St. Tikhon’s University Review. Series V: Problems of History and Theory of Christian Art
St. Tikhon’s University Review V :27


Petrov Alexander
DOI of the paper: 10.15382/sturV201727.9-17
The article is devoted to the two sides of the same theme. First, what place do armor and weapons have in Orthodox iconography. Secondly, how they are reflected in the liturgical clothes. On the examples the author shows the artistic features of the depiction of military attributes on icons and their symbolic meaning. The armor and weapons on the icon is or a symbol of duty in life, or a symbol of power, or as an attribute of the heavenly patron. It was found that the armor and weapons in the iconography are transforming their appearance. They were a reliable image and corresponded to the historical prototype, they became a nominal and decorative image. In the process of this transformation, distinct details of the image give way to general features. In other words, there is a reduction less significant to more significant. It is noted that the armor and weapons in the iconography are reduced to a symbol and lose utility signs. In addition, armor was subject to greater reduction than weapons. Armor and weapons are equally manifested in the liturgy and reflected in the vestments of the priest. On the icon they are a symbol of military service, in liturgy they are a symbol of spiritual warfare and spiritual ministry; therefore they do not have functional meaning. It is supposed that this transformation takes place because of several main reasons. This reason is artistic and aesthetic, it is associated with the requirements of the iconographic canon. Another reason is historical, it is associated with the practice of using lamellar type armor in the Orthodox East, as well as the fact that they gradually ceased to be used.
Orthodoxy, Iconography, Armor, Weapons, Vestments, Canon, Liturgics, Worship, Symbol, Attribute, History
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Petrov Alexander

Degree: Candidate of Sciences* in Philosophy;
Place of work: Omsk theological seminary; 56 corp. 2, Lermontova st., Omsk 644024, Russian Federation; lecturer;
E-mail: petrov.av.phd@gmail.com.

*According to the International Standard Classification of Education (ISCED) 2011, the degree of Candidate of Sciences (Cand.Sc.) belongs to ISCED level 8 — "doctoral or equivalent", together with PhD, DPhil, D.Lit, D.Sc, LL.D, Doctorate or similar.

Farafonova (Shchedrina) Xenia
DOI of the paper: 10.15382/sturV201727.18-26
The article is concerned with ideological and concrete-historical evidences in the construction of monastery during the Patriarch Nicon`s period. There were three monasteries built at the 50s-60s of the 17th century inspired by a translocation of sacred places from Christian East to Russia concept: Valdai Iviron monastery, Monastery of the Holy Cross at the Kiy Island and New Jerusalem near Moscow. Actuality of this concept during the 1650s should be linked with the external policy activation, Ukraine and Moldavia accession negotiations and increased visits of Oriental hierarchs to Moscow. The article for the first time deals with hypothesis that during the Patriarch Nicon`s period the tradition of the honored Christian Eastern monastery constructions in Moldavia and Walachia principalities are pretypified monastery construction rather than Palestinian and Athos realias directly. Metochions were built under the protection of hospodars and maintain a symbolic sameness with a maternal cell. A set of functional and imaginative features unifying the Cathedral of Valdai Iviron monastery with the Epiphany Poustinia of New Jerusalem and the Cathedral of the Elevation of the Holy Cross at the Kiy Island Monastery denotes a link between a Vlachian Tradition and Nicon`s period constructions. There is a same typical pattern indicative of Danubian principality architecture influence. The concept of translocation of sacred places from Christian East to Russia and its topographic and architecture realization could be supply to Nicon by his Greek companions among wich were of Moldavia descents. The unique iconographic program of the Kiy Island Monastery Holy Cross-Reliquary might be explaining by using a Vlachian patterns.
Patriarch Nikon, Vlachia, Valdai Iviron monastery, monastery of the Holy Cross at the Kiy Island, New Jerusalem, russian architecture of the XVII century, Kiy cross,.
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Farafonova (Shchedrina) Xenia

Place of work: Moscow state university of education; 1/1 M. Pirogovskaya Str., Moscow, 119991, Russian Federation; graduate student;
E-mail: k-fara@mail.ru.
Sheko Nikolay
DOI of the paper: 10.15382/sturV201727.27-38
Catholic art, in particular music, under the influence of the decrees of the Council of Trent, has undergone drastic changes. The Council of Trent 1545 - 1563 was intended to oppose the dissemination of the ideas of the Reformation. The cathedral marked the transition from the medieval period of the history of the Catholic Church to the classical period. The ideas of Protestantism seriously influenced the church's consciousness of the Catholic Church, therefore, for the successful struggle against them, the Council Fathers decided to actually fulfill the demands of the Protestants regarding church music. Music as a tool that affects a person's aesthetic perception, with proper use, can greatly affect his emotional and psychological state. In the Catholic Church, rhetoric techniques were widely used, not only in oratory, that is, in preaching, but also in instrumental and vocal music accompanying worship. Rhetoric in music transmitted information in a double volume: through the influence of a word pronounced with a certain intonation and at a certain pitch, and the impact of melody, with the help of musical figures and sound effects that affect the emotional state of believers. It was personal emotional experiences that became the main content of both spiritual and secular art in Europe in the 17th and the first half of the 18th centuries. Rhetoric was taught both in Catholic Jesuit educational institutions and in Protestant schools. In fact, it was the basis of European education in the XVII-XVIII centuries. The surviving treatises on rhetoric give us a good basis for studying multiple meanings, concluded not only in European music, poetry and theater, but also in church art.
music, rhetoric, Catholic art, Baroque, Reformation, Council of Trent
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  4. James. Murphy. Medieval Rhetoric: Toronto. University of Toronto Press. 1989;
  5. Marc-Antoine Charpentier. «Messe pour plusieurs instruments au lieu des orgues». H 513;
  6. Palacios Quiroz. Rafael. La pronuntiatio musicale : une interprétation rhétorique au service de Händel, Montéclair, C. P. E. Bach et Telemann. Thèse de doctorat. Paris 2012;

Sheko Nikolay

Place of work: State Institute for Art Studies; 5, Kozitsky pereulok, Moscow 125000, Russian Federation;
E-mail: nsheko@yandex.ru.
Olekhnovich Elena
DOI of the paper: 10.15382/sturV201727.39-50
This article analyses the genre of stichera-slavnik of the Twelve Great Feasts from the point of a text of art. The main object of research is relationships and principles of organisation of the genre of stichera which make possible its inclusion in various contextual structures positioning this genre within the framework of the singing book of the Feasts. The main method of the study is the analysis of images and meanings of poetical and musical texts of slavniki with the aim of detecting the intertwining artistic techniques. Among other features, there can be traced musical and poetical symbols in their interrelationship, arcs in content, intonation and poetics, systematic and non-systematic structural elements on various levels. Besides, the paper discusses the musical composition of slavniki within echoi, which allows us to evaluate the intonation links developed in the book, which are provided for by slavniki, and to obtain a deeper insight in the substance of the concept of echos. It has been found out as a result of the study that slavniki function as key elements in the structure of the Feasts. They make up crosspoints of meanings, and both verbal and singing texts participate in this process. The integral role of slavniki in structuring the poetics of the book will allow us to study festive stichera not as separate and unconnected hymns but as an integrated system with meaningful regularities of organisation.
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Olekhnovich Elena

Place of work: The Rimsky-Korsakov St. Petersburg State Conservatory; 3, Teatralnaya square, Saint Petersburg 190000, Russian Federation;
E-mail: svitenkova@mail.ru.
Pavlinova Varvara
DOI of the paper: 10.15382/sturV201727.51-68
This article deals with controversial issues of biography and spiritual musical legacy of Alexei Fedorovich Lvov, head of the Court Chapel. There still exist uncertainties in the biography of this prominent Russian spiritual composer of the middle 19th century. In the relevant scientific literature,there are two variants of the year and place of birth of the composer,as well as two variants of the date when Lvov became director of the Court Chapel. Based on the published genealogy, as well as on epistolary,archival and other materials, the article cjgfirmsthe accuracy of information given in the autobiographical Notes by Lvov. Main attention is paid to the spiritual and musical legacy of A. F. Lvov. The composer rarely indicated the date of his works. . In tracing the chronology of his spiritual musical works, we draw on the analysis of Lvov’s lifetime editions. The composer published three collections of his spiritual works and a harmonisation. The structure of this collection corresponds to the wellknown posthumous publication of spiritual musical works of Lvov. Another moot point is the period of work of the Court Chapel on the harmonisation of obikhod.
A. F. Lvov, G. Y. Lomakin, Court Chapel, biography, chronology of spiritual and musical creativity, obychod,
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Pavlinova Varvara

Degree: Candidate of Sciences* in Art Criticism;
Rank: Associate Professor;
Place of work: Tchaikovsky Moscow State Conservatory ;13/6 Bolshaya Nikitskaya St., Moscow 125009, Russian Federation;
E-mail: v.pavlin@mail.ru.

*According to the International Standard Classification of Education (ISCED) 2011, the degree of Candidate of Sciences (Cand.Sc.) belongs to ISCED level 8 — "doctoral or equivalent", together with PhD, DPhil, D.Lit, D.Sc, LL.D, Doctorate or similar.

Permilovskaya Anna
DOI of the paper: 10.15382/sturV201727.69-88
The chapels are one of the most striking manifestations of the traditional culture and wooden architecture of XVIII early XX centuries. They are firmly entrenched in the existing system of the Russian North and the Arctic sacred and cultural landscape. The article discusses the reasons for setting chapels in the historical-typological characteristics place of worship, prayer for the dead, chapels-burial vaults, chapels of promise and “ordinary”, commercial chapels. These functional characteristics are reflected in the formation of their architectural and design features. The study empirical considers revising 34 architectural expeditions’ materials, which 368 settlements were surveyed. Another significant part of the material was collected in the Arkhangelsk, Vologda regions, Karelia, Moscow, St.-Petersburg, Nenets Autonomous Okrug archives and museums. The Russian and Western Europe material acquired through many years of study open air museums exhibits and folk architecture monuments "in situ" were considered in the study also.
Russian North, Arctic, chapel, wooden architecture, Orthodox Christianity, chapel’s typology.
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Permilovskaya Anna

Degree: Doctor of Sciences* in Culturology;
Place of work: Federal research centre for integrated study of the Arctic, Russian Academy of Sciences; 23, naberezhnaya Severnoy Dviny st., Arkhangelsk 163000, Russian Federation;
E-mail: permikh@mail.ru.

*According to ISCED 2011, a post-doctoral degree called Doctor of Sciences (D.Sc.) is given to reflect second advanced research qualifications or higher doctorates.

Belik Zhanna
DOI of the paper: 10.15382/sturV201727.89-110
The article studies a significant complex of icons painted in the Moscow workshop of Nikolay Sergeyevich Yemelyanov in 1912-1913, including a seven-tier iconostasis, altar and church images located in the St. Alexis church-monument of Russian Glory in Leipzig. The local row and several other icons are decorated with silver basma revetments made by the Imperial Court supplier “The Association of the Manufacture of Silver, Gold and Jewelry Khlebnikov's sons and Co.” Restorer and iconographer Nikolay Yemelyanov is known for his works at the Feodorovsky Cathedrals in St. Petersburg and in Tsarskoye Selo, the Imperial Family residence. The article introduces a large icon ensemble, which has been preserved in the “native interior” outside of Russia, to scientific circulation; the other identified Yemelyanov icons are kept in museum and private collections. The article contains archival biographical information about the iconostasis masters, in particular unknown earlier the date of birth of the iconographer on April 28, 1879. The style of icons reflects the processes of scientific study of Ancient Russian art occurred at that time and attempts to reconstruct medieval icon painting. At the same time, artistic processes went within the prevailing Art Nouveau style reflected in unexpected color scheme and composition, free operation and simultaneously comprehension of iconography. Yemelyanov icons replaced Mstera paintings and show a style of preferences of cultural elite, testify to the undoubted personal support of the style he developed at the highest state level. The Revolution interrupted artistic carrier of great iconographer. There are relatively few remaining icons; church-monument in Leipzig has the largest collection.
Icon, iconostasis, iconographer Nikolay Sergeyevich Yemelyanov, Russian church-monument, Leipzig, St. Alexis Metropolitan of Moscow, St. Alexis church-monument of Russian Glory in Leipzig, Feodorovsky Cathedral, Khlebnikov, Basma, Russian style, art nouveau, Imperial Court supplier, Imperial Court supplier, architect V. A. Pokrovsky
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  5. Russky hram-pamyatnik v Leiptsige (Russian church-monument in Leipzig): collection of studies / complier and editor in chief: M. E. Dmitriyeva. St. Petersburg, 2015.
  6. Gedächtniskirche zur Russischen Ehre in Leipzig 1813–1913–2013. St. Petersburg, 2015.
  7. Russky hram-pamyatnik na pole Leiptsigskoy bitvy (Russian church-monument on the field of Leipzig battle) // Strannik. 1914, № 5. P. 784–789.
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Belik Zhanna

Degree: Candidate of Sciences* in Art Criticism;
Place of work: Central Andrey Rublev Museum of Ancient Russian Culture and Art; 10 Andron'evskaia sq., Moscow 105120, Russian Federation;
E-mail: zhanna_belik@mail.ru.

*According to the International Standard Classification of Education (ISCED) 2011, the degree of Candidate of Sciences (Cand.Sc.) belongs to ISCED level 8 — "doctoral or equivalent", together with PhD, DPhil, D.Lit, D.Sc, LL.D, Doctorate or similar.

Korostelyov Dmitry, deacon
DOI of the paper: 10.15382/sturV201727.111-121
The article deals with musical art of hieromartyr Serafim Chichagov comparing it with the church and secular music at the end of the nineteenth and at the beginning of the twentieth centuries. The legacy of st. Serafim is an unique example of music written by canonized saint. It is unusual in its genre content and inner substance. We have no information about any instrumental music written by another saint. Piano pieces by metropolitan Seraphim do not belong to the secular area in art, but they also differ much from the contemporary Church music. Chichagov's songs have no precedent in the musical art: romance features combine in them with spiritual texts and relevant character. The purpose of the article is to show the unique nature of hieromartyr Serafim works and their inner distinction from the art contemporary to him. The accent is made on the substantial and stylistic originality of Chichagov’s music. The study used synchronous and chronological science methods. Most vividly shown within the frame of the article are piano and vocal-instrumental pieces. The problems of dating and genre peculiarities are highlighted in detail. The main derivation is: music by st. Serafim Chichagov is an unprecedent one and its phenomenon has no continuation in musical art, but it gives a good impetus to modern composers who write spiritual music.
music, hieromartyr Serafim Chichagov, phenomenon, genre peculiarities, the problems of dating, confessionalization, sermons without words
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  2. Brileva T.V., Ignatovich T.N. Tserkov' Nikolaia Chudotvortsa v istorii Rumiantsevskogo muzeia // Kniga v prostranstve kul'tury (The st. Nicholas’s the Wonderworker Church in the History of Rumiantsevskii Museum // Book in the cultural area) Russian State Library, Moscow, 2013, vol. 1 (9), p. 135.
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  4. Svod sochinenii i napevov Pravoslavnoi tserkvi / sost. I.A. Zhuravlenko (Corpus of Works and Tunes of the Russian Orthodox Church) Palomnik, Moscow, 2002.
  5. Serafima (Chernaia-Chichagova), ig. Vospominaniia o mitropolite Serafime i ego sem'e (Memories about Metropolitan Serafim and his Family) Moskva, no. 11-12, 1992, pp. 196-197.
  6. Ty Bog moi! Muzykal'noe nasledie sviashchennomuchenika mitropolita Serafima Chichagova / sost. O.I. Pavlova, V.A. Levushkin (You are my God! The Musical Heritage by Hieromartyr Serafim (Chichagov)) Sibirskaia blagozvonnitsa, Moscow, 2016, p. 100.
  7. Khondzinskii P., prot. «Tserkov' ne est' akademiia»: Russkoe vneakademicheskoe bogoslovie XIX veka («Church is not an Akademy»: Russian non-academic theology of the 19th century) PSTGY, Moscow, 2016, pp. 18-21.
  8. Iulin V.A. Serafim znachit plamennyi: ocherk zemnoi zhizni sviashchennomuchenika mitropolita Serafima (Chichagova) (Serafim Means Fervent: a Brief Essay on the Earthly life of Hieromartyr Serafim (Chichagov)) Sibirskaia blagozvonnitsa, Moscow, 2010, pp. 56-57.

Korostelyov Dmitry, deacon

Degree: Master of Ttheology;
Place of work: Ss. Cyril and Methodius theological institute of post-graduate studies; 4/2, bld. 1, Pyatnitskaya st., 115035 Moscow, Russian Federation;
E-mail: korostelev8@yandex.ru.
Hegumen Siluan (Tumanov A.)
DOI of the paper: 10.15382/sturV201727.122-134
This article deals with the development and modification of those liturgical practices of the Russian Orthodox Church that are related to church singing in the 20th — early 21st centuries. It aims to demonstrate the deep relationship between the practical side of the church service and its theoretical foundation, which explains the non-linear development of liturgical practices in specifically tragic periods of Church life.
church singing, liturgy, worship, Soviet period, choir, repertoire of church singing.
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  9. Russkaja dukhovnaja musyka v dokumentakh i materialakh, Moscow, IХ, 2015.

Hegumen Siluan (Tumanov A.)

Place of work: St Petersburg Diocese; 1, Naberezhnaya reki Monastyrki st., Saint-Petersburg 191167, Russian Federation;
E-mail: siluan2011@gmail.com.
Khvatova Svetlana
DOI of the paper: 10.15382/sturV201727.135-151
This article analyzes the contemporary composer's creativity in the canonical Orthodox liturgical texts. It touches upon the problem of creative self-realization in the choir, the need for skill ownership arrangements, harmonization, styling and treatment when working with the choir singing the notes. The aim of the article is the main trends of development of Orthodox art of composing the post-Soviet time. The scientific significance of the research is related to the systematization of the works from the standpoint of the accumulation of spiritual potential, a particular manifestation of the "will to the sacred". The analysis is based on historical and sociological research methods involving art-specific tools. Circle the authors covered in the article - it is musicians who are in the church - choir, choir directors, clergy, sometimes reaching a sufficiently high level in the church hierarchy. At the end of the twentieth century, the problems haphazard accumulation of a critical mass of new works for the church, the lack of common criteria "liturgical" chants created. In the post-Soviet decade, the number of authors numbered in tens, now, at the beginning of XXI century is the time separating "the wheat from the chaff." Attention is drawn to the existence of the rules of the musical presentation of the liturgical text starting. Addresses the issue of training of the future regents basics of composition, which should be based on a detailed analysis of the syntactic structure, the rhythm of the verse analogues, copy typical melodic and harmonic turns of a certain voice. Revealed facts "podtekstovok" music, was not originally intended to be sung in the Orthodox Church: up to folk songs and instrumental works. To best suit the dispensation of the Orthodox worship, liturgical composers in their works appeal to the stable motives and themes, structural cliché musical-lexical and textured cliché known works of the author's style and as role models. Traditionally, the sometimes perceived in the secular work of composer as a triviality, in the church becomes dignity, recognition and guarantee of continuity.
composer, creativity, liturgical works, canon, author, tradition, Innovation, style, poetics, prayerinnovat, ion.
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  4. Lotman U.M. Kanonicheskoye iskusstvo kak informatsionniy paradox // Lotman U. Statyi po semiotike kultury i iskusstva. SPb: Academichesky proect, 2002, pp. 314‑321.
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  7. Kholopova V.N. Canon I evristica v musice // Kholopova V.N. Musika kak vid iskusstva. SPb.: Lan, 2000. pp. 78‑112.

Khvatova Svetlana

Degree: Doctor of Sciences* in Art Criticism;
Place of work: Adyghe State University; 208, Pervomaiskaya st., 385000 Maykop, Russian Federation;
E-mail: hvatova_svetlana@mail.ru.

*According to ISCED 2011, a post-doctoral degree called Doctor of Sciences (D.Sc.) is given to reflect second advanced research qualifications or higher doctorates.

Kornilova Irina
DOI of the paper: 10.15382/sturV201727.152-159
This article deals with the spiritual cantata “Reverend Hegumen Savva” by Georgy Petrovich Dmitriev, which was written in eight parts for deacon reading and male choir a cappella. The cantata, characterised by a hagiographic theme, belongs to non-liturgical spiritual music. The main objective of our research is the identifi cation of topoi or “common places” in vitae of monks and founders of monasteries, occurring in the cantata, as well as the study of how these topoi were further developed and refl ected.
hagiography, topos, lives of saints, monastic lives, musical refl ection of a topos,cantata.
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  4. Paisov Yu. I., Khorovoe tvorchestvo georgij a Dmitrieva, Moscow, 2007.
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  6. Rudi T. R., “Topika russkikh zhitii”, in: Russkaja agiographija, St. Petersburg, 2005.

Kornilova Irina

Place of work: St. Tikhon’s Orthodox University for the Humanities; 6/1 Likhov pereulok, Moscow 127051, Russian Federation;
E-mail: kornilowa-mezzo2012@yandex.ru.