Maslinskii Kirill

Rules of conduct in the Soviet school. Part 1: The message of the state delivered by the teacher

Maslinskii Kirill (2015) "Rules of conduct in the Soviet school. Part 1: The message of the state delivered by the teacher ", Vestnik Pravoslavnogo Sviato-Tikhonovskogo gumanitarnogo universiteta. Seriia IV : Pedagogika. Psihologiia, 2015, vol. 36, pp. 56-72 (in Russian).

DOI of the paper: 10.15382/sturIV201536.56-72


Soviet school rules are treated in this article as a part of the pre-revolutionary school tradition and simultaneously as a representation of the image of Soviet schoolchild. The article consists of two parts. First part is a short historical outline of the rules of conduct in Soviet school policy and practice. Mentions of school rules in offi cial documents and texts of school rules from 1930s to 1980s are analyzed. The story of rules in Soviet school can be told as a sequence of phases: starting from the period of ignoring rules (1917–1922), followed by gradual legitimizing them in the state and party resolutions (1927–1935), then the period of waiting for the rules approved by the state (1935– 1943), a deсade of concentration on «Rules for pupils» (1943–1954), and then a gradual transferral of disciplinary functions to the genre of «unified requirements for pupils» (1954–1972). «Rules for pupils» published in 1943, in contrast to the similar rules published in 1874, have a distinct aim of constructing ideal image of the Soviet school and Soviet schoolchild. The weight of the symbolic function of the Rules predetermined the loss of disciplinary regulation function in the later editions.


history of education, Soviet history, secondary school, rules of conduct, «Rules for pupils», school discipline


1. Kolmakova M. N. 1992 “Ot sostavitelja” (From Editor), in Batrakova S. F. (ed.) Boris Petrovich Esipov (1894–1967): Bibliograficheskij ukazatel', Moscow, 1992.
2. Magsumov T. A. 2011 “Pravovye akty kak istochnik po istorii srednego professional'nogo obrazovanija v dorevoljucionnoj Rossii” (Law Acts as Source for History of Middle Professional Educatoin in Russia before Revolution), in Voprosy pravovedenija, 2011, vol. 3, pp. 353–362.
3. Chashhuhin A. V. 2011 “Shkol'nyj uchitel' v jepohu pozdnego stalinizma kak agent repressivnoj politiki: Materialy mezhdunarodnoj nauchnoj konferencii. Smolensk, 9—11 oktjabrja 2011 g.” (School Teacher in Epoch of Late Stalinism as Agent of Repressive Politics: Materials of International Scientific Conference. Smolensk, 9–11 October 2011), in Kordina E. V. (ed.) Istorija stalinizma: Repressirovannaja rossijskaja provincija, Moscow, 2011, pp. 390–399.
4. Dunstan J. Soviet Schooling in the Second World War, London, New York, 1997.
5. Livschiz A. Growing up Soviet: Childhood in the Soviet Union, 1918–1958. Ph. D., Stanford University, 2007.
6. Livshiz A. 2006 “Pre-Revolutionary in Form, Soviet in Content? Wartime Educational Reforms and the Postwar Quest for Normality”, in History of Education, 2006, vol. 35/4–5, pp. 541–560.

Information about the author

Maslinskii Kirill