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St. Tikhon’s University Review . Series V: Problems of History and Theory of Christian Art

St. Tikhon’s University Review V :30

ARTICLES

Chairovich Ivitza, deacon

Anglo-Saxon art. Chronology, Influences, Perspectives

Chairovich Ivitza (2018) "Anglo-Saxon art. Chronology, Influences, Perspectives ", Vestnik Pravoslavnogo Sviato-Tikhonovskogo gumanitarnogo universiteta. Seriia V : Voprosi istorii i teorii hristianskogo iskusstva, 2018, Iss. 30, pp. 9-32 (in Russian).

DOI of the paper: 10.15382/sturV201830.9-32
This article deals with styles of Anglo-Saxon art arranged in chronological order with particular reference to Celtic and Scandinavian infl uences. A specifi c chapter of the article discusses three perspectives of Anglo-Saxon art, namely the mutual relationship between Anglo-Saxon, Celtic and Scandinavian art; the Holy Scriptures in Anglo- Saxon art; the new approach to icons and iconology in the West (Carolingian Empire) in the Middle Ages. These perspectives clearly show how close the cultural and social connections between the peoples of the British Isles and the northern parts of Western Europe were in the Middle Ages; they also demonstrate what these connections have given to subsequent generations, namely the Holy Scripture as an artistic and religious ideal (sola Scriptura), reinterpretation of the icon in the result of the statutes of the Seventh Ecumenical Council, the Council in Frankfurt (794) and Libra Carolini, i.e. the artistic and theological look at the veneration of icons of the later times that originated in Aachen and spread in the Protestant milieu of Western Europe. There are three elements observed in the art of Anglo-Saxon England which were always present in artwork and artefacts, namely colour, correlation of abstract ornamentation and fi gurative painting, continuous reception of infl uences from Ireland, Scandinavia, continental Europe. The main hypothesis of the article is that the Anglo-Saxon approach to art with all its influences and periodical syncretism at the turn of the fi rst and second millenia AD has conditioned changes in the expression of the religious feeling of Germanic peoples of continental Western Europe. In the context of the Carolingian Renaissance (which included particular attention to the Holy Scriptures and Charles’ the Great ideas on iconoclasm), this conditioned the fact that in Protestant circles of the later period the Holy Scriptures are taken as the sole creed in the church, whereas icons are not venerated in the same fashion as in the Orthodox and Roman Catholic churches.
Anglo-Saxon art, Northumbria, Wessex, Kent, Sutton Hoo, Insular style, Irish- Saxon style, Anglo-Scandinavian style, Insular art, Lindisfarn Gospel, Codex Amiatinus, Opus Anglicanum
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  10. Bruce-Mitford Rupert, “The Sutton Hoo Ship-Burial: Some Foreign Connections”, in: Anglie Sassoni al di qua e al di là del mare: 26 aprile-lo maggio 1984. Settimane di studio del Centro italiano di studi sull'alto Medioevo, 32, 1986, 171–210.
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  64. Wood Ian N. “Ripon, Francia and the Franks Casket in the Early Middle Ages”, in: Northern History, 26, 1990, 1–19.

Chairovich Ivitza, deacon


Academic Degree: Doctor of Theology;
Place of work: Belgrade University; 11B Mije Kovačevića Str., Belgrade 11060, Serbia;
Post: Associate Professor;
ORCID: 0000-0003-4677-7897;
Email: icairovic@bfspc.bg.ac.rs.
Tupitsina Ksenia

On time and style of mosaics in the dome of Hagia Sophia in Thessaloniki

Tupitsina Ksenia (2018) "On time and style of mosaics in the dome of Hagia Sophia in Thessaloniki ", Vestnik Pravoslavnogo Sviato-Tikhonovskogo gumanitarnogo universiteta. Seriia V : Voprosi istorii i teorii hristianskogo iskusstva, 2018, Iss. 30, pp. 33-51 (in Russian).

DOI of the paper: 10.15382/sturV201830.33-51
Until recently, the mosaics of the dome of Hagia Sophia in Thessaloniki was dated by an inscription located in the ornamental garland running along the edge of the dome. However, the study of K. Theocharidou has shown that the inscription is a remnant of the preceding decoration and cannot serve as a basis for dating the composition of the Ascension. In this article, I try to look again at the development of Byzantine painting in the post-iconoclastic period. Drawing on the stylistic analys, I off er new dating for the mosaics. At the end of the 9th — beginning of the 10th centuries, in the art of the Macedonian Renaissance it is possible to distinguish a number of monuments in which ascetic intonations begin to gradually invade the system of classical painting. These are the mosaics in the lunette over the royal entrance in the narthex of Hagia Sophia in Constantinople (886‒912), mosaics of the northern tympanum of Hagia Sophia in Constantinople (after 878), mosaics in the rooms above the southwest vestibule (880‒890s), a mosaic portrait of Emperor Alexander in the northern gallery (912), as well as a number of manuscripts, namely the Christian Topography by Cosmas Indicopleustes (Vat. gr., 699), Homilies of Gregory of Nazianzus (Paris, BNF. gr. 510), Book of Job (Venice, Biblioteca Nazionale Marciana, Codex Gr. 538), Gospel № 5 of the Skete of St. Andrew, Athos, now kept in Princeton (Garrett 6). The style of the dome mosaics logically fi ts into the range of these monuments and, alongside them, looks like a work of art in which this process reaches its fullest development. In Thessaloniki’s mosaics the ascetic tendencies already begin to dominate, whereas the classical intonations become noticeable only at a close look. The nearest analogies that allow us to specify the dating of the mosaics of the dome are found in the wallpaintings of the Cappadocia dated 913‒920, namely in the church of Ayvali Kilise, the church of the Holy Apostles in Sinasos and in the Old Church of Tokali. All this gives us the opportunity to speak of the fi rst attempt in the post-iconoclastic art of the Byzantine Empire at the end of the 9th — beginning of the 10th century to depart from the classical traditions in the direction of the ascetic, which in the future will most clearly be embodied in the art of the fi rst half of the 11th century.
mosaics of the dome of St. Sophia in Thessaloniki, Ascension, Byzantine wallpainting at the end of the 9th — beginning of the 10th centuries, Byzantine manuscripts of the late 9th — early 10th centuries, wall-painting in Cappadocia in the beginning of the 10th century, painting of the post-iconoclastic period, art of Macedonian period
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Tupitsina Ksenia


Student status: Graduate student;
Academic Rank: Member of the Russian Academy of Sciences;
Place of study: Moscow State Stroganov Academy of Design and Applied Art; 9 Volokolamskoye shosse, Moscow 125080, Russian Federation;
ORCID: 0000-0002-2850-4652;
Email: ksuxa02@mail.ru.
Poludneva Evgeniya

On the analysis of depictions of secular byzantine costume on miniatures of Codex Gertrudianus

Poludneva Evgeniya (2018) "On the analysis of depictions of secular byzantine costume on miniatures of Codex Gertrudianus ", Vestnik Pravoslavnogo Sviato-Tikhonovskogo gumanitarnogo universiteta. Seriia V : Voprosi istorii i teorii hristianskogo iskusstva, 2018, Iss. 30, pp. 52-65 (in Russian).

DOI of the paper: 10.15382/sturV201830.52-65
This article deals with the analysis of the representations of secular Byzantine costume in the miniatures of the illuminated manuscript of the second half of the 11th century Codex Gertrudianus. Codex miniatures are an important part of art legacy of medieval Rus’; however, the questions of dating, authorship and iconographic programme of the miniatures still remain controversial. This paper looks at some issues of the iconographic programme and authorship of the miniatures being based on the method of analysis of secular attire. The novelty of the research is conditioned by the lack of studies dealing with secular attire depicted in the miniatures. In particular, the analysis of the Byzantine secular attire allows us to argue in favour of the version according to which Gertrude’s patron St. Helene is depicted in the miniature “Gertrude is praying to Apostle Peter”. The paper off ers proofs that the artist was perfectly familiar with the Byzantine iconographic canon of depicting Byzantine imperial costume. At the same time, the paper points to the archaic, non-typical and misinterpreted elements of the Byzantine attire of the second half of the 11th century which show that the artist was probably not familiar with some peculiarities of the Byzantine imperial costume. The author of the paper proposes that the artist who painted the miniatures was not a Romaios but studied from Byzantine masters.
Codex Gertrudianus, Gertrude’s Prayer Book, Old Russian book miniature, Byzantine costume, historical costume, costume of 11th century, pictorial sources
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Poludneva Evgeniya


Student status: Graduate student;
Place of study: Far Eastern Federal University; 8 Sukhanova Str., Vladivostok 690090, Russian Federation;
ORCID: 0000-0002-0523-8937;
Email: e.poludneva@mail.ru.
Hieromonk Prokhor (Andreichuk I.)

Iconography of the preserved altar mural of the Annunciation church (16th century) of Pskovo-Pechersky monastery

Andreichuk Igor' (2018) "Iconography of the preserved altar mural of the Annunciation church (16th century) of Pskovo-Pechersky monastery ", Vestnik Pravoslavnogo Sviato-Tikhonovskogo gumanitarnogo universiteta. Seriia V : Voprosi istorii i teorii hristianskogo iskusstva, 2018, Iss. 30, pp. 66-77 (in Russian).

DOI of the paper: 10.15382/sturV201830.66-77
This article studies the newly revealed monument of medieval monumental painting, namely the murals of the Annunciation Church (16th century) of the Holy Dormition Pskovo-Pechersky monastery. The author of the article introduces new data revealed during the restoration process. The article presents the results obtained in the course of the author’s independent work on the study of the preserved murals. It identifi es the technique of the painting as well as the degree of preservation of the paint layer. The author focuses on the harmonious unity of the decoration of the church and its architecture, establishes the time of painting the frescoes and tentatively identifi es the circle of persons involved in their creation. Special attention is paid to the study and analysis of compositions preserved in the altar part of the church, their iconographic peculiarities being revealed as well. The author primarily employs descriptive and iconographic methods of research; theological method is used in describing the dogmatic and symbolic programme of the mural. The author comes to the conclusion that the complex of plots seen in the altar part of the church generally follows the established traditional system of decoration and is designed to disclose the theme of God’s incarnation and the ideas of liturgical sacrifi ce. Finally, the author points to the necessity of an integrated approach towards a deeper study and comprehension of the general decorative system of the church, which would make possible to trace and identify a certain relationship between the frescoes of the Annunciation Church and preserved monumental art complexes of the mid-16th century.
altar mural, archangels, Annunciation Church, dogmatic programme, Old Russian frescoes, Eucharist, iconography, wall-painting, Communion of the Apostles, Pskovo- Pechersky monastery, Pskov architectural tradition, restoration, Holy Trinity
  1. Bobrov Iu. G., Osnovy ikonografi i pamiatnikov khristianskogo iskusstva, Moscow, 2010.
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  14. Shchennikova L. A., “Pochitanie Sviatoi Troitsy v XVI stoletii. Svoeobrazie izobrazhenii v Blagoveshchenskom sobore Moskovskogo Kremlia i v khramakh drugikh russkikh gorodov”, in: Moskovskii Kreml' XVI stoletiia. Drevnie sviatyni i istoricheskie pamyatniki, Moscow, 2, 2014, 56–109.
  15. Shchennikova L. A., Sviataia Troitsa, St. Petersburg, 2014.

Hieromonk Prokhor (Andreichuk I.)


Place of work: Pskov State University; 2 Lenina Sq., Pskov 180000, Russian Federation;
Post: Senior lecturer;
ORCID: 0000-0001-5477-5782;
Email: id.prohor@mail.ru.
Zyuzeva Svetlana

Typology of icons in covers of the second half of thе 16th — early 17th centuries with holy figures on frames

Zyuzeva Svetlana (2018) "Typology of icons in covers of the second half of the 16th — early 17th centuries with holy figures on frames ", Vestnik Pravoslavnogo Sviato-Tikhonovskogo gumanitarnogo universiteta. Seriia V : Voprosi istorii i teorii hristianskogo iskusstva, 2018, Iss. 30, pp. 78-95 (in Russian).

DOI of the paper: 10.15382/sturV201830.78-95
This article analyses the typology of icons in covers of the second half of the 16th — beginning of the 17th centuries with holy fi gures on frames. Precious covers were made in Kremlin workshops, many of them were commissioned by tsar. The work with archival materials has allowed us to identify a signifi cant group of non-preserved icons in precious covers. As a result of the study of both preserved and non-preserved artwork, it was established that frames with fi gures adorned icons from iconostases, frames on venerated icons that were of particular signifi cance in the sacred space of the church and were located in various places of the church. There were also numerous icons of “pyadnitsa” type (Russ. пядницы) that had various purposes: analogion icons, memorial icons, vow icons. These were mainly tzar’s donations and donations from rich ktetors close to Moscow court that were given to Kremlin churches and Russian monasteries. Figures on the frames of icons that were created in various jewellery techniques (embossing, engraving, niello) visualise and make more precise the intention of the donator. Identifying a signifi cant range of this kind of artwork has allowed us to describe the occurrence of this specifi c phenomenon of late-medieval court culture.
icon covers, 16th century, Kremlin workshops, tzar’s donation, icons, Moscow court, jewellery
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Zyuzeva Svetlana


Place of work: Kremlin Museum; Kremlin, Moscow 103132, Russian Federation;
Post: Research Fellow;
ORCID: 0000-0002-6499-0811;
Email: zuzeva@yandex.ru.
Kondrashkova Lada

Singing manuscripts of mixed style of the late 17th — early 18th centuries: the problem of interaction between partsong and non-linear polyphony at the turn of the epochs

Kondrashkova Lada (2018) "Singing manuscripts of mixed style of the late 17th — early 18th centuries: the problem of interaction between partsong and non-linear polyphony at the turn of the epochs ", Vestnik Pravoslavnogo Sviato-Tikhonovskogo gumanitarnogo universiteta. Seriia V : Voprosi istorii i teorii hristianskogo iskusstva, 2018, Iss. 30, pp. 96-122 (in Russian).

DOI of the paper: 10.15382/sturV201830.96-122
This article examines the issues of sources, notation and history of Russian ecclesiastical singing of the last quarter of the 17th — fi rst half of the 18th centuries. It introduces the concept of polyphonic manuscripts of mixed stylistics and distinguishes two types of them, namely hook and note manuscripts. The fi rst part of the article describes twelve hook manuscripts, the second part describes eight note manuscripts. All sources are kept in Moscow archives. The article draws the attention of researchers to original documents, in which the most interesting pages of Russian music are imprinted in the period of the transition to the New Time.
church singing, polyphony, triplets, demestvo, singing culture, partsong, notation, handwritten sources, chants, history of Russian music
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  5. Gtrasimova I. V., “Novye podkhody v rekonstruktzii biografi i kompozitorov 17 veka: Nikolay Diletzky I Evstafi y Manevsky”, in: Muzykovedenie, 8, 2009, 47–56.
  6. Kondrashkova L. V., Rannee russkoe strochnoe mnogogolosie, Moscow, 2013.
  7. Kondrashkova L. V., “Partesnoe i bezlineinoe mnogogolosie: problem vzaimodeistviya”, in: Russkoe muzykal’noe barokko: tendentzii i perspektivy issledovaniya, 1, 2, 2016, 65–78.
  8. Kondrashkova L. V., “Ponyatie «prikladnykh golosov» i problema stilisticheskoi neodnorodnosti v partesnykh rukopisyakh kontza 17 – nachala 18 veka”, in: Muzykal’naya arkheografiya, Moscow, 2017, 134–161.
  9. Kondrashkova K. V., “O zapisi partesnykh kontzertov kryukami. Nakhodki v mnogofgolosnykh rukopisyakh smeshannoi stilistiki”, in: Drevnerusskoe pesnopene. Puti vo vremeni, 6, St. Petersburg, 2017, 147–153.
  10. Kondrashkova L. V., “Trekhgolosnaya sluzhba Novoletiyu arkhiereiskim chinom”, in: Muzykal’naya pis’mennost’ khristianskogo mira: Knigi. Notatziya. Problemy interpretatzii, Moscow, 2017, 386–411.
  11. Kondrashkova L. V., “Tipy kadansov v demestvennom mnogogolosii”, in: Uchenye zapiski Rossiiskoi Akademii muzyki im.Gnesinykh, 4 (23), 2017, 15–26.
  12. Plotnikova N. Yu., Polifoniya v russkom bezlineinom i partesnom mnogogolosii 17–18 vekov, Moscow, 2015.
  13. Plotnikova N. Yu., Russkoe partesnoe mnogogolosie kontza 17 – serediny 18 veka: istochnikovedenie, istoriya, teoriya, Moscow, 2015.
  14. Uspensky N. D., Drevnerusskoe pevcheskoe iskusstvo, Moscow, 1971.

Kondrashkova Lada


Academic Degree: Candidate of Sciences* in Art Criticism;
Academic Rank: Senior Research Fellow;
Place of work: The Central Andrey Rublev Museum of Ancient Russian Culture and Art; 10 Andron’yevskaya Sq., Moscow 107120, Russian Federation;
Post: Research Fellow;
ORCID: 0000-0002-7488-7295;
Email: ladakondrashkova@mail.ru.

*According to the International Standard Classification of Education (ISCED) 2011, the degree of Candidate of Sciences (Cand.Sc.) belongs to ISCED level 8 — "doctoral or equivalent", together with PhD, DPhil, D.Lit, D.Sc, LL.D, Doctorate or similar.

Kharitonov Аrthur

Architecture of “russian village” at Paris exhibition of 1900 and its role in the history of “neo-russian style”

Kharitonov Аrthur (2018) "Architecture of “russian village” at Paris exhibition of 1900 and its role in the history of “neo-russian style” ", Vestnik Pravoslavnogo Sviato-Tikhonovskogo gumanitarnogo universiteta. Seriia V : Voprosi istorii i teorii hristianskogo iskusstva, 2018, Iss. 30, pp. 123-137 (in Russian).

DOI of the paper: 10.15382/sturV201830.123-137
The problem of the “national style” that existed in Russia since the times of Peter the Great has undergone many modifi cations in the course of time. This issue became particularly acute in the latter half of the 19th century when the origins of the “Russian” in domestic architecture were found either in Byzantine and Old Russian architecture, or in the architecture of the 17th century, or in the architecture of the Russian North. Attention to the latter tradition emerged at the very end of the century and was linked to the birth of the “Neo-Russian” style. Interestingly, its manifestation took place in Paris exhibition of 1900 in the form of the Division of Russian Crafts, which was erected by members of Abramtsevo circle and represented a number of interlinked wooden structures. This article analyses these structures and identifi es the ways of their emergence in Paris exhibition; this analysis requires a detailed discussion of trends in the Russian art of the turn of the 19th century. Special attention is paid to the work of Abramtsevo circle, in the artistic milieu of which the “Neo-Russian” style originated. The article also discusses the work of Abramtsevo artists in the fi eld of scenography, as the artistic solutions they found when working on theatrical scenery was to aff ect their future architectural projects.
pavillion, Neo-Russian style, Art Nouveau, Exposition Universelle, Korovin, Bondarenko, Abramtsevo circle, Shekhtel
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  19. Narvojt K. Yu., “Rossiya na Vsemirnoi vystavke 1900 g.”, in: Russkoe iskusstvo, 2005, № 2, 16–19.
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  22. Niva, № 29, 1900.
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  24. Nikitin Yu. A., Vystavochnaya arkhitektura Rossii 19 – nachala 20 veka, St Petersburg, 2014.
  25. Paston E., Abramtsevo. Iskusstvo Bcreccdj i zhizn, Moscow, 2003.
  26. Polenova N. V., Abramtsevo. Vospominaniya. Musei-zapovednik “Abramtsevo”, 2013.
  27. Pechenkin I. E., Russkaya arkhitektura v kul’turnom kontekste 1890–1910 gg. Ocherki russkoi kul’tury. Konetz 19 – nachalo 20 veka, 3, Moscow, 2016.
  28. Uchastie Rossii v Parizhskoi Vsemirnoi vystavke 1900. Otchet general’nogo komissara Russkogo otdela, St Petersburg, 1901.

Kharitonov Аrthur


Student status: Graduate student;
Place of study: Lomonosov Moscow State University; 1 Leninskie Gory, Moscow 119991, Russian Federation;
ORCID: 0000-0002-5556-428X;
Email: artur.haritonov.1991@mail.ru.
Abdokov Yuri

Metaphoric and symbolic ontology of orchestra and symphonic metaphysics of Boris Tchaikovsky

Abdokov Yuri (2018) "Metaphoric and symbolic ontology of orchestra and symphonic metaphysics of Boris Tchaikovsky ", Vestnik Pravoslavnogo Sviato-Tikhonovskogo gumanitarnogo universiteta. Seriia V : Voprosi istorii i teorii hristianskogo iskusstva, 2018, Iss. 30, pp. 138-152 (in Russian).

DOI of the paper: 10.15382/sturV201830.138-152
This article analyses the phenomenon of the orchestral rendering of the visible and the audible worlds. It discusses musical and poetical attributes of “orchestral natural philosophy” characteristic of many prominent masters of national schools and aesthetic trends. It also defi nes religious etymology of orchestral painting of Boris Tchaikovsky (1925‒1996), one of Russia’s greatest composers of the 20th century. B. Tchaikovsky’s symphonic aesthetics is viewed as a religious and metaphysical concept aimed at uniting man with the world of sublime values.
orchestra, timbral palette, “orchestral pantheism”, religious etymology, symphonic metaphysics, Boris Tchaikovsky
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  3. Zhakote F., Peizazhi s propavshimi fi gurami (perevod s frantsuzskogo A. Kuznetsovoi), St. Petersburg, 2005.
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  10. Khoking S., Mlodinov L., Vysshii zamysel (perevod s angliiskogo M. Kononova pod red. G. Burby), St. Petersburg, 2013.
  11. Choran (Sioran) E., Priznaniia i prokliatiia (perevod s frantsuzskogo O. Akimovoi), St. Petersburg, 2004.

Abdokov Yuri


Academic Degree: Candidate of Sciences* in Art Criticism;
Academic Rank: Professor;
Place of work: Tchaikovsky Moscow State Conservatory; 13/6 Bolshaya Nikitskaya Street Moscow, 125009, Russian Federation;
Post: professor;
ORCID: 0000-0001-9033-3279;
Email: abdokovgeorg@mail.ru.

*According to the International Standard Classification of Education (ISCED) 2011, the degree of Candidate of Sciences (Cand.Sc.) belongs to ISCED level 8 — "doctoral or equivalent", together with PhD, DPhil, D.Lit, D.Sc, LL.D, Doctorate or similar.