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St. Tikhon’s University Review . Series V: Problems of History and Theory of Christian Art

St. Tikhon’s University Review V :3 (12)

ARTICLES

Tiurina Ol'ga

The closing formulas in the ‘bolshoj raspev’ (‘great chant’)

Tiurina Ol'ga (2013) "The closing formulas in the ‘bolshoj raspev’ (‘great chant’) ", Vestnik Pravoslavnogo Sviato-Tikhonovskogo gumanitarnogo universiteta. Seriia V : Voprosi istorii i teorii hristianskogo iskusstva, 2013, Iss. 12, pp. 7-24 (in Russian).

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The paper is intended to describe the analysis of melodic formularity of the ‘Bolshoj Raspev’ (‘Great chant’), one of the chant styles of the Russian Church. Being a melismatic style based on the long patterns such as fi ty and litsa, the ‘Bolshoj Raspev’ is extraordinarily rich in melodic formulas. The author deals with only a lesser part of these formulas, namely with those melodic idioms closing the chant compositions. Special attention is paid to the three main closing formulas of the ‘Bolshoj Raspev’, the common non-modal melismatic formula ‘tsar-konets’ and the two modal melodic idioms: the closing pattern of the Third Mode and the common fi nal pattern of the Second and the Sixth Modes. These formulas are studied both as for their melodic features and for their graphic form. Numerous examples given in the paper illustrate not only the diff erent modifi cations and peculiarities of the use of the closing formulas of the ‘Bolshoj Raspev’ but also their tainozamknennaya transcription in the early manuscript versions of these chants
ancient Russian Church singing, Znamenny singing tradition, Znamenny raspev, big raspev, melismatically singing styles, melismatically formulas of the Znamenny notation
1. Brazhnikov M. V. Lica i fity znamennogo raspeva (Faces and Fitas of Znamennyj Chant), Leningrad, 1984.
2. Tjurina O. V. Drevnerusskaja melizmatika: bol'shoj rospev: dis. ... kand. Iskusstvovedenija (Old Russian Melizmatic: Great Chant: Dissertation), Moskva, 2010.
3. Tjurina O. V. 2008 “Cikl Stihir Evangel'skih: stilevye redakcii po rukopisjam konca XV — serediny XVII veka”, in Ustnaja i pis'mennaja transmissija cerkovno-pevcheskoj tradicii: Vostok — Rus' — Zapad, Moscow, 2008, pp. 171—176.

Tiurina Ol'ga

Dement'ev Andrei

The system of holidays solemnity degrees in the typikon of Vygo-Leksinsky coenoby

Dement'ev Andrei (2013) "The system of holidays solemnity degrees in the typikon of Vygo-Leksinsky coenoby ", Vestnik Pravoslavnogo Sviato-Tikhonovskogo gumanitarnogo universiteta. Seriia V : Voprosi istorii i teorii hristianskogo iskusstva, 2013, Iss. 12, pp. 25-52 (in Russian).

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The hierarchy inherent to church celebrations, in the ancient Russian worship manifested itself in its separate components, and thus formed an integral holiday order. This side of the ancient perception of the service received its organic embodiment and development in the 18th — fi rst half of the 19th century typikon of Vygo-Leksinsky coastdwellers’ coenoby. In a number of features that defi ne the degree of solemnity of a service, there was included the stylistics of liturgical chants, the types of bell-ringing, the presence or absence of certain sections of worship (the canon during the prayer service before the hours and lite), the degree of participation in the service of all the brotherhood, the use of church ornaments (threaded cloths, candles before icons). As a result, Vygo system of holidays hierarchy proved to be more detailed and fl exible than the similar system fi xed in printed Jerusalem typikon: if Vygo system includes up to 15 diff erent degrees, pre-reform printed typikons include 6 degrees. While maintaining the overall approach that is embedded still in the early monuments of Vygo typikon, in its later editions a further development of the system and holidays complexity took place. The basis for the creation of its own typikon were monastic plain chant books of the 17th century (a special attention is paid to the connection with Solovki Monastery Plain Chant Book) and the full range of early printed service books. However, a signifi cant step forward was their own liturgical activity. Thus, Vygo system instructions on bell-ringing and prayer services, as well as chant instructions (oriented to the specifi c singing tradition that is fi xed in the cycle of Coast-Dwellers’ Old-Believers’ chant books), began to perform quite specifi c function in forming the degree of service festivity and they were directly related to other typikon peculiarities of Divine services
typikon, all-night vigil, monastery plain chant books, cathedral Episcopal service books, holidays solemnity degrees, menologion holidays signs, Vygo-Leksinsky coenoby, plain chant
1. Vanjukov Sergij, svjashh. 2011 “Znaki prazdnikov mesjaceslova i sostav sluzhb sutochnogo kruga pri nih” (Feast Marks of Calendar and System of Services of Day Cycle by Them), in Moskovskie Eparhial'nye Vedomosti, 2011, vol. 11–12.
2. Danilenko B., svjashh. Okozritel'nyj ustav v istorii bogosluzhenija Russkoj Cerkvi (Okozritel’nyj Regulations in History of Service of Russian Church), München, 1990.
3. Golubcov A. P. Sobornye Chinovniki i osobennosti sluzhby po nim (Cathedral Chinovniks and Features of Their Services), Moscow, 1907.
4. Golubcov A. P. Chinovniki moskovskogo Uspenskogo sobora i vyhody patriarha Nikona: s predisloviem i ukazatelem (Chinovniks of Moscow Uspenskij Cathedrals and Exits of Patriarch Nikon: with Foreword and Index), Moscow, 1908.
5. Lukashevich A. A. 2009 “Znaki prazdnikov mesjaceslova” (Marks of Calendar Feasts), in Pravoslavnaja jenciklopedija, Moscow, 2009, vol. 20, pp. 268-271.
6. Mansvetov I. Cerkovnyj ustav (Tipik). Ego obrazovanie i sud'ba v grecheskoj i russkoj Cerkvi (Church Regulations. Their Forming and Destiny in Greek and Russian Chirch), Moscow, 1885.
7. Nikol'skij N. K. Kirillo-Belozerskij monastyr' i ego ustrojstvo do vtoroj chetverti XVII veka (1397-1625) (Kirillo-Belozerskij Monastery and Its Structure till the Second Quarter of XVII Century (1397–1625)), Saint-Petersburg, 2006, vol. 2.
8. 1857 “Osvjashhenie Danilovskoj staroobrjadcheskoj chasovni i prinjatie ee v vedenie cerkvi” (Consecrating of Danilovskaja Old Belivers’ Chapel and Its Acceptance in Church), in Oloneckie gubernskie vedomosti, 1857, vol. 21, pp. 113-117.
9. Panchenko F. V. Rukopisnoe nasledie vygovskih masteropevcev: istorija, tradicija, tvorchestvo (Manuscript Heritage of Vygovskie Master Singers: History, Tradition, Creativity), Saint-Petersburg, 2002.
10. Panchenko F. V. 2005 “Pevcheskoe iskusstvo v Vygo-Leksinskom obshhezhitel'stve: Stanovlenie mestnoj tradicii” (Singing Art in Vygo-Leksinskoje Coenobium: Forming of Local Tradition), in Pravoslavnaja jenciklopedija, Moskva, 2005, vol. 10, pp. 61-65.
11. Sokolovskaja M. L. 1992 “Skladyvanie instituta «uchitel'stva» v Vygo-Leksinskom obshhezhitel'stve: «ob ispolnenii kelejnogo pravila» skitskimi starostami” (Forming of “Teaching” Institute in Vygo-Leksinskoje Coenobium: “About Making of Private Order” by Heads of Skit), in Mir staroobrjadchestva, Moscow, Saint-Petersburg, 1992, vol. 1: Lichnost'. Kniga. Tradicija, pp. 28-45.
12. Juhimenko E. M. Literaturnoe nasledie Vygovskogo staroobrjadcheskogo obshhezhitel'stva (Literary Heritage of Vygo-Leksinskoje Coenobium of Old Believers), Moscow, 2008, vol. 1.
13. Juhimenko E. M. 2003 “Novonajdennye sochinenija vygovskih pisatelej” (New Founded Works of Vygovskije Writers), in TORDL, Saint-Petersburg, 2003, vol. 53, pp. 289-417.

Dement'ev Andrei

Zinchenko Viktoriia

Octoēchal thētas in the ukrainian chant tradition in staff-notated heirmologia of the late 16th–18th centuries

Zinchenko Viktoriia (2013) "Octoēchal thētas in the ukrainian chant tradition in staff-notated heirmologia of the late 16th–18th centuries ", Vestnik Pravoslavnogo Sviato-Tikhonovskogo gumanitarnogo universiteta. Seriia V : Voprosi istorii i teorii hristianskogo iskusstva, 2013, Iss. 12, pp. 53-62 (in Russian).

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The research is written to defi ne a set of 53 Octoēchos canticles in the Ukrainian monody tradition including 21 Thētas and Thētas-«litsa». The results of their attribution as well as their mode distribution are represented and specifi ed. Thētas, whicn are common for diff erent modes, are identifi ed; functions of the sign are defi ned. Here is also shown the specifi city of Thētas’ notation in the Ukrainian staff -notated manuscripts and old printed Heirmologia of the late 16th—18th centuries
Thēta, Thēta sign, Thēta melody, Staff -notated Heirmologion, Octoēchos
1. Brazhnikov M. V. Drevnerusskaja teorija muzyki (Old Russian Musical Theory), Leningrad, 1972.
2. Brazhnikov M. V. Lica i fity znamennogo raspeva (Faces and Fitas of Znamennyj Chant), Leningrad, 1984.
3. Voznesenskij I., prot. Cerkovnoe penie pravoslavnoj jugo-zapadnoj Rusi po noto-linejnym irmologam XVII-XVIII vekov. Sostav, svojstva i dostoinstvo napevov, pomeshhennyh v jugo-zapadnyh irmologah (Church Singing of Orthodox South-Western Rus’ according to Note-Linear Hirmologians of XVII-XVIII Centuries. Structure, Features and Worth of Chants, Written in South-Western Hirmologians), Moscow, 1898.
4. Gusejnova Z. M. Fitnik Fedora Krest'janina (Fitnik of Fedor the Peasant), Saint-Petersburg, 2001.
5. Gusejnova Z. M. 2012 “Teorija fitnogo penija v konce XVI veka” (Theory of Fita Singing in End of XVI Century), in Opera Musicologica, 2012, vol. 3, pp. 4-14.
6. Karastojanov B. P. Melodicheskie formuly znamennogo rospeva v fitnike Fedora Krest'janina (Rukopis' 60-h gg. XVII v., RNB. Sobr. Pogodina 1925 g. L. 183-194 ob.) (Melodic Formulae of Znamennyj Chant in Fitnik of Fedor the Peasant (Manuscript of 1640-s Years, RNB. Collection of Pogodin 1925, pp. 183-194r)), Vienna, 2005.
7. Kravchenko S. P. 1983 “Metodika tekstologicheskogo izuchenija melizmaticheskih formul” (Methodic of Textual Study of Melismatic Formulae), in Belonenko A. S. (ed.) Problemy russkoj muzykal'noj tekstologii (po pamjatnikam russkoj horovoj literatury XII-XVIII vekov), Leningrad, 1983, pp. 142-152.
8. Lozovaja I. E. 2009 “Znamennaja notacija” (Znamennaja Notation), in Pravoslavnaja jenciklopedija, Moscow, 2009, vol. 20, pp. 278-285.
9. Shevchuk E. Ju.2011 “Irmologion”, in Pravoslavnaja jenciklopedija, Moscow, 2011, vol. 26, pp. 625­633.
10. Shevchuk E. Ju. 2008 “Kievskaja notacija konca XVI — XVIII vekov v zerkale sovremennyh dannyh” (Kiev Notation of End of XVI — XVIII Centuries in Mirror of Modern Data), in Artamonova Ju. V., Zabolotnaja N. V. (eds.) Zvukovoe prostranstvo pravoslavnoj kul'tury: sb. trudov RAM im. Gnesinyh, Moscow, 2008, vol. 173, pp. 111-151.
11. Jasinovs'kij Ju. P. Ukrashs'i ta behorus'i notolinijni irmoloi 16-18 stoli: katalog i kodikologichno-paleografichne doslshhzhennja (Ukrainian and Byelorussian Notolinear Hiromologions of 16–17 Centuries: Catalogue and Codic-Paleographical Studies), L'viv, 1996.
12. Jasinovs’kyj J., Lutzka C. Das Lemberger Irmologion, Koln, Weimar, Wien, 2008.

Zinchenko Viktoriia

Kovrova Irina

On the problem of the organization of a liturgy’s singing range (on a material of partesny manuscripts of the XVIII century)

Kovrova Irina (2013) "On the problem of the organization of a liturgy’s singing range (on a material of partesny manuscripts of the XVIII century) ", Vestnik Pravoslavnogo Sviato-Tikhonovskogo gumanitarnogo universiteta. Seriia V : Voprosi istorii i teorii hristianskogo iskusstva, 2013, Iss. 12, pp. 53-66 (in Russian).

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This article presents the results of the conducted research of manuscript sources, which contain partesny harmonizations of the liturgical chants, on the subject of the organization of a singing range of a liturgy. In the study, the conclusions are drawn about varying manifestations of a multimelodiousness and about a diff erent order of presentation of the liturgical chants in the manuscripts of the Synodal singing collection of the State Historical Museum of the late XVII — the 50th years of the XVIII centuries. The source study allowed to formulate on a material of many examples the basic ways of organization of the manuscripts’ liturgical parts used in the historical period under consideration. According to them the author revealed fi ve types of the organization of a singing material in hand-written sources. The evident scheme explaining the origins of each of fi ve types of creation of a liturgy’s singing range is provided. The scheme also contains information on compliance of the studied hand-written sources and their partitions to one of the allocated types. In end of article an attempt to designate the temporal boundaries of existence of each of fi ve types of constructing of a partesny liturgy’s singing range is carried out and the conclusion is drawn on the need for further study of periodization and geography of an existence of the revealed types.
partesny harmonizations, a constant polyphony, liturgical chants, the Synodal singing collection, manuscripts, singing versions, liturgical series, multimelo-diousness
1. Buckaja S. B. Problemy partesnogo mnogogolosija v Rossii: Po pamjatnikam vtoroj poloviny XVII — XVIII v.: dis. ... kand. iskusstvovedenija (Problems of Partes Polyphony in Russia: according to Memorials of 2nd Half of XVII–XVIII Cent.: Dissertation), Moscow, 1991.
2. Gerasimova-Persidskaja N. A. Russkaja muzyka XVII veka — vstrecha dvuh jepoh (Russian Music of XVII Century — Connection of Two Epochs), Moscow, 1994.
3. Gorodeckaja (Gur'eva) N. V. 2000 “O razlichnyh podhodah k garmonizacii Heruvimskoj pesni v partesnyh kompozicijah serediny XVII — nachala XVIII vv. Na materiale rukopisi GIM, Sin. pevch. sobr. 657” (About Different Approaches to Harmonization of Cherubim Song in Partes Compositions of Middle of XVII — Begin of XVIII Cent. On Material of Manuscript of GIM, Sin. pevch. sobr. 65), in Lozovaja I. (ed.) Gimnologija: materialy Mezhdunarodnoj nauchnoj konferencii «Pamjati protoiereja Dimitrija Razumovskogo» (k 130-letiju Moskovskoj konservatorii) 3—8 sentjabrja 1996. Uchenye zapiski nauchnogo centra russkoj cerkovnoj muzyki imeni protoiereja Dimitrija Razumovskogo, Moscow, 2000, vol. 1/2, pp. 416—437.
4. Gur'eva N. V. Sistema osmoglasija v russkoj liturgii konca XVII — nachala XVIII vv.: dis. ... kand. iskusstvovedenija (System of Octoechos in Russian Liturgy of End of XVII — Begin of XVIII Cent.: Dissertation), Moscow, 2000.
5. Gusejnova Z. M. 2003 “Pevcheskie cikly Obihoda” (Singing Cycles of Obihod), in Gimnologija, Moskva, 2003, vol. 4, pp. 215-236.
6. Krasovickaja M. S. Liturgika (Liturgic), Moscow, 2000.
7. Pereleshina V. Ju. Drevnerusskie pesnopenija knigi Obihod v liturgicheskom kontekste: tipologija i struktura (na materiale rukopisej Antonievo-Sijskogo monastyrja): dis. ... kand. iskusstvovedenija (Old Russian Songs of Obihod Book in Liturgical Context: Typology and Structure (on Material of Manuscripts of Antonievo-Sijskij Monastery)), Moscow, 2008.
8. Plotnikova N. Ju. Partesnye garmonizacii znamennogo i grecheskogo rospevov (na materiale stihiry «Sovet prevechnyj» iz Sluzhby Blagoveshhenija Presvjatoj Bogorodice) (Partes Harmonizations of Znamennyj and Greek Chants (on Material of Sticheron “Pre-Time Council” from Service of Annunciation)), Moscow, 2005.
9. Plotnikova N. Ju. 2008 “Partesnye rukopisi XVIII v. iz Sinodal'nogo pevcheskogo sobranija” (Partes Manuscripts of XVIII Cent. from Synodal Songs Collection), in Vestnik Pravoslavnogo Svjato-Tihonovskogo gumanitarnogo universiteta. Ser. V: Muzykal'noe iskusstvo hristianskogo mira, 2008, vol. 1/3, pp. 97-120.
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Kovrova Irina

Kochneva Elena

On the history of the portrait of eugeny (bolkhovitinov, 1767–1837), metropolitan of kiev and galich from the collecection of the Russian Academy

Kochneva Elena (2013) "On the history of the portrait of eugeny (bolkhovitinov, 1767–1837), metropolitan of kiev and galich from the collecection of the Russian Academy ", Vestnik Pravoslavnogo Sviato-Tikhonovskogo gumanitarnogo universiteta. Seriia V : Voprosi istorii i teorii hristianskogo iskusstva, 2013, Iss. 12, pp. 91-115 (in Russian).

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The article presents some new fasts concerning the history of portrait of the outstanding Russian church hierarch of the fi rst third of the 19-th century Metropolitan of Kiev and Galich Eugeny (Bolkhovitinov, 1767–1837) from the collection of the Pushkin House Literary Museum. According to the museum documents, the portrait is a posthumous copy, painted by the artist Kalashnikov in 1837, commissioned the Imperial Russian Academy from the “original kept was in the archpriests’ house in Kiev”. The study was mostly based on the documents from the Russian Academy archive (the Archive of the Russian Academy of Sciences, St. Petersburg Branch) concerning the creation of the Metropolitan’s portrait, on some rare graphic materials from the collection one of the fi rst researchers of the Russian Academy portrait gallery — B. L. Modzalevsky (1874–1928), which are now kept in the Literary Museum. On the basis of the comparative analysis of Bolkhovitinov’s portraits from the collections of the National Kiev-Pechersk Historical and Cultural Preserve (Kiev, Ukraine), the State Historical Museum (Moscow) and the Pushkin House Literary Museum and on the study of a number of current and pre-revolution sources and publications it has been found that the copy for the Russian Academy was painted by the painter and lithographer A. A. Kalashnikov (1795–1852) from the portrait, which goes back to the lost original by the Academician of Painting I. V. Bugaevskij -Blagodarny (1780–1860) from the collection of the Voronezh Province Museum.
Metropolitan of Kiev and Galich Eugeny Bolkhovitinov, an academician of painting I. V. Bugaevskij -Blagodarny, painter and lithographer A. A. Kalashnikov, the Institute of Russian Literature RAS, the Pushk
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27. Sobko N. P. Slovar' russkih hudozhnikov, zodchih, risoval'shhikov, graverov, litografov, medal'erov, mozaichistov, ikonopiscev, litejshhikov, chekanshhikov, skanshhikov i proch. S drevnejshih vremen do nashih dnej (XI-XIX vv.) (Dictionary of Russian Artists, Buiders etc. From Ancient Times to Our Days (XI–XIX Cent.)), Saint-Petersburg, 1893, vol. 1, pp. 262-263.
28. Fajnshtejn M. Sh. «I slavu Francii v Rossii prevzojti»: Rossijskaja Akademija i razvitie kul'tury i gumanitarnyh nauk (“And to Overbid the Glory of France in Russia”: Russian Academy and Development of Culture and Humanitarian Sciences), Saint-Petersburg, 2002.

Kochneva Elena

Artemova Evgeniia

Sacred music works by G. Ja. Izvekov

Artemova Evgeniia (2013) "Sacred music works by G. Ja. Izvekov ", Vestnik Pravoslavnogo Sviato-Tikhonovskogo gumanitarnogo universiteta. Seriia V : Voprosi istorii i teorii hristianskogo iskusstva, 2013, Iss. 12, pp. 116-123 (in Russian).

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In the article the sacred musical creation of the composer G. Ja. Izvekov is reviewed for the fi rst time. Devoted servant of the Russian Orthodox Church, Fr. George Izvekov left many sacred songs on the liturgical texts and religious chants. They have been used a variety of means of choral and harmonic expression, synthesized from the experience of Moscow and St. Petersburg school of sacred music of the New direction. In an eff ort to update the musical language of church music, the composer has created an original style, combining the techniques of a folk-song and church traditions with modern musical means. The author analyzes his sacred music as in the context of composer’s creative activity so in keeping with general problems of the New direction in the Russian sacred music at the turn of XIX–XX centuries.
Izvekov, sacred music, style, composition, the New direction, the musical language
1. Gardner I. A. Bogosluzhebnoe penie Russkoj pravoslavnoj cerkvi (Liturgical Singing of Russian Orthodox Church), Sergiev Posad, 1998, vol. 2.
2. Golubcov S. Cerkovnyj kompozitor G. Ja. Izvekov (Church Composer G. Ja. Izvekov), in www.rusk.ru/st.php?idar=800960 (Date: 13.05.2013).
3. Guljanickaja N. S. Pojetika muzykal'noj kompozicii: teoreticheskie aspekty russkoj duhovnoj muzyki XX veka (Poetics of Musical Composition: Theoretical Aspects of Russian Spiritual Music of XX Century), Moscow, 2002.
4. Zvereva S. G. A. Kastal'skij. Idei. Tvorchestvo. Sud'ba (Kastal'skij. Ideas. Creativity. Destiny), Moscow, 1999.
5. “Izvekov G. Ja”, in www.drevo-info.ru/articles/12988.html (Date: 12.04.2013).
6. Rahmanova M. P. 1997 “Russkaja duhovnaja muzyka v XX veke“ (Russian Spiritual Music in XX Century), in Aranovskij M. G. (ed.) Russkaja muzyka i XX vek, Moscow, 1997, pp. 371—406.

Artemova Evgeniia

Vaneian Stepan, archpriest

Gombrich and Wind: rituals and misteries in art criticism iconology as didactics and poetics

Vaneian Stepan (2013) "Gombrich and Wind: rituals and misteries in art criticism iconology as didactics and poetics ", Vestnik Pravoslavnogo Sviato-Tikhonovskogo gumanitarnogo universiteta. Seriia V : Voprosi istorii i teorii hristianskogo iskusstva, 2013, Iss. 12, pp. 124-143 (in Russian).

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Iconology as practice of interpretation can be infl uenced by images in return. This happens when material (a work of art) has a pronounced rhetoric program, i. e. is particurlarly spectator-oriented, so the spectator is seen as target of educating or enlightening. This is typical for Renaissance artistic practice. Here one can see the main aspect of infl uencing the spectator — archaic sacredness, modernized with the help of Christian reiterated interpretation. E. Gombrich fi nds the way of neutralizing this Прот. Стефан Ванеян. Гомбрих и Винд: ритуалы и мистерии в науке об искусстве... infl uence on the spectator, stressing in the scientifi c text as it is possibilities of critical but fully conventional building of interpretation. This may resemble some sacral rituals though rather scientifi c as they impose restrictions on fantasy and put the content of interpretation within the limits of verifi able communication. E. Wind, in turn, criticises G’s methodological program, stressing that any contact with archaic sacredness, even though in it’s visual reproduction, is a revival of the mysterial essence of this kind of images.The only solution is discovering in a scientifi c text its poetic functions that support the activity and, as a result, independence of the spectator-interpreter.
iconology, hermeneutics, problem of verifi cation, Renaissance, neopla- tonism, archaic sacredness, science as communication and ritual, mysterial character of visual contacts with an
1. Wind E. Pagan Mysteries in the Renaissance, New Haven, 1958.

Vaneian Stepan, archpriest