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St. Tikhon’s University Review . Series V: Problems of History and Theory of Christian Art

St. Tikhon’s University Review V :39

ARTICLES

Chemezova Kseniia

Octagon in St. Olav Cathedral in Trondheim: history of its construction and architectural features

Chemezova Kseniia (2020) "Octagon in St. Olav Cathedral in Trondheim: history of its construction and architectural features ", Vestnik Pravoslavnogo Sviato-Tikhonovskogo gumanitarnogo universiteta. Seriia V : Voprosi istorii i teorii hristianskogo iskusstva, 2020, Iss. 39, pp. 11-27 (in Russian).

DOI of the paper: 10.15382/sturV202039.11-27
The article presents an integrated study of the octagon in St. Olav Cathedral in Trondheim, Norway. The local study reconstructs the stages of the construction of the Eastern section of the Norwegian cathedral. The octagon is viewed in the context of architecture of the East-Christian world, of continental and insular Europe. The article studies parallels of a broad geographical and chronological scale, due to which it is possible to reveal a certain infl uence of the Church of the Holy Sepulchre in Jerusalem on the layout of the eastern section of the Nowegian cathedral. In connection with this, the article studies the specifi city of understanding of the “copy” in mediaeval achitecture. The study has also shown that the construction of the eastern section of the cathedral was carried out with participation of English masters. This is evidenced, firstly, by historical prerequisites (invitation of English bishops to Norway, upbringing of Norwegian kings at the English court, etc.) and, secondly, by the similarity between the structural and decorative details of the eastern section of the Norwegian cathedral and the choir of St. Hugh Cathedral in Lincoln. Following the study of mediaeval numerology and historical and cultural context, the article has revealed possible semantics of the octagon in Trondheim and has discovered one more architectural parallel that infl uenced the creation of the octagon, i.e. Charlemagne’s Palace Chapel at Aachen. The turn to the Holy Sepulchre and, probably, to Aachen Chapel can be explained by the desire of the commissioning archbishops to embody the idea of creation of Heavenly Jerusalem. The layout, unique in the Norwegian architecture, was continued in the architecture of local parishes and monasteries. The article also studies the main churches of the 12th — 13th centuries which are somehow related to St. Olav Cathedral.
Norwegian art, Trondheim Cathedral, octagon, mediaeval architecture, Norwegian cathedral, Nidarosdomen, St. Olav
  1. Dobiash-Rozhdestvenskaia O. (1924) Zapadnye palomnichestva v srednie veka [Western Pilgrimages in the Middle Ages]. St. Petersburg (in Russian).
  2. Fischer G. (1965) Domkirken i Trondheim. Kirkebygget i Middelalderen, I. Oslo.
  3. Harrison S. (2012) “The Cathedral of Archbishop Eystein: Sequences, Style, Dating and Infl uences”, in K. Bjørlykke (ed.) Eystein Erlendsson: Erkebiskop, Politiker og Kirkebygger. Trondheim. P. 97–111.
  4. Kaptikov A. (2012) Romanskaya arkhitektura Italii. Lombardiia — Emiliia — Roman’ia — Toskana — Apuliia — Sitsiliia [Romanesque architecture of Italy. Lombardy — Emilia — Romagna — Tuscany — Apulia — Sicily]. Ekaterinburg (in Russian)
  5. Kleinbauer Е. (1965) “Charlemagne’s Palace Chapel at Aachen and its Copies”. Gesta, 4, p. 2–11.
  6. Krautheimer R. (1942) “Introduction to an «Iconography of Mediaeval Architecture»”. Journal of the Warburg and Courtauld Institutes, 5, p. 1–33.
  7. Le Goff J. (2005) La Civilisation de L’Occident Mé dié val. Ekaterinburg (Russian translation)
  8. Lidov A. (2014) Ikona. Mir sviatykh obrazov v Vizantii i Drevnei Rusi [Icon. The world of holy images in Byzantium and Ancient Rus’]. Moscow (in Russian)
  9. Lunde Ø. (1987) “Norges Klostre i Middelalderen”. Fortidsminneforeningens Årbok, 141, p. 85–120.
  10. Svanidze A. (2014) Vikingi — liudi sagi: zhizn' i nravy [Vikings — people of sagas: Life and morals]. Moscow (in Russian).

Chemezova Kseniia


Place of work: State Museum of the History of St. Petersburg; 3 Petropavlovskaya krepost’, St. Petersburg;
Post: research scientist of the Exhibition Department;
ORCID: 0000-0001-5417-1487;
Email: ksuisk@mail.ru.
Kazaryan Gevorg

Miniatures with images of St. Abgar, St. Trdat, and St. Gregory the enlightener from armenian manuscript № 10 from John Ryland’s library in Manchester

Kazaryan Gevorg (2020) "Miniatures with images of St. Abgar, St. Trdat, and St. Gregory the enlightener from armenian manuscript № 10 from John Ryland’s library in Manchester ", Vestnik Pravoslavnogo Sviato-Tikhonovskogo gumanitarnogo universiteta. Seriia V : Voprosi istorii i teorii hristianskogo iskusstva, 2020, Iss. 39, pp. 28-41 (in Russian).

DOI of the paper: 10.15382/sturV202039.28-41
The Armenian MS № 10 in John Ryland’s Library (Four Gospels), is written and illustrated in 1313 by priest Hovhannes in the village of Chikbak of the province of Tayk. Besides the eleven illustrations by priest Hovhannes, there are also nine miniatures, which diff er from the miniatures of Hovhannes by the “Byzantine” style and inscriptions in Greek and Georgian. Among those there are two specifi c miniatures with the Armenian kings Abgar and Trdat, as well as with St. Gregory the Enlightener. The comprehensive study of the colophons of the MS and the style of its miniatu allow us to conclude that: 1) The MS of Priest Hovhannes belongs to the tradition of the Armenian Apostolic Church, while the nine miniatures were added later; 2) Those nine miniatures diff ering from the miniatures of 1313, as well as from each other, were probably designed by two or more masters in a scriptorium of the province of Upper Armenia in the second half of the 14th century; 3) Afterwards, the Gospel of Chikbak was captured by infi dels and was bought by the peasants of the village of Vihik in Tayk. This time, the nine miniatures were inscribed in Georgian, removing the original initials in Greek and probably in Armenian; 4) The miniatures with the Saints that are not characteristic of the Armenian Apostolic tradition, the availability of Greek initials and the Armenian motifs reflected in St. Abgar’s, St. Trdat’s and St. Gregory’s miniatures, can evidence that the nine miniatures of the “Byzantine” group belong to the art of the Orthodox Armenians (so-called “Chalcedonian Armenians”).
Armenian miniature, iconography, King Abgar, King Trdat, Gregory the Enlightener, Tayk, Upper Armenia, Armenian Apostolic Church, Orthodox Armenians
  1. Akopov A. (2018) “T’orťowmi gavaṙi hay bnakčowťyownă 1830-1878 ťvakannerin” [The Armenian population of Tortum region in 1830‒1878]. Gitakan ašxatowťyownner HA GAA Širaki hayagitakan hetazotowťyunneri kentroni [Scientific works of Shirak Centre for Armenological Studies of the National Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Armenia], vol. XXI, p. 96‒106.
  2. Armianskaia miniatiura. Sobranie Matenadarana (2014) [Armenian miniature. The Collection of Matenadaran]. Yerevan (in Russian).
  3. Atmatzidis Kh., Avgaros, Megali Orthodoxi Khristianiki Enkuklopedeia (The Great Orthodox Christian Encyclopedy), v. 1, pp. 14–15.
  4. Budur N. (2002) “Istoriia kostiuma” [The history of costume]. Moscow (in Russian).
  5. Grigor Tat’ewaci, Dzmeṙan hator, K. Polis, 1740 (veratpeal i tparani s. Yakobeanc, Erowsaghem, 1998.
  6. Grigorean G.-M., cayragowyn vardapet, Hay-k’ałkedonakanneri hetk’er dzeragrac’ mej// Handes Amsorya. 1960. № 10–12. Col. 505–510.
  7. Hakobyan Z., Garibian N., Asryan A. (eds) (2019) Historical Tayk’. History, Culture, Confession. Collected Papers. Holy Echmiadzin.
  8. Kazarian V., Manukian S. (1991) Matenadaran, v. 1. Armianskaia rukopisnaia kniga VI–XIV vv. [Matenadaran, v. 1. The Armenian manuscripts in the 6th — 14th centuries]. Moscow (in Russian).
  9. Kazarean G. (2018) “Kozma kronavori “Senaxaṙă” (1203 t’.)” [Monk Cosma’s Synaxarion (1203)]. Handes Amsorya, 1–12. P. 401‒438.
  10. Korkhazian E. (2016) Miniatiura Vysokoi Armenii (Bardrzr Hayk’), XI‒XIV vv. [The Miniature of Upper Armenia (Bardzr Hayk’), XI‒XIV cc.]. Yerevan (in Russian).
  11. Lidov A. (2014) The Wall Paintings of Akhtala Monastery. History, iconography, masters. Moscow, 2014 (in Russian).
  12. Marr N. (1996) “Ob armianskoi illiustrovannoi rukopisi iz khalkedonitskoi sredy” [An Armenian illustrated manuscript from the Chalcedonian milieu], in P. Muradian (ed.) Marr N. Ia. Kavkazskii kul'turnyi mir i Armeniia [The Caucasian cultural world and Armenia], p. 302‒306 (in Russian).
  13. Mertsalova M. (1993) Kostium raznykh vremen i narodov [The costume of various times and peoples], vol. 1. Moscow (in Russian).
  14. Mesherskaia E., Panchenko K. “Avgar'”, in Pravoslavnaia Entsiklopedia [The Orthodox Encyclopaedia], vol. 1, p. 88‒90 (in Russian).
  15. Sarkisian G., Arevshatian S. (eds) Movses Khorenatsi. Istoriia Armenii [History of Armenia]. Yerevan (in Russian).
  16. Mutsopulos N., Dimitrokallis G. (2001) I latreia tou Agiou Grigoriou tis Megalis Armenias stin Ellada [The cult of St. Gregory of Greater Armenia in Greece]. Athens.
  17. Nersessian V. (2012) A Catalogue of the Armenian Manuscripts in the British Library Acquired Since the Year 1913 and of Collections in Other Libraries in the United Kingdom. Vol. 1. The British Library. London.
  18. Nersessian V. (2001) The Treasures from the Ark. 1700 Years of Armenian Christian Art. London.
  19. Saminskii A. (1988) “Neizvestnye konstantinopol'skie miniatiury nachala komninovskoi epokhi” [Unknown miniatures from Constantinople from the early Komnenos’ period]. Muzei, 9, p. 175‒197 (in Russian).
  20. Talbot Rice D. (1961) “The illuminations of Armenian manuscript 10 in the John Ryland’s Library”. Bulletin of the John Rylands Library, 43 (2), p. 452‒458.
  21. Tchobanian A. (1929) La Roseraie d’Arménie. T. 3. Paris.
  22. Žamakarguťiwn Hayastaneayc’ Surb Ekełec’woy yorowm parownakin Sałmos Dawťi, Žamagirk’ Ateni ew Tonac’oyc’, Vałaršapat, i tparani Sb. Ejmiacni, 1999 (The Services of Holy Armenian Church, including the Psalms of David, the Great Horologion and the Menologion), Vagharsapat, typ. of Holy Ecmiadzin, 1999).
  23. Rice David Talbot, John Rylands gradarani hayeren tiw 10 dzeragrin zardankarneră, ťargm. Dr. Mesrop cayraguyn vardapet G. Grigorian (The Miniatures of Armenian Manuscript № 10 of John Ryland’s Library, transl. by Dr Mesrop supreme vardapet) // Handes Amsorya. 1968. № 10–12. col. 471-486.
  24. Vailhé S. Erzerum (Theodosiopolis) // The Catholic Encyclopedia, vol. 5. P. 1366.

Kazaryan Gevorg


Academic Degree: Master of Ttheology;
Place of work: National and Kapodistrian University of Athens; Greece, Athens 15772, Panepistimiopoli, Ano Ilisia;
ORCID: 0000-0001-5141-0374;
Email: dngevorg@gmail.com.
Tyurina Olga

Sticheiron for the Nativity of Theotokos ‘’Неплоды безчадена Анна’’ (church slav. “Infertile childless Anna”) in old russian and byzantine singing traditions. Evolution of a poly-modal hymn

Tyurina Olga (2020) "Sticheiron for the Nativity of Theotokos ‘’Neplodi bezchadena Anna’’ (church slav. “Infertile childless Anna”) in old russian and byzantine singing traditions. Evolution of a poly-modal hymn ", Vestnik Pravoslavnogo Sviato-Tikhonovskogo gumanitarnogo universiteta. Seriia V : Voprosi istorii i teorii hristianskogo iskusstva, 2020, Iss. 39, pp. 42-62 (in Russian).

DOI of the paper: 10.15382/sturV202039.42-62
The paper deals with a phenomenon of modulation, very common in the Byzantine church singing tradition, which was inherited into the Old Russian singing tradition as well, especially in the early period of its evolution. Introduction of melodic formulae from a non-related mode was marked in the manuscripts with special signs called “martyrias” (literally, “the testimonies”). In the Old Russian singing manuscripts, numerous examples of poly-modal hymns are found throughout the span of several centuries. Some of them went out of singing practice in the course of time, whereas others survived and were frequently copied in the late manuscripts dated to the 17th — 18th centuries. The paper describes and analyses one of the such hymns, i.e. Sticheiron for the Nativity of Theotokos Неплоды безчадена Анна (Church Slavonic “Infertile childless Anna”). Two melodic versions of this hymn are examined, namely the Old Russian “stolpovaya” version (MSs of the late 15th — 18th centuries) and media-Byzantine version as it is presented in the Sticherarium Ambrosianum (1341). The author analyses their melodic features, formulae and modal composition. Some significant similarities are discovered, e.g. the fact that the modal composition of both versions includes modulation from the principal 4th mode to the 5th (1st plagios) mode. Such similarities are striking in terms of infl uence of the Byzantine singing tradition on Znamenny chant (main singing style in Old Russia) and in terms of the interaction between the two church singing cultures. The article contains a number of illustrations.
Russian mediaeval chant, Byzantine mediaeval chant, singing manuscripts, “stolpovoy” chant, Znamenny notation, media-Byzantine notation, melodic formulae, mode, modulation, poly-modal hymn
  1. Grigor'ev E. (2001) Posobie po izucheniiu tserkovnago peniia i chteniia [Manual in church singing and reading]. Riga (in Russian).
  2. Karastoianov B. (2001) “Stikhira Borisu i Glebu “Plot'skouiu bogatiashcha…” kak vydaiushchiisia obrazets drevnerusskogo pevcheskogo iskusstva” [Sticheiron to Boris and Gleb “Plot'skouiu bogatiashcha…” as a remarkable specimen of Old Russian church singing tradition]. Muzykal'naia kul'tura Srednevekov'ia, 2, p. 12–14 (in Russian).
  3. Liubchenko E. (2018) “Mnogoglasniki v Stikhirare “D'iach'e oko” iz sobraniia D.V. Razumovskogo (RGB. F. 379. №-63-66)” [Poly-modal hymns in the Sticherarium “D'iach'e oko” from Razumovsky fund (RGB. F. 379. № 63‒66)], in XVIII Ezhegodnaia bogoslovskaia konferentsiia Pravoslavnogo Sviato-Tikhonovskogo gumanitarnogo universiteta: Materialy [Proceedings of the 18th annual theological conference of St. Tikhon’s Orthodox University]. Moscow. P. 342–351 (in Russian).
  4. Liubchenko E. (2018) “Pesnopeniia-dvoeglasniki stikhiraria “D'yach'e oko” iz sobraniia D. V. Razumovskogo” [Two-modal hymns in the Sticherarium “D'iach'e oko” from Razumovsky fund]. Bogosluzhebnye praktiki i kul'tovye iskusstva v sovremennom mire [Liturgical practices and sacred arts in the modern world], 3/2, p. 639–651 (in Russian).
  5. Seriogina N. (1991) “Neizvestnaya stikhira na osviashchenie khrama Georgiia v Kieve po spiskam XII v.” [An unknown hymn to the consecration of Kiev St. George church in the 12th century MSs]. Muzykal'naia kul'tura Srednevekov'ia [Mediaeval music culture], vol. 2, p. 14–17 (in Russian).
  6. Shchepkina N. (2018) “Mnogoglasniki v grecheskikh i russkikh notirovannykh Stihirariakh XII– XIII vekov (na materiale dvunadesiatykh bogorodichnykh prazdnikov)” [Poly-modal hymns in the 12th — 13th centuries Greek and Russian notated Sticheraria (based on the hymns to Theotokos)], in Sbornik materialov XVIII Sviato-Troitskikh ezhegodnykh mezhdunarodnykh akademicheskikh chtenii v Sankt-Peterburge 25–28 maia 2018 g. [Proceedings of the 18th Holy Trinity annual international academic readings in St. Petersburg, May 25‒28, 2018]. St. Petersburg. P. 293–305 (in Russian).
  7. Zakhar'ina N. (2002) “Evoliutsiia kompozitsii drevnerusskikh pesnopenii-osmoglasnikov znamennogo rospeva v XII‒XVII vv.” [Old-Russian octo-modal hymns of 12th — 17th centuries: Evolution of their composition], in Pevcheskoe nasledie Drevnei Rusi (istoriia, teoriia, estetika) [Singing legacy of Old Russia: history, theory, aesthetics]. St. Petersburg. P. 185–205 (in Russian).

Tyurina Olga


Academic Degree: Candidate of Sciences* in Art Criticism;
Place of work: Moscow Tchaikovsky Conservatory; 13/6 Bol’shaia Nikitskaia Str., Moscow 125009, Russian Federation;
Post: Senior Researcher;
ORCID: 0000-0002-6662-7530;
Email: tiurinao@mail.ru.

*According to the International Standard Classification of Education (ISCED) 2011, the degree of Candidate of Sciences (Cand.Sc.) belongs to ISCED level 8 — "doctoral or equivalent", together with PhD, DPhil, D.Lit, D.Sc, LL.D, Doctorate or similar.

Zyuzeva Svetlana

Two decorated Tzar’s icons of St. Nicholas of the 16th century

Zyuzeva Svetlana (2020) "Two decorated Tzar’s icons of St. Nicholas of the 16th century ", Vestnik Pravoslavnogo Sviato-Tikhonovskogo gumanitarnogo universiteta. Seriia V : Voprosi istorii i teorii hristianskogo iskusstva, 2020, Iss. 39, pp. 63-75 (in Russian).

DOI of the paper: 10.15382/sturV202039.63-75
The article studies two Tzar’s revetments on the venerated icons of St. Nicholas. One of them is the lost revetment of the ancient icon “Nikola Velikoretskiy”, brought in 1555 from Vyatka to the Dormition Cathedral of Moscow Kremlin. By the order of Tzar Ivan Vasilyevich, the icon was renewed and decorated with a toreutic riza and a cover with niello plaques. We suppose that the set of the plaques (among which are images of Moscow metropolitans Alexey, Peter, Iona, St. Alexander Svirskiy) is connected with text of the narrative about the icon “Nikola Velikoretskiy” and that the creation of the toreutic decoration could be connected with work of European masters at the Tzar’s court. The article also analyses the programme of the plaques placed on the case of the icon “St. Nicholas”, the prayer icon of Evdokia Bogdanovna Saburova, the fi rst wife of the tzar’s son Ivan Ivanovich, tonsured at Pokrovskiy Monastery of Suzdal after 1572. On the narrow margins of the frame, there are plaques with the image of Deisis, the great teachers of the church and Russian saints, as well as the heavenly patrons of the commissioner and the dynasty of Rurik and Godunov. We suppose that the toreutic icon case was supplemented with plaques with similar-named saints of the two tzars’ dynasties after Boris Godunov’s enthronement in 1598.
icons of St, Nicholas, workshops of Kremlin, art of jewellery, culture of tzar’s court, toreutics, European masters
  1. Batalov A. (2014) “Evropeiskie arkhitektory i voennye spetsialisty na sluzhbe Ivana IV v svete pis'mennykh istochnikov: Eshche raz ob istorii Gansa Shlitte” [European architects and military specialists in John’s IV service in the light of literary sources: Once again on the story of Hans Schlitte]. Materialy i issledovaniia. Federal'noe uchrezhdenie kul'tury “Moskovskii Kreml'”. P. 8–32 (in Russian).
  2. Bobrovnitskaia I., Martynova M. (2018) “Regalii rossiiskikh gosudarei i drugie atributy velikokniazheskogo i tsarskogo sana XIV–XVII vekov: Katalog sobraniia” [Insignia of Russian rulers and other attributes of the court of Great Princes and Tzar of the 14th — 17th centuries: Catalogue of the collection]. Moscow (in Russian).
  3. Bobrovnitskaia I., Tsitsinova O. (eds) (2015) Boris Godunov: Ot slugi do gosudaria Vseia Rusi [Boris Godunov: From a servant to a ruler of all Rus’]. Moscow (in Russian).
  4. Bykova Z. (2003) “Chudotvornaia ikona Bogomateri «Umilenie Korsunskaia» iz Spaso- Preobrazhenskogo sobora Spaso-Evfi mieva monastyria v Suzdale” [Miracle-working icon of Theotokos «Umilenie Korsunskaia» from Spaso-Preobrazhenskiy cathedral of Spaso-Evfi miev monastery in Suzdal]. Iskusstvo khristianskogo mira, 7, p. 136–154 (in Russian).
  5. Kloss B. (2001) Izbrannye trudy [Selected works], vol. 2. Moscow (in Russian).
  6. Katkova S., Komashko N. (eds) Kostromskaia ikona XIII–XIX vekov [Icons of the 13th — 19th centuries from Kostroma]. Moscow (in Russian).
  7. Martynova M. (1999) “Oklad ikony «Bogomater' Smolenskaia» i chernevaia graviura XVI veka” [Revetment of the icon “Theotokos of Smolensk” and niello engraving of the 16th century], in Blagoveshchenskii sobor Moskovskogo Kremlia: Materialy i issledovaniia [Annunciation Cathedral of Moscow Kremlin: Materials and studies]. Moscow. P. 318–335 (in Russian).
  8. Makhan'ko M. (2011) “«Vologodskii izvod» ikony «Nikola Velikoretskii». O raznykh redaktsiiakh zhitiinogo varianta chudotvornogo obraza” [“Vologodskii izvod” of the icon “Nikola Velikoretskii”. On various redactions of the Vita’s variant of the miracleworking icon]. Dobryi kormchii. Pochitanie sviatitelia Nikolaia v khristianskom mire [The kind helmsman. Veneration of St. Nicholas in the Christian world]. Moscow. P. 464–483 (in Russian).
  9. Makhan'ko M. (2015) Pochitanie i sobiranie drevnikh ikon v istorii i kul'ture Moskovskoi Rusi XVI veka [Veneration and gathering of ancient icons in the history and culture of Muscovian Rus’ of the 16th century]. Moscow (in Russian).
  10. Nikolaeva T. (1977) “Dekorativno-prikladnoe iskusstvo” [Decorative and applied art], in Ocherki russkoi kul'tury XVI v. [Essays on Russian culture of the 16th century], part 2. Moscow. P. 352–391 (in Russian).
  11. Riznitsa Sviato-Troitskoi Sergievoi Lavry: 700-letiiu rozhdestva prepodobnogo Sergiia posviashchaetsia (2014) [Sacristy of St. Sergiy Holy Trinity Lavra. The 700th anniversary of St. Sergiy], vol. 1. Sviato-Troitskaia Sergieva Lavra (in Russian).
  12. Samoilov T. (ed.) (2007) Vera i Vlast'. Epokha Ivana Groznogo [Faith and power: John’s the Terrible period]. Moscow (in Russian).
  13. Spirina L. (1998) Sviatye kniaz'ia Boris i Gleb na proizvedeniiakh zolotogo i serebrianogo dela XVI– XVII vv. iz sobraniia Sergievo-Posadskogo muzeia-zapovednika [Saints Boris and Gleb in works of art of gold and silver from the collection of the Museum-Preserve of Sergiev Posad], in Kul'tura slavian i Rus' [Culture of Slavs and Rus’]. Moscow. P. 429–452 (in Russian).
  14. Sterligova I. (2014) “Vvedenie k chasti vtoroi «Sviatyni gosudarstvennoi kazny i riznits kremlevskikh khramov»” [Introduction to Part 2 “Holy objects of the state treasury and sacristies of the cathedrals of the Kremlin], in S. Beliaev, I. Vorotnikova (eds) Moskovskii Kreml' XVI stoletiia. Drevnie sviatyni i istoricheskie pamiatniki [Moscow Kremlin of the 16th century. Holy objects and historical monuments], book 2. Moscow. P. 282–297 (in Russian).
  15. Sterligova I. (2011) “Dragotsennye ikony sviatitelia Nikolaia v Drevnei Rusi” [Precious revetments of icons of St. Nicholas in Ancient Rus’], in Dobryi kormchii. Pochitanie sviatitelia Nikolaia v khristianskom mire [The kind helmsman. Veneration of St. Nicholas in the Christian world]. Moscow. P. 382‒408 (in Russian).
  16. Tolstaia T. (ed.) (2016) Ikony Uspenskogo sobora Moskovskogo Kremlia. Vtoraia pol. XV–XVI vek: Katalog [Icons of the Dormition Cathedral of Moscow Kremlin. Second half of the 15th — 16th centuries: Cataloque]. Moscow (in Russian).
  17. Vorontsova L. (2010) “Oklad na ikonu «Prepodobnyi Sergii Radonezhskii» iz sobraniia Sergievo- Posadskogo muzeia” [Framing for the icon “St. Sergiy of Radonezh” from collection of museum of Sergiev Posad], in Troitse-Sergieva lavra v istorii, kul'ture i dukhovnoi zhizni Rossii: Materialy VI Mezhdunarodnoi konferentsii. 23–25 sentiabria 2010 [Holy Trinity Lavra in the history, culture and spiritual life of Russia. Materials of the 6th international conference. 23‒25 September, 2010]. Sergiev Posad. P. 289–309 (in Russian).
  18. Zabelin I. (2003) “Domashnii byt russkogo naroda v XVI‒XVII st. III: Domashnii byt russkikh tsarei i tsarits v XVI i XVII st.: Materialy” [Household routines of the Russian people in the 16th — 17th centuries. III: Household routines of Russian tzar’s and tzarin’s of the 16th and 17th centuries]. Moscow (in Russian).
  19. Ziuzeva S. (2016) “Zolotoi oklad ikony «Troitsa» kontsa XVI veka: Istoriia sozdaniia. Ikonograficheskie i stilisticheskie osobennosti litsevykh izobrazhenii” [Gold revetment of the icon “Trinity” of the late 16th century: History of making. Iconographic and stylistic features of the face images]. Materialy i issledovaniia. Federal'noe uchrezhdenie kul'tury “Moskovskii Kreml'”, 27, p. 64–80.
  20. Ziuzeva S. (2019) “Serebrianaia ikona «Blagoveshchenie» XVI v. Rabota zapadnogo mastera v Moskve” [Silver icon “Annunciation” of the 16th century. Work of the European master in Moscow]. Vestnik PSTGU. Ser. V: Voprosy istorii i teorii khristianskogo iskusstva. 34, p. 37–48 (in Russian).

Zyuzeva Svetlana


Place of work: Kremlin Museum; Kremlin, Moscow 103132, Russian Federation;
Post: Research Fellow;
ORCID: 0000-0002-6499-0811;
Email: zuzeva@yandex.ru.
Armeeva Ludmila

Copies of covered icons of St. Sergiy of Radonezh made in I. M. Malyshev’s workshop from collection of museum-preserve of Sergiev Posad

Armeeva Ludmila (2020) "Copies of covered icons of St. Sergiy of Radonezh made in I. M. Malyshev’s workshop from collection of museum-preserve of Sergiev Posad ", Vestnik Pravoslavnogo Sviato-Tikhonovskogo gumanitarnogo universiteta. Seriia V : Voprosi istorii i teorii hristianskogo iskusstva, 2020, Iss. 39, pp. 85-98 (in Russian).

DOI of the paper: 10.15382/sturV202039.85-98
This article analyses available publications on the full-height icon of St. Sergiy of Radonezh with a precious revetment that served as a lock of the Saint’s reliquary since 1585. This icon is venerated at the Holy Trinity Lavra. The article describes and makes public copies of this icon discovered in 2018‒2019 in churches and museums of Russia, Lithuania, Latvia, Montenegro. The pious tradition of using boards of decrepit coffi ns of saints to make icons, crosses and panhagias has existed in the Russian Orthodox Church since old times. The article shows that the sepulchral icon by the reliquary of St. Sergiy was replaced several times during the 400 years. Each time, the old board was used for icons, but the icon that is under the revetment now is not the lock of the reliquary as was believed in the 19th century. The board is younger than the revetment by approximately 250 years. However, there is a stable tradition in the Lavra’s iconpainting workshop to make copies of this icon. The precious revetment was imitated in the copies by means of leucas carving. In the copies, parts of the relics or part of the coffin of the Saint were placed. They were in demand everywhere and were greatly venerated.
Holy Trinity Lavra, Museum-Preserve of Sergiev Posad, sepulchral icon, St. Sergiy of Radonezh, I. M. Malyshev, Hieromonk Simeon (Smirnov), icon-painting workshop, carved gilded background
  1. Golubinskii E. (2007) Prepodobnyi Sergii Radonezhskii i sozdannaia im Troitskaia Lavra [St. Sergiy of Radonezh and his Holy Trinity Lavra]. St Petersburg (in Russian).
  2. Igoshev V. (2016) “Serebrianaia raka prepodobnogo Sergiia Radonezhskogo 1555–1558 gg. i analogichnye sarkofagi XVI–XVII vv. raboty tsarskikh masterov” [Silver reliquary of St. Sergiy of Radonezh of 1555‒1558 and similar sarcophagi of the 16th — 17th centuries made by Tzar’s masters], in Troitse-Sergieva lavra v istorii, kul'ture i dukhovnoi zhizni Rossii: Materialy IX Mezhdunarodnoi konferentsii. 16–17 oktiabria 2014 g. [Holy Trinity Lavra in the history, culture and spiritual life of Russia. Materials of the 9th international conference. 16‒17 October, 2014]. Sergiev Posad. P. 324–339 (in Russian).
  3. Khart D. (2010) Krasota beskonechnogo: Estetika khristianskoi istiny [The beauty of the unlimited: Aesthetics of the Christian truth]. Moscow (in Russian). Podpisnye i datirovannye proizvedeniia tserkovnogo iskusstva: Katalog vystavki v Kirillo-Belozerskom muzee-zapovednike 25 iiunia — 15 avgusta 2016 (2017) [Signed and dated works of church art: Catalogue of exhibition held at Kirillo-Belozerskiy Museum-Preserve, 25 June — 15 August, 2916]. Kirillov (in Russian).
  4. Vorontsova L. (2010) “Oklad na ikonu «Prepodobnyi Sergii Radonezhskii» iz sobraniia Sergievo-Posadskogo muzeia” [Framing for the icon “St. Sergiy of Radonezh” from collection of museum of Sergiev Posad], in Troitse-Sergieva lavra v istorii, kul'ture i dukhovnoi zhizni Rossii: Materialy VI Mezhdunarodnoi konferentsii. 23–25 sentiabria 2010 [Holy Trinity Lavra in the history, culture and spiritual life of Russia. Materials of the 6th international conference. 23‒25 September, 2010]. Sergiev Posad. P. 289–309 (in Russian).

Armeeva Ludmila


Academic Degree: Candidate of Sciences* in Art Criticism;
Academic Degree: Candidate of Sciences* in Art Criticism;
Place of work: Moscow Theological Academy; Sviato-Troitskaia Sergieva Lavra, Sergiev Posad, 141300, Russian Federation;
Post: Lecturer;
ORCID: 0000-0003-0956-1675;
Email: Armeeva@yandex.ru.

*According to the International Standard Classification of Education (ISCED) 2011, the degree of Candidate of Sciences (Cand.Sc.) belongs to ISCED level 8 — "doctoral or equivalent", together with PhD, DPhil, D.Lit, D.Sc, LL.D, Doctorate or similar.

Kovalev Andrey

Liturgical aspect in works by S. V. Rachmaninov

Kovalev Andrey (2020) "Liturgical aspect in works by S. V. Rachmaninov ", Vestnik Pravoslavnogo Sviato-Tikhonovskogo gumanitarnogo universiteta. Seriia V : Voprosi istorii i teorii hristianskogo iskusstva, 2020, Iss. 39, pp. 99-114 (in Russian).

DOI of the paper: 10.15382/sturV202039.99-114
The article looks at the question of whether S. V. Rakhmaninov’s works of various genres contain content of liturgical ideas and imagery as well as accompanying meaningful intonational elements, i.e. quotations and allusions of Znamenny chant. Such structures can be either directly connected with the content of church service and, accordingly, with the tradition of church singing, or can rather indirectly carry a hidden symbolical context determined by the themes and images of the Bible. The fi rst case implies, in the first hand, traditional genres of Russian spiritual music, i.e. Liturgy, the All-Night Vigil, the Spiritual concert В молитвах неусыпающую Богородицу (Church Slavonic “Theotokos not sleeping in prayers”). The second case implies works of nonchurch, secular, character (piano and symphonic works, romances). The aim of the article is to trace the correlation between the ideologial and imagery-related content of Rahmaninov’s works and his individual author’s style, in which intonations of the church melos prevail. The methodology is based on the combination of scientifi c categories of theoretical and historical musical science. The scientifi c and theoretical foundation of the study are works of V. N. Bryantseva, Yu. V. Keldysh, V. V. Medushevsky, etc. With all the broad range of genres of Rakhmaninov’s works, their multidimensional and multifaceted character, many of them show, either directly or very indirectly, the ideological and imagery-related content of the liturgy, as well as the presence of intonational structures that are to a certain extent associated with the Orthodox culture of singing.
Rachmaninov, banner raspev, Russian sacred music, traditional genres, popevka, toneme, of topics.
References1.Asafyev, BorisV. (1988) “S. V. Rakhmaninov” [“S. V. Rachmaninov”] in Vospominaniya o Rakhmaninove [Memories of Rachmaninoff], Moscow, vol. 2, pp.373-400 (in Russian).2.Beketova, Natalia V. (2016) “Rakhmaninov iChaykovskiy: ekzistentsionalnaya dialektika” [“Rachmaninoff and Tchaikovsky:existential dialectics”] in MaterialyII nauchnogo sobraniya pamyati S. V.Rakhmaninova. 14-15 maya 2015 goda [Materials of the II scientificcollection in memory of S. V. Rachmaninov, may 14-15, 2015 ] Ivanovka, pp. 3-24(in Russian).3.Bryantseva, Vera N. (1976) S. V. Rakhmaninov [S. V.Rakhmaninov], Moscow, 1976 (in Russian).4.Kandinskiy,Aleksey I. (2005) “Vsenoshchnoye bdeniye Rakhmaninova i russkoye iskusstvorubezha vekov” ["Rachmaninoff's all-night vigil and Russian art at theturn of the century"] in AlekseyIvanovich Kandinskiy: Vospominaniya. Stati. Materialy [Alexey IvanovichKandinsky: memoirs. Article. Material], Moscow, pp. 73-78 (in Russian).5.Keldysh, YuriyV. (1997) “S. V. Rakhmaninov” [“S. V. Rakhmaninov”] in Istoriyarusskoy muzyki v desyati tomakh [Istoriya russkay muzyki v desyatitomakh], Moscow, vol. 10A, pp. 69-133.(in Russian).6.Medushevskiy,Vyacheslav V. (1998) “Dukhovnyye aktsenty v soderzhanii muzykalnogoobrazovaniya” [“Spiritual accents in the content of music education”] in Teoriya i metodika muzykalnogo obrazovaniyadetey [Theory and methodology of children's music education], Moscow, pp. 260-289(in Russian).7.Medushevskiy,Vyacheslav V. (2014) Dukhovnyy analizmuzyki [Spiritual analysis of music], Moscow, 2014 (in Russian).8.Novitskaya,Larisa P. (2008) “Muzyka Rakhmaninova – bezmolvnyy zov. nesomyy zvukom. Koda.ili prelyudiya epokhi cheloveka myslyashchego?” [“Rachmaninoff's music is asilent call carried by sound. Coda, or prelude to the age of the thinking man?”]in S. Rakhmaninov: na perelome stoletiy:sb. mater. Mezhdunar. simpoziuma “S. Rakhmaninov: na perelome stoletiy”[S.Rachmaninov: at the turn of the century: sat. mater. International. Symposium “S.Rachmaninoff: at the turn of the century"], Kharkov, vol. 5, pp. 73-110 (in Russian).9.Skaftymova,Lyudmila A. (1973) “O melodike Rakhmaninova” [“About Rachmaninoff's melodica”]in Stranitsy istorii russkoy muzyki:stati molodykh muzykovedov [Pages of the history of Russian music: articlesby young musicologists], Leningrad, pp. 103-122 (in Russian).10.Khannanov, Ildar D. (2011) Muzyka Sergeya Rakhmaninova: sem muzykalno-teoreticheskikhetyudov [Music of Sergei Rachmaninoff: seven musical-theoretical etudes],Moscow, 2011 (in Russian).

Kovalev Andrey


Academic Degree: Candidate of Sciences* in Art Criticism;
Place of work: V. Popov Academy of Choral Art; 2 Festivalnaya Str., 125565, Moscow, Russian Federation;
Post: Associate Professor;
ORCID: 0000-0001-5503-3676;
Email: andrej-kovalev@yandex.ru.

*According to the International Standard Classification of Education (ISCED) 2011, the degree of Candidate of Sciences (Cand.Sc.) belongs to ISCED level 8 — "doctoral or equivalent", together with PhD, DPhil, D.Lit, D.Sc, LL.D, Doctorate or similar.

Belogubova Juliya; Solovyeva Valeria

St. Sergius church of the house of Moscow Ioanno-Predtechensky monastery: features of liturgical and singing practice and repertoire (based on manuscripts of the late 19th — first third of the 20th centuries)

Belogubova Juliya, Solovyeva Valeria (2020) "St. Sergius church of the house of Moscow Ioanno-Predtechensky monastery: features of liturgical and singing practice and repertoire (based on manuscripts of the late 19th — first third of the 20th centuries) ", Vestnik Pravoslavnogo Sviato-Tikhonovskogo gumanitarnogo universiteta. Seriia V : Voprosi istorii i teorii hristianskogo iskusstva, 2020, Iss. 39, pp. 115-151 (in Russian).

DOI of the paper: 10.15382/sturV202039.115-151
This article is devoted to the study of liturgical and singing practice of the late 19th — first third of the 20th centuries of St. Sergius of Radonezh church (Dolgoprudny, Moscow Region), which used to be property (Rus. подворье) of Ioanno-Predtechensky Monastery, Moscow. The article studies the manuscript collection discovered in the church of the village of Vinogradovo, whose note material was a foundation of the repertoire of St. Sergius church from its opening to the closure in 1935. The article studies the origin of this collection, its dating and the time of use of the MSs. Particular attention is paid to its repertoire inventory. The attribution of the musical material revealed two stylistic strata and helped to systematise the chants according to several parameters.
church of St. Sergius in Dolgoprudny, property of Ioanno-Predtechensky Monastery, manuscript collection, pre-Revolution church singing, attribution of hymns, church singing practice during years of repression
  1. Batalov L., Golovkova L., nun Feonilla (Kharchenko) (eds) (2018) Moskovskii Ioanno-Predtechenskii zhenskii monastyr'. Stranitsy istorii [Ioanno-Predtechensky Monastery of Moscow. Pages of history]. Moscow (in Russian).
  2. Davidenko D. (2018) Istoriia Moskovskogo Ivanovskogo devich'ego monastyria v dokumentakh XIX — nachala XX veka. [History of Moscow Ivanovsky Monastery in documents of the 19th — early 20th centuries]. Moscow (in Russian).
  3. Gardner I. (1982) Bogosluzhebnoe penie Russkoi Pravoslavnoi Tserkvi [Liturgical singing of the Russian Orthodox church], vol. 2. New York (in Russian).
  4. Mishin V., priest (2011) Ne liubliu vlastvovat' nad liud'mi. Zhizneopisanie startsa skhiarkhimandrita Ilariona (Udodova), khranitelia glavy prepodobnogo Sergiia [“I don't like to govern people. Biography of the Elder Ilarion (Udodov), the keeper of St. Sergius’ head]. Moscow (in Russian).
  5. Potemkina N. (1999) Problemy izucheniia polnogo kruga pesnopenii sovremennogo tserkovnogo obikhoda: a primere moskovskoi traditsii [Problems of study the full circle of рymns of modern church obikhod: With Moscow tradition as an example]. Moscow (in Russian).
  6. Plotnikova N. (2015) Russkoe partesnoe mnogogolosie kontsa XVII — serediny XVIII veka: istochnikovedenie, istoriia, teoriia [Russian partsong polyphony of the end 17th — mid — 18th centuries: Study of sources, history, theory]. Moscow (in Russian).
  7. The Church sang, and therefore resisted // Orthodoxy and modernity. Saratov, 2010. No. 15 (31). P. 9.
  8. Rozhdestvenskaia N., Tarasova K., Kondrat'ev V., nun Tavifa (Isaeva), nun Sofroniia (Advakhova) (eds) (2017) Sviashchennomuchenik Vladimir Alekseevich Smirnov. Zhizneopisanie. Istoriia khramov i shkol, sviazannykh s zhizn'iu i deiatel'nost'iu sviashchennomuchenika Vladimira [Hieromartyr Vladimir Alekseevich Smirnov. Biography. History of churches and schools related to the life and work of Holy Martyr Vladimir]. Moscow (in Russian).
  9. Sadikova E. (2018) Bogosluzhebno-pevcheskoe iskusstvo russkogo zarubezh'ia: Germaniia 1940- 60kh godov [Liturgical art of singing of Russian emigration: Germany of the 1940s and 60s]. Moscow (in Russian).
  10. Zvereva S., Naumov A., Rakhmanova M. (eds) (2004) Russkaia dukhovnaia muzyka v dokumentakh i materialakh. Sinodal'nyi khor i uchilishche tserkovnogo peniia: Kontserty. Periodika. Programma [Russian spiritual music in documents and materials. Synodal choir and school of church singing: Concerts. Periodical. Programme], vol. 2, book 2. Moscow (in Russian).

Belogubova Juliya


Place of work: St. Tikhon’s Orthodox University for the Humanities; 6/1 Likhov pereulok, Moscow, 127051, Russian Federation;
Post: Department of Music History and Th eory, Faculty of Church Singing;
ORCID: 0000-0001-5247-8282;
Email: juliya_97-97@mail.ru.

Solovyeva Valeria


Place of work: St. Tikhon’s Orthodox University for the Humanities; 6/1 Likhov pereulok, Moscow, 127051, Russian Federation;
Post: Senior Lecturer, Department of Church Singing;
ORCID: 0000-0002-2982-3524;
Email: solovs011@gmail.com.
We are grateful to the choir director of the John the Baptist nunnery, nun Tavifa (Isaeva) for the provided musical materials, for valuable comments on them, and for the important information received in the conversation with her. We also thank the teachers of the faculty of Church singing of PSTGU, candidates of musical art E. B. Reznichenko, E. N. Sadikova, senior teacher of the department of regents U. S. Stenyukova for their help and advice in the process of working on the topic. We are also grateful to Anna Sidneva, a graduate of the faculty of Church singing at PSTGU, for her help in attributing some of the hymns.

PUBLICATIONS

Kyzlasova Irina

Professor N. P. Sychev, teacher and friend of young artists, restorers, art critics: the unexplored 20th century

Kyzlasova Irina (2020) "Professor N. P. Sychev, teacher and friend of young artists, restorers, art critics: the unexplored 20th century ", Vestnik Pravoslavnogo Sviato-Tikhonovskogo gumanitarnogo universiteta. Seriia V : Voprosi istorii i teorii hristianskogo iskusstva, 2020, Iss. 39, pp. 155-172 (in Russian).

DOI of the paper: 10.15382/sturV202039.155-172
This article studies the professional activity of Nikolai Petrovich Sychev (1885‒1964), the prominent historian of the Old Russian art, one of the leading fi gures in arranging museums and restoration in Russia, painter and remarkable educationalist. His talent and energy could not be realised to the full because of severe repression that he had to face, i.e. the arrest in 1930, being put to a concentration camp (1933‒1942), being forced to live in a small town at the Volga (1942‒1944), third arrest in 1948. Our attention is focussed on the two last decades of Sychev’s life, i.e. the one spent in Vladimir (1944‒1954) and the following years when he was allowed to live in Moscow (1954‒1964). Sychev’s work on restoration objects of the 12th — 17th centuries in Vladimir was of great signifi cance, his studies with artists and restorers played an outstanding role in their professional development. The article makes public for the first time a fragment from the art critic V. Kaloshin (1948) and eight letters to him from the scholar (1958‒1960, 1962) and his widow (1965). The scholar has made a great contribution to the preservation and study of the unique St. Basil’s Cathedral in Moscow (16th century). It was Sychev who substantiated the nedd for an urgent restoration of its masonry, covering and all the complicated decor of the cathedral. Sychev took part in running this work. Particularly interesting is a duscovery in 1957 of an inscription with a previously unknown exact date of completion of constructing this famous building. The article also makes publis photographs and an excellent graphic portrait of Sychev (1952).
Nikolai Petrovich Sychev, Vladimir artists, new documents, restoration, St. Basil’s Cathedral
  1. Kyzlasova I. (2006) Nikolai Petrovich Sychev (1883–1964). Moscow (in Russian).
  2. Kyzlasova I. (2019) “N. P. Sychev — znatok khristianskogo iskusstva, muzeishchik, restavrator, khudozhnik. Novye otkrytiia” [N. Р. Sychev — expert in Christian art, museum worker, restorer, artist. New discoveries], in O. Nikiforova, M. Makhan'ko (eds) Rossiia. Gruziia. Khristianskii Vostok. Dukhovnye i kul'turnye sviazi [Russia. Georgia. Christian East. Spiritual and cultural relations: Collection of articles from the 6th readings dedicated to the memory of D. I. Arsenishvili. Moscow. P. 135–149, 221–224.
  3. Kyzlasova I. (2019) “«Ves' vymazalsia v maslianykh kraskakh»: novoe o roli N. P. Sycheva (1885–1964) v zhizni vladimirskikh khudozhnikov” (“Got all covered in oil paints”: new data on the role of N. Р. Sychev (1885–1964) in the life of Vladimir artists], in I. Mishina (ed.) Materialy XXIV Mezhregional'noi kraevedcheskoi konferentsii (19 aprelia 2019, Vladimir) [Materials of the 24th conference in local history (19 April, 2019, Vladimir). Vladimir (in Russian; forthcoming).
  4. Merkulova T. (1996) “Deiatel'nost' N. P. Sycheva vo Vladimire (1944–1954 gg.)” [N. Р. Sychev’s professional activity in Vladimir (1944–1954)], in A. Tenetkina (ed.) Vladimiro-Suzdal'skii muzei-zapovednik. Materialy issledovanii [Museum-Preserve of Vladimir and Suzdal. Research materials]. Vladimir. P. 136–137 (in Russian).
  5. Saracheva T. (2013) Muzeinaia letopis' Pokrovskogo sobora. K 90-letiiu otkrytiia muzeia [Museum chronicle of Pokrovskiy Cathedral. The 90th anniversary of the opening of the museum]. Moscow (in Russian).
  6. Sevast'ianova N. (2008) “Professor Sychev vo Vladimire” [Professor Sychev in Vladimir]. Vladimirskie Vedomosti. 29.04 (in Russian).
  7. Sevast'ianova N. (2009) “Rol' izostudii 40–60-kh gg. v stanovlenii vladimirskoi shkoly zhivopisi” [The role of art studios of the 40‒60s in the formation of Vladimir school of painting], in A. Tenetkina (ed.) Vladimiro-Suzdal'skii muzei-zapovednik: materialy issledovanii [Museum- Preserve of Vladimir and Suzdal: research materials], 15. Vladimir. P. 84–86 (in Russian).
  8. Sychev N. (1959) “K istorii rospisi Dmitrievskogo sobora vo Vladimire” [On the history of painting in the Dmitrievskiy Cathedral in Vladimir]. Pamiatniki kul'tury: issledovanie i restavratsiia [Monuments of culture: research and restoration], vol. 1. Moscow. P. 143–177 (in Russian).
  9. Sychev N. (1961) “Freski sobora Vasiliia Blazhennogo” [Frescoes of St. Basil’s Cathedral]. Ezhegodnik GIM 1959, р. 206–222 (in Russian).
  10. Sychev N. (1969) Vospominaniia [Memoirs], in Novoe o Repine: stat'i i pis'ma khudozhnikov, vospominaniia uchenikov i druzei, publikatsii [New data about Repin: articles and letters from artists, memoirs of students and friends, publications]. Leningrad. P. 161–166 (in Russian).
  11. Sychev N. (1976) “Izbrannye trudy” [Selected works]. Moscow (in Russian).

Kyzlasova Irina


Academic Degree: Doctor of Sciences* in History;
ORCID: 0000-0003-0440-5518;
Email: maxir5@ya.ru.

*According to ISCED 2011, a post-doctoral degree called Doctor of Sciences (D.Sc.) is given to reflect second advanced research qualifications or higher doctorates.

Timofeeva Tatyana

N. P. Sychev’s letters to a. D. Varganov (1955‒1959)

Timofeeva Tatyana (2020) "N. P. Sychev’s letters to a. D. Varganov (1955‒1959) ", Vestnik Pravoslavnogo Sviato-Tikhonovskogo gumanitarnogo universiteta. Seriia V : Voprosi istorii i teorii hristianskogo iskusstva, 2020, Iss. 39, pp. 173-186 (in Russian).

DOI of the paper: 10.15382/sturV202039.173-186
The article makes public eight letters of Nikolai Petrovich Sychov (1883–1964), the prominent historian of ancient Russian art, specialist in the theory and practice of restoration, to the outstanding architect and restorer of monuments in Suzdal, director of Suzdal Museum, Alexei Varganov (1905–1977). Previously, Sychov after many years of unlawful repression (Gulag and life in a small town on the Volga), worked in Vladimir and Suzdal for ten years. In the mid-1950s he was allowed to live in Moscow, from where he sent the letters to his friend. The introduction refers to the study of I. Kyzlasova (see her article in this issue of the journal), which describes the professional and human scale of Sychov’s personality and provides a brief bibliography on Varganov, who is less known in the scientifi c world. According to the memoirs of Varganov’s daughter, he called Sychov a “teacher”. In 1927–1930s, Varganov studied at the Institute of Art History in Leningrad, where Sychov taught; they could make an acquaintance there. This article outlines the content of the letters, i.e. a discussion of the attempt of one pseudoscientist to appropriate the results of the works of Vladimir Restoration Workshop, a request to show Suzdal to students of Moscow University, current events in Sychev’s life. A separate message is addressed to Varganov’s son Alik (Alexei), with some drawings: “Grandpa Kolya” is crying because of the boy’s poor school marks and dancing because of his excellent marks. Special attention should be paid to a letter in which Sychov writes about a remarkable fi nd, an inscription on the inner wall of the tent-shaped roof of St. Basil’s Cathedral in the Red Square (Sychov was one of the leading fi gures in its restoration). As a result, the exact date of completion of this unique monument of the 16th century was established. There is one more very interesting letter with a story about the life of the Russian Museum in Leningrad in 1921–1926, when Sychov was a director there. The letters are made public for the fi rst time; they show not only friendly relations with the addressee, but also (which is very important) disprove the orally expressed allegation about Varganov’s involvement in the third arrest of Sychev which took place in Vladimir in 1948.
Nikolai Sychev, Alexei Varganov, friendship, Vladimir and Suzdal Museum, restoration of architecture, Russian Museum, St. Basil’s Cathedral
  1. Gantseva P. (2015) “Aleksei Varganov i ego delo zhizni” [Aleksei Varganov and his life’s work]. Vladimirskie vedomosti. 25.09 (№ 173), p. 4 (in Russian).
  2. Dudorova L. (2005) “Rol' A. D. Varganova v sozdanii nauchnoi metodiki restavratsii pamiatnikov arkhitektury i ego vklad v sokhranenie arkhitekturnogo naslediia g. Suzdalia (k 100-letiiu so dnia rozhdeniia)” [The role of A. D. Varganov in creating a scientifi c method for the restoration of architectural monuments and his contribution to the preservation of the architectural heritage of Suzdal (for the 100th anniversary), in S. Gordeev (ed.) Materialy oblastnoi kraevedcheskoi konferentsii (22 aprelia 2005 g.) [Materials of the regional local history conference (April 22, 2005)]. Vladimir. P. 10–13 (in Russian).
  3. Konopleva R. (2002) “Varganov Aleksei Dmitrievich”, in S. Gordeev (ed.) Vladimirskaia entsiklopediia. Biobibliografi cheskii slovar' [Encyclopaedia оf Vladimir. Biobibliographic dictionary]. Vladimir. P. 88–89 (in Russian).
  4. Timofeeva T. (2016) “«Pozhiznennye druz'ia». Perepiska N. N. Voronina i A. D. Varganova kak chast' nauchnogo naslediia uchenykh” [“Lifelong friends”. Correspondence between N. N. Voronin and A. D. Varganov as part of the scientifi c heritage of the scholars], in A. Tenetkina (ed.) Vladimiro-Suzdal'skii muzei-zapovednik. Materialy issledovanii [Museum- Preserve of Vladimir and Suzdal. Research materials], 21. Vladimir. P. 118–126 (in Russian).
  5. Vladimiro-Suzdal'skaia shkola restavratsii. Istoriia, metody i praktika restavratsii ob'ektov istorikokul'turnogo naslediia (2011) [Vladimir-Suzdal school of restoration. History, methods and practice of restoration of objects of historical and cultural heritage]. Vladimir. P. 17–314 (in Russian).

Timofeeva Tatyana


ORCID: 0000-0002-9249-695X;
Email: tata2010vl@mail.ru.