensa-Coemeterium-Martyrium in Studies in Early Christian, Medieval and Renaissance Art, New York, 1969.
13. Monceaux P. Histoire litteraire de 1'Afrique chretienne, Paris, 1901.
14. Quasten J. 1940 ““Vetus Superstitio et Nova Religio” the Problem of Refrigerium in the Ancient Church of North Africa”, in The Harvard Theological Review, 1940, vol. 33/4, pp. 253–266.
15. Raven S. Rome in Africa, New York, 1993.
16. Rebillard É. 1993 “Koimetérion et Coemeterium: tombe, tombe sainte, nécropole”, in Mélanges de l’école française de Rome, 1993, vol. 105/2, pp. 975–1001.
17. Romanelli P. 1940 “La basilica cristiana nell'Africa settentrionale italiana”, in Atti IV Congresso int. di Arch. Crist. 1938, Vatican, 1940, vol. 1: Description de la basilique I, pp. 247–253.
18. Telfer W. 1961 “The Origins of Christianity in Africa”, in Studia Patristica, Berlin, 1961, vol. 4, pp. 512–517.
19. Toutain J. 1891 “Fouilles de M. Gsell à Tipasa: Basilique de Sainte Salsa”, in Mélanges d'archéologie et d'histoire, 1891, vol. 11/1, pp. 179–185.
20. Ward-Perkins J. B. Interim Report on Excavations at Sabratha in 1948, Reports on Monographs of the Department of Antlquities in Tripolitania, 1949, vol. 2.

Urbanovich Iurii

Parfenova Elena

Proportion in the Monumental Gabled Altarpieces of the Late Duecento and Early Trecento

Parfenova Elena (2015) "Proportion in the Monumental Gabled Altarpieces of the Late Duecento and Early Trecento ", Vestnik Pravoslavnogo Sviato-Tikhonovskogo gumanitarnogo universiteta. Seriia V : Voprosi istorii i teorii hristianskogo iskusstva, 2015, Iss. 19, pp. 27-40 (in Russian).

DOI of the paper: 10.15382/sturV201519.27-40
This article is devoted to the investigation of the problem of proportion and measure in the monumental gabled altarpieces of the late Duecento and early Trecento. Art historians had found that proportions of Italian works of art reflect a geometrical system based on the square and some outstanding works of Chimabue, Duccio and Giotto will be taken for analysis from this point of view in this issue. This is important from a historical point of view, because the study is approved that the artists of Duecento and Trecento understood the importance of exact proportions in the works of art. As exactly found proportions give it the necessary harmony and lightness of perception. In a long term priorities the results of this investigation provide potential assistance when used in the conjunction with stylistic and other physical evidence in solving problems of attribution and restoration. In general, the study expands our knowledge about the Italian art of the end of the 13th — beginning of the 14th century.
art, Trecento, Duecento, proportion, gabled, frame, square, harmony, rectangle, altarpiece, Cimabue, Duccio, Giotto, measure, crucifix, width, height

1. Babich V. N. 2006 “Teorija proporcij v arhitekture” (Theory of Proportions in Architecture), in Arhitekton: izvestija vuzov, 15.06.2006, vol. 15.
2. Losev A. F. Istorija antichnoj jestetiki (History of Antique Esthetics), Moscow, 2000, vol. 1: Rannjaja klassika (Early Classics).
3. Brink J. 1977 “Measure and Proportion in the Monumental Gabled Altarpieces of Duccio, Cimabue, and Giotto”, in Racar: revue d`art canadienne / Canadian Art Review, 1977, vol. 4/2, pp. 69–77.
4. Tabor Ph. A Space for Half-Formed Thoughts, Amsterdam, 14–16 November, 2002.
5. White J. 1969 “Donatello`s High Altar in the Santo at Padua”, in Art Bulletin, 1969, vol. 51/1–14, pp. 119–141.
6. Zervas D. F. 1976 “Ghiberti`s St. Mathew Ensemble at Orsanmichele: Symbolism in Proportion”, in Art Bulletin, 1976, vol. 58, pp. 36–44.

Parfenova Elena

Tiurina Ol'ga

On the graphic realization of Gospel Sticheira of Great Chant (³bol'shoj rospev´): from the shorthand notation towards its analytical forms

Tiurina Ol'ga (2015) "On the graphic realization of Gospel Sticheira of Great Chant (³bol'shoj rospev´): from the shorthand notation towards its analytical forms ", Vestnik Pravoslavnogo Sviato-Tikhonovskogo gumanitarnogo universiteta. Seriia V : Voprosi istorii i teorii hristianskogo iskusstva, 2015, Iss. 19, pp. 41-51 (in Russian).

DOI of the paper: 10.15382/sturV201519.41-51
The paper discusses two basic graphic versions of Gospel Sticheira composed in the style of Great Chant (“bol'shoj rospev”). These recensions represent two ways of the graphic realization of their melodic content, namely the shorthand notation's form and its conversion in analytical notation's appearance. The opening section of the paper is focused on a brief review of the historical evolution of the graphic recensions of Gospel Sticheira from the 12th to the end of the 17th century. Next, the author presents the detailed analysis of the combination of neumes of the different graphic versions and reveals the discrepancy between the early graphic versions (1580s) and the versions written in analytical notation (mid — late 17th century). This comparative analysis accompanied by numerous examples shows the diff erent modifications of graphic forms used for writing of one melodic version. It is possible to conclude that the analytical notation's form of Gospel Sticheira occurred gradually οver a few decades.
Russian medieval chant, znamenny chant, znamenny notation, ‘Bolshoj Rospev’ (‘Great chant’), melismatic singing styles, melismatic formulas.

1. Brazhnikov M. V. Lica i fity znamennogo raspeva (Faces and Fitas of Znamennyj Chant), Leningrad, 1984.
2. Tjurina O. V. Drevnerusskaja melizmatika: bol'shoj raspev. Dis. … kand. iskusstvovedenija (Old Russian Melizmatics: Great Chant. Dissertation), Moscow, 2010, pp. 42–71.
3. Tjurina O. V. 2011 “O nekotoryh osobennostjah drevnih graficheskih form melizmaticheskogo stilja na primere cikla Evangel'skih Stihir” (About Some Features of Old Graphic Forms of Melizmatic Style on Example of Cycle of Gospel Stichera), in Aktual'nye problemy izuchenija cerkovno-pevcheskogo iskusstva: nauka i praktika, Moscow, 2011, pp. 215–230.
4. Tjurina O. V. 2011 “Tajnozamknennaja fiksacija fit v cikle Evangel'skih Stihir bol'shogo rospeva” (Tajnozamknennaja Fixation of Fitas in Cycle of Gospel Stichera of Great Chant), in XXI Ezhegodnaja bogoslovskaja konferencija PSTGU: mat-ly, Moscow, 2011, vol. 2, pp. 290–296.
5. Tjurina O. V. 2008 “Cikl Stihir Evangel'skih: stilevye redakcii po rukopisjam konca XV — serediny XVII veka” (Cycle of Gospel Stichera: Style Redactions according of End of XV — Middle of XVII Centuries), in Ustnaja i pis'mennaja transmissija cerkovno-pevcheskoj tradicii: Vostok — Rus' — Zapad, Moscow, 2008, pp. 171–176.

Tiurina Ol'ga

Maier Polina

The Western European Sources of the Iconography «Fruits of the Passion of Christ»: «The Living Cross» and «The Tree of Life» in Russian Icon Painting

Maier Polina (2015) "The Western European Sources of the Iconography «Fruits of the Passion of Christ»: «The Living Cross» and «The Tree of Life» in Russian Icon Painting ", Vestnik Pravoslavnogo Sviato-Tikhonovskogo gumanitarnogo universiteta. Seriia V : Voprosi istorii i teorii hristianskogo iskusstva, 2015, Iss. 19, pp. 52-80 (in Russian).

DOI of the paper: 10.15382/sturV201519.52-80
This article explores the problem of the iconographical borrowings in the late Russian icon painting. The study intends to reveal the sources of a rare iconography “Fruits of the Passion of Christ“, which emerged by the end of 17th century. Iconographical analysis confirmed the argument that two Western European iconographic types — “The Living Cross” and “The Tree of Life” — exercised a signifi cant influence on Russian type “Fruits of the Passion of Christ”. Using an iconological approach, the author analysed the Western European prototypes within their historical cultural and theological context. The article pays special attention to the mnemonic diagram “Lignum Vitae” which is closely related to the work of Benaventure by the same name. The practice of the Passion Meditations and the requirements for preaching defined the peculiarity in the constructions of the moralizing didactic diagrams, where the fruits of the Tree of Life were visually compared to the Saviour’s life and his Passion. The theme of Passion, the visual metaphor and the iconic effect connect the fruits symbols on the diagram “Lignum Vitae” with the fruit and flowers with the Passions emblems on the Russian icons. The author illuminates genesis and iconographic evolution of the two iconographic types, explores their semantic proximity and the notional invariance, and describes the degree of adaptation of those motifs in Russian art. As a result, it is concluded that the concept of visualisation of an abstract idea and of creating a picture as an allegory of the Cross by using a mnemonic scheme is what connects both iconographical types — “The Living Cross” and “The Tree of Life”. The principle of arranging thematic associations is the same in all examined works. The partial reception of the exegetic Western European tradition accounts for the iconographic transformations on the late Russian icons.
iconography “Fruits of the Passion of Christ”, “The Living Cross”, “The Tree of Life”, mnemotechnical diagram, engraving, conclusions, Western European iconographic borrowings, allegory of the Cross.

1. Zvezdina Ju. N. 2001 “Allegoricheskaja kompozicija «Smertnyj chelovek...» i zapadnoevropejskie tradicii temy «Memento mori»” (Allegoric Composition “Mortal Man…” and West European Traditions of Theme “Memento mori”), in Iskusstvo hristianskogo mira, Moscow, 2001, vol. 5, pp. 185–192.
2. Pokrovskij N. V. 1890 “Stennye rospisi v drevnih hramah grecheskih i russkih” (Wall Painting in Old Greek and Russian Churches), in Trudy VII arheologicheskogo s'ezda v Jaroslavle 1887 g., Moscow, 1890, vol. 1.
3. Polo de Bol'e M. A. Vizual'nye obrazy srednevekovoj propovedi. Doklad v PSTGU 12 i 16 maja 2014 g. i ego obsuzhdenie (Visual Images of Medieval Sermon. Report in PSTGU on 12 and 16 May 2014 and Its Discussion), in http://pstgu.ru/news/life/science/2014/06/09/53690/ (Date: 29.10.2014)).
4. Posternak O. 1999 “«Krest zhivoj» v zapadnoevropejskoj i russkoj tradicii” (“Live Cross” in West European and Russian Tradition), in Al'fa i Omega, 1999, vol. 1/19, pp. 284–297.
5. Kuznecova O. (ed.) Procvetshij Krest. Ikonografija «Plody stradanij Hristovyh» iz cerkvej, muzejnyh i chastnyh sobranij Rossii, Germanii, Italii, Shvejcarii (Blossomed Cross. Iconography of “Fruits of Passions of Christ” from Churches and Museum and Private Collections of Russia, Germany, Italia, Swiss), Moscow, 2008.
6. Rovinskij D. A. Russkie narodnye kartinki (Russian Folk Pictures), Saint-Petersburg, 1881, vol. 3: Pritchi i listy duhovnye (Parables and Spiritual Papers).
7. Jurevich D., svjashh., Timofeev A., svjashh. Drevo Zhizni // Pravoslavnaja jenciklopedija. T. 16. M., 2008. S. 268–269.
8. Bauerreis E. Arbor Vitae. Der Lebensbaum und seine Verwendung in Liturgie und Kunst des Abendlandes, München, 1939.
9. Bethe H. 1947 “Baumkreuz“, in Reallexikon zur deutschen Kunstgeschichte, Stuttgart, 1947, vol. 2, pp. 100–105.
10. Dinzelbacher P. 1999 “Meditation“, in Lexikon des Mittelalters, Stuttgart, Weimar, 1999, vol. 6., pp. 450–452.
11. Füglister R. L. Das lebende Kreuz: Ikonographisch-ikonologische Untersuchung der Herkunft und Entwicklung einer spätmittelalterlichen Bildidee und ihrer Verwurzelung im Wort, Einsiedeln, 1964.
12. Huber R., Rieth R. (eds.) Glossarium artis: Dreisprachiges Wörterbuch der Kunst, München, 1992, vol. 2: Kirchengeräte, Kreuze und Reliquiare der christlichen Kirchen.
13. Jászai G. 1994 “Kreuzallegorie“, in Lexikon der christlichen Ikonographie. Sonderausgabe, Freiburg, 1994, vol. 2, pp. 595–600.
14. Lucchesi-Palli E. 1961 “Kreuzigung Christi in der Kunst“, in Höfer J., Rahner K. (eds.) Lexikon für Theologie und Kirche, Freiburg, 1961, vol. 6, pp. 622–626.
15. Nagler G. K. Neues allgemeines Künstler-Lexicon oder Nachrichten von dem Leben und den Werken der Maler, Bildhauer, Baumeister, Kupferstecher, Formschneider, Lithographen, Zeichner, Medailleure, Elfenbeinarbeiter, etc., München, 1841, vol. 10.
16. Nitz G. 1992 “Lebensbaum“, in Bäumer R., Scheffczyk L. (eds.) Marienlexikon, St. Ottilien, 1992, vol. 4, pp. 53–54.
17. Preisinger R. Lignum vitae. Zum Verhältnis materieller und mentaler Bilder im Mittelalter, Paderborn, 2014.
18. Réau L. Iconographie de l’Art Chrétien, Paris, 1957, vol. 2/2.
19. Rehm U. 1991 “Kreuzallegorie“, in Bäumer R., Scheffczyk L., (eds.) Marienlexikon, St. Ottilien, 1991, vol. 3, pp. 660–663.
20. Rosenberg A. Kreuzmeditation. Die Meditation des ganzen Menschen, München, 1976.

Maier Polina

Igoshev Valerii

The masters of silver icon settings (rizas) of 17th century for the iconostas from Transfiguration Cathedral in Monastery of Saint Euthymius and the peculiarities in their work

Igoshev Valerii (2015) "The masters of silver icon settings (rizas) of 17th century for the iconostas from Transfiguration Cathedral in Monastery of Saint Euthymius and the peculiarities in their work ", Vestnik Pravoslavnogo Sviato-Tikhonovskogo gumanitarnogo universiteta. Seriia V : Voprosi istorii i teorii hristianskogo iskusstva, 2015, Iss. 19, pp. 81-101 (in Russian).

DOI of the paper: 10.15382/sturV201519.81-101
This article deal with not previously studied silver rizas of 17th century of fi ve-tier iconostasis from Transfiguration Cathedral in Monastery of Saint Euthymius in Suzdal. The typology, style of the rizas’ decoration, the technique and stylistic devices of the silver masters are analyzed by the author. Different details of these rizas are made in such techniques as stamping (basma), engraving, chasing. The conclusions are made out from the research about the fact that in artel there were riza silver masters from Moscow and Yaroslavl. The masters from Moscow were making rizas’ parts in basma technique. The masters from Yaroslavl were working in engraving and chasing techniques. The silver pieces of church utensils for the Eucharist embedded in Transfiguration Cathedral in Monastery of Saint Euthymius during its second sanctification in 1670 are remained in Vladimiro-Suzdal museum. It is proved that these silver objects for the Eucharist were made by Yaroslavl masters and they were working with the silver rizas for iconostasis at the same time. The attribution of the silver objects for the Eucharist helps to identify the completion of works for the five-tier iconostasis — the 1st of October 1670.
Spaso-Evfimiyev monastery, Transfiguration Cathedral, iconostasis, salaries of icons, basma, engraving, stamping, church utensils, Yaroslavl silversmiths, Moscow silversmiths

1. Andrjushhenko A. I. Rukovodstvo zolotyh i serebrjanyh del masterstva (Handbook of Gold and Silver Master), Nizhnij Novgorod, 1904.
2. Bolotceva I. P. Jaroslavskaja ikonopis' XIII–XVIII vekov (Icon Paintings of Jaroslavl' of XIII–XVIII Centuries), Jaroslavl', 1981.
3. Buseva-Davydova I. L. Hramy Moskovskogo Kremlja: svjatyni i drevnosti (Churches of Moscow Kremlin: Relics and Antiquities), Moscow, 1997.
4. Vahrameev I. A. Cerkov' vo imja svjatogo i slavnogo proroka Bozhija Ilii v g. Jaroslavle (Church of St. Prophet Elias in Jaroslavl'), Jaroslavl', 1906.
5. Kazakevich T. E. 1980 “Ikonostas cerkvi Il'i Proroka v Jaroslavle i ego mastera” (Iconostasis of Church of Prophet Elias and Its Masters), in Pamjatniki russkoj arhitektury i monumental'nogo iskusstva, Moscow, 1980.
6. Komashko N. I. 2003 “Ikonostas sobora Spaso-Evfimieva monastyrja v kontekste hudozhestvennoj zhizni Moskvy tret'ej chetverti XVII veka” (Iconostasis of Cathedral of Spaso-Evfimiev Monastery in Context of Art Life of Moscow of 3rd Quarter of XVII Century), in Spaso-Evfimiev monastyr' v istorii i kul'ture Rossii (k 650-letiju osnovanija monastyrja), Vladimir, Suzdal', 2003.
7. Orlova M. A. Ornament v monumental'noj zhivopisi Drevnej Rusi. Konec XIII — nachalo XVI veka (Ornament in Monumental Painting of Old Rus’. End of XIII — Begin of XVI Century), Moscow, 2004, vol. 1–2.
8. Selezneva I. A. Zolotaja i Serebrjanaja palaty. Kremlevskie dvorcovye masterskie XVII veka (Golden and Silver Chambers. Kremlin Palace Workshops of XVII Century), Moscow, 2001.
9. Troickij V. I. Slovar' moskovskih masterov zolotogo, serebrjanogo i almaznogo dela XVII veka (Dictionary of Moscow Masters of Gold, Silver and Diamond Business of XVII Century), Leningrad, 1928–1930, vol. 1–2.
10. Filatov V. V. Restavracija proizvedenij russkoj ikonopisi (Restauration of Works of Russian Icon Painting), Moscow, 2007.
11. Flerov A. V. Hudozhestvennaja obrabotka metallov (Art Working of Metals), Moscow, 1986.

Igoshev Valerii

Posternak Kirill

Non-orthodox borrowings in Russian church interiors in the epoch of Peter the Great

Posternak Kirill (2015) "Non-orthodox borrowings in Russian church interiors in the epoch of Peter the Great ", Vestnik Pravoslavnogo Sviato-Tikhonovskogo gumanitarnogo universiteta. Seriia V : Voprosi istorii i teorii hristianskogo iskusstva, 2015, Iss. 19, pp. 102-119 (in Russian).

DOI of the paper: 10.15382/sturV201519.102-119
The article is focused on an under-studied phenomenon of European church architectural elements adoption in the interiors of Russian churches. The article provides a detailed coverage of such new features as holed iconostases with wide Royal Gates, intricately carved altars, baldachins, pulpits. These architectural elements were fi rst introduced in the interior of the Transfiguration Cathedral in Narva (converted from Lutheran church, consecrated as an Orthodox church in 1708) and were widespread in Russian church architecture of the 18th century, but by the middle of the 19th century have fallen into disuse.
Peter the Great, church architecture, baroque, iconostasis, altar, baldachin, pulpit.

1. Aplaksin A. P. Sampsonovskij sobor v S.-Peterburge. 1709–1909 (Sampsonovskij Cathedral in Saint-Petersburg. 1709–1909), Saint-Petersburg, 1909.
2. Aronova A. A. 2002 “Russkaja arhitekturnaja praktika nachala XVIII veka v svete gollandskih vpechatlenij Velikogo posol'stva” (Russian Architecture Practice of Begin of XVIII Century in Light of Holland Impressions of Great Embassy), in Iskusstvoznanie, 2002, vol. 1, pp. 356–367.
3. Bespjatyh Ju. N. Peterburg Petra I v inostrannyh opisanijah (Petersburg of Peter I in Foreing Descriptions), Leningrad, 1991.
5. Vertogradskij N. (Kafedral'nyj) Spaso-Preobrazhenija sobor v gor. Narve. 1708–1908 gg. (K 200-letiju ego preobrazovanija v pravoslavnyj russkij hram) (Cathedral of Transfiguration in Narva. 1708–1908 (To 200 Anniversary of Its Transformation to Orthodox Russian Church)), Narva, 1908.
6. Kirikov B. M. 1994 “Proobrazy kompozicii Petropavlovskogo sobora” (Prototype of Composition of Peter and Paul Cathedral), in Kraevedcheskie zapiski. Issledovanija i materialy, Saint-Petersburg, 1994, vol. 2: Petropavlovskij sobor i Velikoknjazheskaja usypal'nica, pp. 13–37.
7. Kirillov V. V. 1994 “Klassicheskie tendencii formoobrazovanija v arhitekture Podmoskov'ja petrovskogo vremeni” (Classical Tendencies of Form Building in Architecture of Moscow Region of Time of Peter I), in Russkij klassicizm vtoroj poloviny XVIII — nachala XIX veka, Moscow, 1994, pp. 15–24.
8. Kochenovskij O. Narva: Gradostroitel'noe razvitie i arhitektura (Narva: Development of City Building and Architecture), Tallin, 1991.
9. Mikishat'ev M. N. 1995 “Kompozicionnye osobennosti i istoricheskoe mesto arhitektury Nikol'skoj cerkvi v Polteve” (Compositional Features and Historical Place of Architecture of St. Nicholas Church in Polteve), in Arhitekturnoe nasledstvo, 1995, vol. 38, pp. 282–290.
10. Mozgovaja E. B. 2003 “Ikonostas” (Iconostasis), in Ikonostas Petropavlovskogo sobora, Saint-Petersburg, 2003, pp. 8–32.
11. Mozgovaja E. B. Tvorchestvo I. P. Zarudnogo. Dis. … kand iskusstvovedenija (Creativity of I. P. Zarudnyj. Dissertation), Leningrad, 1977.
12. Klimov P. (ed.) Religioznyj Peterburg (Religious Saint-Petersburg), Saint-Petersburg, 2004.
13. Slovar' russkogo jazyka XVIII veka (Dictionary of Russian Language of XVIII Century), Saint-Petersburg, 1997, vol. 9: «Iz–Kasta».
14. Smorzhevskih-Smirnova M. Ingermanlandija, Jestljandija i Lifljandija v cerkovnom panegirike Petrovskoj jepohi. Dissertacii po gumanitarnym naukam (Ingermanland, Estland and Lifland in Church Panegyric of Epoch of Peter I. Dissertations for Humanitarian Sciences), Tallinn, 2013.
15. Sobolev N. N. Russkaja narodnaja rez'ba po derevu (Russian Folk Wooden Carving), Leningrad, Moscow, 1934.
16. Jel'kin E. N. 1994 “Ikonostas Petropavlovskogo sobora” (Iconostasis of St. Peter and Paul Cathedral), in Kraevedcheskie zapiski, Saint-Petersburg, 1994, vol. 2, pp. 149–159.
17. Karling S. Narva. Eine baugeschichtliche Untersuchung, Tartu, 1936.

Posternak Kirill

Davidova Mariia

Terminological Meaning of the Notion «Decorative Program» for Orthodox Murals

Davidova Mariia (2015) "Terminological Meaning of the Notion «Decorative Program» for Orthodox Murals ", Vestnik Pravoslavnogo Sviato-Tikhonovskogo gumanitarnogo universiteta. Seriia V : Voprosi istorii i teorii hristianskogo iskusstva, 2015, Iss. 19, pp. 120-129 (in Russian).

DOI of the paper: 10.15382/sturV201519.120-129
The notion of «decorative program» of church painting exists in scientifi c tradition of art study since its very beginning in the 19th century. Notwithstanding this early representation of the notion its terminological aspect has rather obscure character even in modern science. In Russian scientific tradition of the 19th century the term was applied to ensemble of orthodox murals in iconographical works by N. Kondakov and N. Pokrovsky. The most part of their studies concerns sacred images, its composition and symbolism. The term «decorative program» is used to signify some universal principals of the ensemble of monumental painting. The term differs in its meaning in works by Otto Demus, implying the canon of image arrangement in church interior and the iconographical scheme for its separate compartments (cupola, altar). In modern science this notion can not be abridged to its iconographical meaning, but includes different levels of interpretation. The decorative program of church painting implies complete ensemble of traditional images consisting of subordinate parts (schemes). The character of this subordination is determined by hierarchical principle. The arrangement of images in subordinate compartments of the interior depends on a canon, which determines not only the selection of the compositions, but also its internal combination. The whole ensemble is organized by single (main) theological theme, which can be amplified with details, dictated by the type of the commission (burial chapel, memorial edifi ce etc.).
decorative program of orthodox painting, combination of images for the separate compartments of the church interior (scheme), canon for internal arrangement of images in local unions

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Davidova Mariia

Kazantseva Tat'iana

Old Believers’ Work about a Tempo of Znamenny Chant and the Realities of Contemporary Liturgical Practice

Kazantseva Tat'iana (2015) "Old Believers’ Work about a Tempo of Znamenny Chant and the Realities of Contemporary Liturgical Practice ", Vestnik Pravoslavnogo Sviato-Tikhonovskogo gumanitarnogo universiteta. Seriia V : Voprosi istorii i teorii hristianskogo iskusstva, 2015, Iss. 19, pp. 130-144 (in Russian).

DOI of the paper: 10.15382/sturV201519.130-144
The problem of tempo of znamenny chant is one of the least explored topics in Russian musical medieval studies. In this article the characteristic of the main sources of knowledge of the tempo of Old Russian monody (singing practice of modern Old Believers, guidance of the liturgical charter, some positions of the general theory of rhythm and tempo) are presented. It is noted that all of them give only a routh idea about the proper tempo. Further, an Old Believer treatise, which was written specially on this question at the beginning of the 20th century, is analyzed in details. In our opinion its author is the leader of Tula Pomor community D. V. Batov. The author connects the internal feeling of tempo with human physiology (walking at moderate pace) and considers monomeric pulsation as the basis of the temporary organization of znamenny chant. On this basis, he formulates the concept of tempo norm which is 90 steps or beats per minute. In his reasoning he not only repeats the discoveries of unknown to him West European musical theorists of the past, but also anticipates many provisions of the modern theory of rhythm and tempo. Then the theoretical positions of the treatise are extrapolated on the results of study of the tempo of singing of modern Old Believer communities belonging to different denominations. The fact of diff erent interpretations of tempo is established. However the differences don't overstep the bounds determined by physiology of perception of time. In addition, the dependence of the tempo interpretation of the chants on tradition established in this or that group of Old Believers communion can be observed. On the basis of these studies we can conclude that the author of the analyzed treatise relied on the continuing up to the present time practice of Old Believers Pomor communion.
znamenny chant, tempo, quantitative rhythmic system, musical and theoretical handbooks, liturgical singing of Old Believers.

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5. Volkov V. V. Gektografirovannye izdanija 2-j pol. XIX — nach. XX vv. — istochnik izuchenija pravoslavnoj pis'mennosti pozdnego perioda (Hectographical Editions of 2nd Half of XIX — Begin of XX Cent. — Source of Study of Orthodox Literature of Late Period), in http://tver-grant.ru/svg/wordpress/?p=442 (Date: 11.02.2015)).
6. Kazanceva T. G. 2009 “Pevcheskie azbuki iz sobranija Instituta istorii SO RAN (opisanie)” (Song Alphabets from Collections of Historical Institute of SO RAN (Description)), in Arheograficheskie issledovanija otechestvennoj istorii: tekst istochnika v literaturnyh i obshhestvennyh svjazjah (Arheografija i istochnikovedenie Sibiri), Novosibirsk, 2009, vol. 28, pp. 325–353.
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12. Harlap M. G. 1978 “Taktovaja sistema muzykal'noj ritmiki” (Tact System of Musical Rhythmic), in Problemy muzykal'nogo ritma: Sb. st., Moscow, 1978, pp. 48–104.
13. Harlap M. G. Ritm i metr v muzyke ustnoj tradicii (Rhythmus and Meter in Music of Oral Tradition), Moscow, 1986.
14. Hval'kovskij D. V. 1913 “Dionisij Vasil'evich Batov (Biograficheskij ocherk)” (Dionisij Vasil'evich Batov (Biographical Survey)), in Vtoroj Vserossijskij sobor hristianskogo pomorskogo cerkovnogo obshhestva, Moscow, 1913, pp. 167–189.
15. Holopova V. N. Russkaja muzykal'naja ritmika (Russian Musical Rhythmic), Moscow, 1983.
16. Jaksanov V. Z. 1912 “Dva svetil'nika (pamjati D. V. Batova i A. A. Nadezhdina)” (Two Lights (to Memory of D. V. Batov and A. A. Nadezhdin)), in Shhit very, Saratov, 1912, vol. 1, pp. 33–45.

Kazantseva Tat'iana

Kishbali Tamash

«The Verdict of Monuments»: Archibald Sayce and the Beginning of Anatolian Archaeology

Kishbali Tamash (2015) "«The Verdict of Monuments»: Archibald Sayce and the Beginning of Anatolian Archaeology ", Vestnik Pravoslavnogo Sviato-Tikhonovskogo gumanitarnogo universiteta. Seriia V : Voprosi istorii i teorii hristianskogo iskusstva, 2015, Iss. 19, pp. 145-152 (in Russian).

DOI of the paper: 10.15382/sturV201519.145-152
Archibald Henry Sayce (1846–1933) was an outstanding British Assyriologist. This article considers his contribution to the study of the Hittites in the general context of Anatolian archaeology. It is argued that Sayce helped to shape this separate and new archaeological sub-discipline. In the first part of the article, the author presents a short overview of research on the territory of Anatolia in the 18–19th centuries. European travelers and archaeologists studied mostly the graeco-roman heritage of the region, while the earlier cultures remained unknown. The few monuments noted monuments gained new interpretations in the late decades ––of the 19th century. The second part of the article considers Archibald Sayce’s contribution. As a Biblical scholar he was controversial, mostly due to his treatment of the relation between texts and archaeological data. But when he applied the same methodology to the then mostly unknown Hittites, he achieved substantial results and created a new framework for future studies.
Archibald Sayce, Hittites, ancient Anatolia, Anatolian archaeology, history of archaeology, Biblical archaeology.

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Kishbali Tamash

Sadikova Ekaterina

About the emergence of the compendiums of Notes of Russian Orthodox Church singing in the 20th century: Moscow - Berlin

Sadikova Ekaterina (2015) "About the emergence of the compendiums of Notes of Russian Orthodox Church singing in the 20th century: Moscow - Berlin ", Vestnik Pravoslavnogo Sviato-Tikhonovskogo gumanitarnogo universiteta. Seriia V : Voprosi istorii i teorii hristianskogo iskusstva, 2015, Iss. 19, pp. 153-178 (in Russian).

DOI of the paper: 10.15382/sturV201519.153-178
The article examines several compendiums of Notes of the Russian Orthodox Church singing which its author found in two collections: in the archival depository of the church of St. Constantine and Helen in Berlin (Tegel) and in the personal library of E. P. Mashkovich (nun Joanna, died in 2012), a precentor from Moscow. The analysis of the different stamps, seals and marginalia on the printed music impelled the author to investigate the origin of those compendiums. In this way he touches necessarily several aspects from diff erent fields: church-historical and historical-cultural aspects and partly aspects of the local live. Therefore several methods were used to analyse the material, such as historical comparing methods and methods of source studies and textual criticism. The article draws a chronological picture of the Russian emigrants´ life in Berlin from the 1920 until the 1940 and tries to reconstruct as well the history of the Russian parishes in Berlin, which was quite complicated due to the confused situation of the Russian Church in those days. The reconstruction of the historical and cultural background gives the opportunity to follow the possible way of those compendiums of notes until they got into the hands of their last proprietors. This way proofs clearly, how long the compendiums were in use, what witnesses on the other hand, how stable the repertory of church singing was. The analyse of several precentor’s personal notes in one of the Berlin’s compendiums allows to conclude in which way changes were made in the divine service during the period of the first wave of Russian emigration, what furthers the re-establishment of their completeness. The fact, that the author investigating the history of the Berlin’s Church singing-compendiums and the Russian Emigrant’s parishes refers to sources from the library of a precentor from Moscow, imparts the topic of the article a special angle. In this way the article shows the differences and similarities within the one Russian tradition of church singing divided by geographical frontiers. To demonstrate that is the main intention of the article.
Compendiums of Notes of the church singing, libraries of precentors, tradition of church singing, Russian churches in Berlin, the church of Saint Vladimir in Nachodstr. 10, The Resurrection of Christ Orthodox Cathedral on Fehrbelliner Platz, The church i

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3. Golubcov Sergij, protodiakon. 2005 “Protoierej Georgij Jakovlevich Izvekov: zhizn' i sud'ba. 1874–1937” (Archpriest gij Jakovlevich Izvekov: Life and Destiny. 1874–1937), in Trudy Moskovskoj regentsko-pevcheskoj seminarii 2002–2003. Nauka. Istorija. Obrazovanie. Praktika muzykal'nogo oformlenija bogosluzhenija: Sb. statej, vospominanij, arhivnyh dokumentov, Moscow, 2005, pp. 189–206.
4. Zakidal'skij A., protoierej. 1952 “Russkij ugolok na chuzhbine (Kladbishhenskij hram v Tegele)” (Russian Corner Abroad (Cemetery Church in Tegel)), in Golos Pravoslavija, Berlin, 1952, vol. 4, in http://www.stimme-der-orthodoxie.de/russisch/str452kg.htm (Date: 11.02.2015)).
5. Zvereva S. G. 2013 “Russkaja duhovnaja muzyka za predelami SSSR v 1940-e gody: kontury istorii” (Russian Spiritual Music Outside of USSR in 1940-s: Contours of History), in Russkoe zarubezh'e: muzyka i pravoslavie. Mezhdunarodnaja nauchnaja konferencija. Moskva, 17–19 sentjabrja 2008 g., Moscow, 2013, pp. 284–323.
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7. Ledkovskaja M. V. 2013 “Druz'ja i edinomyshlenniki: Gardner, Ledkovskij, Hjoke” (Friends and Associates: Gardner, Ledkovskij, Hjoke), in Russkoe zarubezh'e: muzyka i pravoslavie. Mezhdunarodnaja nauchnaja konferencija. Moskva, 17–19 sentjabrja 2008 g., Moscow, 2013, pp. 517–542.
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Sadikova Ekaterina

Varapaeva Irina

About the liturgical singing of the Moscow Danilov Monastery

Varapaeva Irina (2015) "About the liturgical singing of the Moscow Danilov Monastery ", Vestnik Pravoslavnogo Sviato-Tikhonovskogo gumanitarnogo universiteta. Seriia V : Voprosi istorii i teorii hristianskogo iskusstva, 2015, Iss. 19, pp. 179-186 (in Russian).

DOI of the paper: 10.15382/sturV201519.179-186
This article represents the analysis of church-singing tradition of Moscow Daniel monastery. Basing on wide manuscript material the author gives repertoire-stylistic characteristics of modern monastery singing practice. Special festive services to St. Daniel — Akafist and services connected with celebrating of Daniel’s dates, became the main sources for this research as well as common practice of music outline of God services in monastery choral interpretation. The description of traditional singing «na glas» and «na podoben» can cause special interest. Also here is examined a problem of correlation between composers creative work and church tradition. The author tells about genres of church singing connected with the name of St. Daniel that were used by russian composers. At the end of the article one can find a conclusion about the importance of singing practice of Saint-Daniel monastery for Russian musical culture.
Daniel monastery, church singing, tradition, obihod, canonarh, glas, podoben.

1. Makarov M. I. Sokrovennaja pamjat' dushi (Concealed Memory of Soul), Moscow, 2007.
2. Trubachev S. 2005 “O cerkovnom penii i kolokol'nom zvone moskovskogo Danilova monastyrja” (About Church Singing and Bell Ringing of Moscow Danilov Monastery), in Izbrannoe: stat'i i issledovanija, Moscow, 2005.

Varapaeva Irina