/

St. Tikhon’s University Review . Series IV: Pedagogy. Psychology

St. Tikhon’s University Review IV :58

PEDAGOGICAL SCIENCE

Divnogortseva Svetlana

Orthodox pedagogy and issues in religious education

Divnogortseva Svetlana (2020) "Orthodox pedagogy and issues in religious education ", Vestnik Pravoslavnogo Sviato-Tikhonovskogo gumanitarnogo universiteta. Seriia IV : Pedagogika. Psihologiia, 2020, Iss. 58, pp. 11-19 (in Russian).

DOI of the paper: 10.15382/sturIV202058.11-19
This article raises the question about the correspondence between the methodology of organisation of religious education at school and those standards, values and principles which make up the foundation of religious pedagogy. The article substantiates the necessity of the phenomenon of religious education within the educational milieu of the present-day school. This follows the challenge that the contemporary pedagogy poses for the school, i.e. a comprehensive personal development, which involves spiritual development as well. It is religious education that to a great extent makes possible the development of this side of personality; this substantiates the necessity of religious education. In order to solve the problem of spiritual development in the course of religious education, one should carefully select its content and apply a tactful, considerate and professional approach to methods, techniques and teaching media. The author of the article believes that it is important for them to conform with the paradigm of the given religious pedagogical culture, its values, ideas and principles. At the same time, this approach requires a critical analysis of dissimilar pedagogical ideas and innovations with the aim of employing them in religious education if they do not contradict traditions of religious pedagogical culture and make no harm to the task of spiritual development of the school student. The article uses a number of examples in order to demonstrate how certain pedagogical ideas can be accepted or rejected in religious (Orthodox) education due to their relevance to traditions, values and the agenda of Orthodox pedagogical culture.
Orthodox pedagogical culture, religious education, personal spiritual development
  1. Divnogortseva S. (2013) Osnovy pravoslavnoi pedagogicheskoi kul'tury [Fundamentals of Orthodox pedagogical culture]. Moscow (in Russian).
  2. Gutner G. (2018) “Teologiia i identichnost’. Zamechaniia o meste teologii v sovremennom obrazovanii” [Theology and identity. Remarks on the place of theology in modern education]. Teologiia i obrazovanie. Ezhegodnik Nauchno-obrazovatel'noi teologicheskoi assotsiatsii. Moscow, p. 93–102 (in Russian).
  3. Ilarion (Alfeev), metropolitan (2019) “Teologiia v obrazovanii i nauke: razvitie otrasli. Chast’ 1. Teologiia v sisteme universitetskogo obrazovaniia: problemy i perspektivy” [Theology in education and science: development of the domain. Part 1. Theology in the system of university education: problems and prospects]. Teologiia i obrazovanie. Ezhegodnik Nauchnoobrazovatel'noi teologicheskoi assotsiatsii. Moscow. P. 14–19 (in Russian).
  4. Leonov V., priest (2013) Osnovy pravoslavnoi antropologii [Fundamentals of Orthodox anthropology]. Moscow (in Russian).
  5. Skliarova T. (2016) Pravoslavnoe obrazovanie v sovremennoi Rossii: struktura i soderzhanie [Orthodox education in present-day Russia: Structure and content]. Vestnik PSTGU. Ser. IV: Pedagogika. Psikhologiia, 1 (40), p. 9–16.
  6. Znakov V. (2007) Ponimanie v myshlenii, obshchenii, chelovecheskom bytii [Cognition in thinking, communication, existence of humans]. Moscow (in Russian).

Divnogortseva Svetlana


Academic Degree: Doctor of Sciences* in Education;
Academic Rank: Associate Professor;
Place of work: St. Tikhon’s Orthodox University for the Humanities; 6/1 Likhov pereulok, Moscow 127051, Russian Federation; Head of the Department;
Post: Head of Department of the pedagogy and methodology of primary education;
ORCID: 0000-0002-4143-2614;
Email: sdivnogortseva@mail.ru.

*According to ISCED 2011, a post-doctoral degree called Doctor of Sciences (D.Sc.) is given to reflect second advanced research qualifications or higher doctorates.

Soloveva Elena; Popova Svetlana

Specific features of forming civil identity in personal development of school students

Popova Svetlana, Soloveva Elena (2020) "Specific features of forming civil identity in personal development of school students ", Vestnik Pravoslavnogo Sviato-Tikhonovskogo gumanitarnogo universiteta. Seriia IV : Pedagogika. Psihologiia, 2020, Iss. 58, pp. 20-34 (in Russian).

DOI of the paper: 10.15382/sturIV202058.20-34
The article deals with an issue of identifying specifi c features of forming civil identity of school students in the process of personal development. Civil identity is regarded as one of the most complicated varieties of social identity that implies development in the person of a high level of self-consiousness. In each stage of growing, the child faces the tasks of relating oneself to new, broader and more complicated social structures. For example, in order to assimilate the notion of state, the citizen has to identify oneself as a member of a family, a representative of his or her extended family, of a social group, of a people, a nation. The article analyses the formation of civil identity among school students, i.e. cognitive (forming the image of home country, seeing oneself as a citizen with one’s own social roles); value-related and emotional (belonging to a nation, being proud of one’s country); behavioural (willingness to be useful to one’s home country); their interaction based on empirical data (in fi lling the questionnaire 502 school students of Cherepovets took part, their age was 10‒17). By the time of graduation, the students have formed their cognitive component of civil identity. Empathy, compassion, readiness to provide help are considered positive in our society, and teenagers share this belief, whereas in real-life situations they often take a passive stand and withdraw from solving problems. Emotional, value related and behavioural components are developed insuffi ciently. It is in the personal involvement that the disruption of cognitive, emotional, assessment-related and behavioural components takes places. Inspiring active empathy in school children is a very important task that challenges teachers nowadays. Building civil identity in school students is shown through an example of running volunteer summer-camp activities. Under guidance of a summer-camp supervisor, school students become involved in performing a certain useful task and are responsible for its outcome.
formation of civil identity, development of student’s personality, components of civil identity: cognitive, emotional and value-related, behavioural
  1. Asmolov A. (ed.) (2010) Kak proektirovat' universal'nye uchebnye deistviia v nachal'noi shkole. Ot deistviia k mysli: posobie dlia uchitelia [How to design universal educational activities at primary school. From action to thought: a teacher’s guide]. Moscow (in Russian)
  2. Egorov I. (2019) “Kross-kul'turnoe issledovanie professional'noi i grazhdanskoi identichnosti studencheskoi molodezhi Rossii i Belorussii v kontekste attitiudov ot’’ezda iz strany” [Crosscultural study of professional and civil identity of students of Russia and Belarus in the context of attitudes of departure from the country]. Vestnik PSTGU. Ser. IV: Pedagogika. Psihologija, 52, p. 113–127 (in Russian).
  3. Erikson E. (2006) Identichnost': Iunost' i krizis [Identity: youth and crisis]. Moscow (Russian translation).
  4. Fromm E. (2011) Zdorovoe obshchestvo [The sane society]. Moscow (Russian translation).
  5. Ivanova N., Mazilova G. (2013) “Grazhdanskaia identichnost' v sovremennykh issledovaniiakh” [Civil identity in contemporary studies]. Problemy sotsial'noi psikhologii lichnosti. Saratov, 11, p. 140–142 (in Russian).
  6. Kirilenko N. (2016) “Formirovanie grazhdanskoi identichnosti u podrastaiushchego pokoleniia: znachenie, struktura, vozrastnye osobennosti” [Formation of civil identity in the younger generation: its value, structure, age characteristics]. Izvestiia Saratovskogo universiteta: Filosofiia. Psikhologiia. Pedagogika, 16/4, p. 471–476 (in Russian).
  7. Naumova D. (2017) “Diagnostika vidov grazhdanskogo mirovospriiatiia molodiozhi” [Investigating types of civil worldview of young people]. Vestnik PSTGU. Ser. IV: Pedagogika. Psihologiia, 46, p. 108–118 (in Russian).
  8. Popova S., Kliukvina I. (2018) “Rol' vozhatskogo otriada v formirovanii uklada litseiskoi zhizni” [The role of summer-camp supervisors in forming the lyceists’ life]. Vospitanie shkol5nikov, 4, p. 13–21 (in Russian).
  9. Potanina L. (2011) “Razvitie tsennostno-smyslovoi sfery lichnosti shkol'nika: usloviia i mekhanizmy” [Development of value-related and semantic sphere of student’s personality: conditions and mechanisms]. Vestnik Moskovskogo gosudarstvennogo oblastnogo universiteta. Psikhologicheskie nauki, 2, p. 85–90 (in Russian).
  10. Shakurova M. (2016) “Formirovanie identichnosti sovremennogo rebenka v kontekste sotsiokul'turnoi situatsii ego razvitiia” [Formation of identity of the contemporary child in the context of socio-cultural situation of his or her development]. Vestnik PSTGU. Ser. IV: Pedagogika. Psikhologiia, 2 (41), p. 15–26 (in Russian).
  11. Shchurkova N., Popova S., Potanina L. (2011) Obuchenie v protsesse vospitaniia shkol5nika. Rukovodstvo dlia zamestitelia direktora shkoly po uchebnomu protsessu [Training in the process of education of the student. Guidance for the deputy director for the educational process]. Moscow, part 3 (in Russian).
  12. Skliarova T. (2007) “Vozrastnye osobennosti razvitiia detei i vospriiatiia materiala dukhovnonravstvennogo soderzhaniia” [Age peculiarities of children's development and perception of material of spiritual and moral content]. Vestnik PSTGU. Ser. IV: Pedagogika. Psikhologiia, 4 (7), p. 20–40 (in Russian).
  13. Tolstykh A. (ed.) (1996) “Neizvestnyi klassik” [Unknown classic], in Erikson E. Identichnost': Iunost' i krizis [Identity: Youth and the crisis]. Moscow, p. 5–19 (in Russian).
  14. Vodolazhskaia T. (2010) “Identichnost' grazhdanskaia” [The civil identity]. Obrazovatel'naia politika, 5–6, p. 140–142 (in Russian).

Soloveva Elena


Academic Degree: Candidate of Sciences* in Philology;
Academic Rank: Associate Professor;
Place of work: Cherepovets State University, 5 Pr. Lunacharskogo, Cherepovets 162600, Russian Federation;
Post: Associate Professor;
ORCID: 0000-0002-3730-0694;
Email: esk63@mail.ru.

*According to the International Standard Classification of Education (ISCED) 2011, the degree of Candidate of Sciences (Cand.Sc.) belongs to ISCED level 8 — "doctoral or equivalent", together with PhD, DPhil, D.Lit, D.Sc, LL.D, Doctorate or similar.


Popova Svetlana


Academic Degree: Doctor of Sciences* in Education;
Academic Degree: Candidate of Sciences* in Education;
Academic Rank: Associate Professor;
Place of work: Cherepovets State University; 5 Pr. Lunacharskogo, Cherepovets 162600, Russian Federation;
Post: Leading Researcher;
ORCID: 0000-0002-2677-1917;
Email: psvetlana2015@mail.ru.

*According to the International Standard Classification of Education (ISCED) 2011, the degree of Candidate of Sciences (Cand.Sc.) belongs to ISCED level 8 — "doctoral or equivalent", together with PhD, DPhil, D.Lit, D.Sc, LL.D, Doctorate or similar.

Yakovleva Maria

Micro-society as a factor in victimisation of a person

Yakovleva Maria (2020) "Micro-society as a factor in victimisation of a person ", Vestnik Pravoslavnogo Sviato-Tikhonovskogo gumanitarnogo universiteta. Seriia IV : Pedagogika. Psihologiia, 2020, Iss. 58, pp. 35-45 (in Russian).

DOI of the paper: 10.15382/sturIV202058.35-45
This article deals with the issue of micro-society (a term is created by A. Mudrik) as a factor of turning a person into a victim of unfavourable conditions of socialisation. It presents statistical data from foreign and national studies and analyses social and psychological, sociological, urban, criminological and environmental theories that reveal the relationship between living conditions in neighbourhoods (i. e. areas, which are identical to the boundaries of micro-society) and victimisation of people who live there. The article specifi es and describes the signs of victimogeneity in urban micro-society, such as a criminal situation in the micro-society; spatial characteristics which increase the risk of becoming a victim of hostile socialisation; low quality of life and low income of people living in the micro-society; low level of collective efficacy; architectural and planning attributes of housing construction in a micro-society; instability and gender-based imbalance; unlawful nature of routine activities of members of the micro-society. The article also describes primary and secondary consequences of victimisation in the micro-society. In the fi nal section, the article states that the above-mentioned characteristics directly or indirectly aff ect people’s health and psychological condition (in particular, the level of aggression, level of stress tolerance, etc.); they also create a specifi c socio-psychological climate that determines the number of actual and potential victims of unfavourable socialisation in micro-society. This article supplements the mainstream discourse on micro-society as a factor of socialisation. The analysis of social deviations that are formed within victimogeneous neighbourhoods brings out the controversial nature of socialisation as a social phenomenon. The material of the article will be useful to social care teachers, psychologists, sociologists, as well as to all those who are interested in the issues of human socialisation in the present-day world.
socialisation, social pedagogy, social-pedagogical victimology, victimisation, victimogeneity, victims of adverse socialisation, micro-society, social deviations, criminality, primary and secondary consequences of victimisation
  1. Gibson C., Morris Z., Beaver K. (2009) “Secondary exposure to violence during childhood and adolescence: Does neighborhood context matter?”. Justice Quarterly, 26, p. 30–57.
  2. Hindelang M. S., Gottfredson M., Garofalo J. (1978) Victims of personal crime. Cambridge.
  3. Mudrik A. (2010) Sotsializatsiia cheloveka [Human socialisation]. Moscow; Voronezh (in Russian).
  4. Newman O. (1973) Defensible space. Crime prevention through urban design. New York.
  5. Park R., Burgess E. W., McKenzie R. D. (1925) The City. Chicago.
  6. Regoli R. M, Hewitt J. D., DeLisi M. (2016) Delinquency in society. Burlington.
  7. Rose D. R., Clear T. R. (1998) “Incarceration, social capital, and crime: Implications for social disorganization theory”. Criminology, 36, p. 441–480.
  8. Ruback R. B., Thompson M. R. (2001) Social and Psychological Consequences of Violent Victimization. London; New Delhi.
  9. Sampson R. J., Lauritsen J. L. (1994) “Violent victimization and off ending: Individual-, situational- and community-level risk factors”, in: Reiss A. J., Roth J. A. (eds) Understanding and preventing violence. Washington, vol. 3, p. 1–114.
  10. Sampson R. J., Raudenbush S. W., Earls F. (1997) “Neighborhoods and violent crime: A multilevel study of collective effi cacy”. Science, 277, p. 918–924.
  11. Sharkey P. T. (2006) “Navigating dangerous streets: The sources and consequences of street efficacy”. American Sociological Review, 2006, 71, p. 826–846.
  12. Siegel L. G. (2010) Criminology: The core. Belmont.
  13. Skogan W. G. (1990) Disorder and decline: Crime and the spiral of decay in American neighborhood. New York.
  14. Taylor R., Hale M. (1986) “Testing alternative models of fear of crime”. Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology, 77, p. 151–189.
  15. Wilson J. Q., Kelling G. L. (1982) “Broken windows. The police and neighborhood safety”. The Atlantic Monthly, 249 (3), p. 29–38.

Yakovleva Maria


Academic Degree: Candidate of Sciences* in Education;
Place of work: Moscow State Pedagogical University; 6 Sukharevskiy pereulok, Moscow 127051, Russian Federation;
ORCID: 0000-0003-1335-5874;
Email: petrinamg@mail.ru.

*According to the International Standard Classification of Education (ISCED) 2011, the degree of Candidate of Sciences (Cand.Sc.) belongs to ISCED level 8 — "doctoral or equivalent", together with PhD, DPhil, D.Lit, D.Sc, LL.D, Doctorate or similar.

Ivlyanova Ekaterina

The basics of Orthodoxy in the first Russian printed ABC-books of the 16th century

Ivlyanova Ekaterina (2020) "The basics of Orthodoxy in the first Russian printed ABC-books of the 16th century ", Vestnik Pravoslavnogo Sviato-Tikhonovskogo gumanitarnogo universiteta. Seriia IV : Pedagogika. Psihologiia, 2020, Iss. 58, pp. 46-56 (in Russian).

DOI of the paper: 10.15382/sturIV202058.46-56
The study of first-printed ABC-books has attracted attention of scientists for many years. In most cases, the studies are devoted to the history of the first printed books, the methods of teaching grammar to children, the structure of these textbooks, the problems of spiritual and moral education of children by means of their first book. The article aims at identifying the potential of the first printed educational ABC-books as sources of religious education. The material of research comprises the Western European primer published in Germany in 1561, the ABC-book of Ivan Fedorov from 1578, the ABC-book of Zizania Lavrentiy from 1596. The article gives a comparative analysis of these books and emphasises fundamental confessional differences between the Western European edition and the Russian edition. The specificity of the article required the use of a comparative and historical method involving the comparison of objects that existed in different geographical locations. The study presents and compares data on religious topics in the fi rst printed ABC-books. When analysing the religious content of the fi rst educational books, the analytical and thematical methods were also used to identify thematic characteristics, thematic rubrication of ABC-books. As a result of the research, it can be concluded that the first Russian printed ABCbooks used Western European books as examples, and off ered students a certain array of religious pieces of information that had a catechetical character.
church school, Orthodox education, fundamentals of Orthodoxy, catechism, printed book, ABC-book, spiritual and moral education
  1. Agadzhanov B. (2010) “Sozdateli pervykh uchebnykh knig dlia nachalnogo obucheniya gramote — bukvarei i azbuk XVI — pervoi chetverti XVIII vv.” [The creators of the first educational books for primary literacy — ABC-books of the 16th — first quarter of the 18th centuries]. Problemy sovremennogo obrazovaniia, 2, p. 50–57.
  2. Belenchuk L. (2016) “Pedagogicheskiie idei Moskovskogo gosudarstva XVI v.” [“Pedagogical ideas of the Moscow state of the 16th century”]. Vestnik PSTGU. Ser. IV: Pedagogika. Psikhologiia, 3 (43), p. 61–73 (in Russian).
  3. Divnogortseva S. (2013) Osnovy pravoslavnoi pedagogicheskoi kul’tury. [Fundamentals of Orthodox pedagogical culture]. Moscow (in Russian).
  4. Divnogortseva S. (2017) “Pravoslavnaia kultura v russkikh bukvariakh i azbukakh dorevolutsionnogo perioda” [Orthodox culture in Russian ABC-books of the pre-Revolutionary period]. Paskhalnyie chteniia. Materialy XIV Mezhvuzovskoi nauchno-metodicheskoi konferentsii. Moscow, p. 56–61 (in Russian).
  5. Divnogortseva S. (2011) “Pravoslavnaia pedagogicheskaia kul’tura Rossii” [Orthodox pedagogical culture of Russia]. Vestnik PSTGU. Ser. IV: Pedagogika. Psikhologiia, (20), p. 71–80 (in Russian).
  6. Divnogortseva S. (2017). “Traditsii pravoslavnoi kultury i fol’klor v russkikh bukvariakh i azbukakh” [Traditions of Orthodox culture and folklore in Russian ABC-books]. Fenomen tvorcheskoi lichnosti v kulture [Phenomenon of a creative person in culture]. Мoscow, p. 142–150 (in Russian).
  7. Moshkova L. (2012) “«Veter c zapada»: k voprosu o evropeiskom vliianii na vostochnoslavianskiie bukvari 16 — pervoi treti 17 vv.” [The wind from the West: On the question of European influence on the East Slavic primaries of the 16th — fi rst third of the 17th centuries”]. Otechestvennaia i zarubezhnaia pedagogika, 4 (7), p. 30–39 (in Russian).
  8. Nemirovskii E. (2011) Slavianskiye izdaniia kirillovskogo (tserkovnoslavianskogo) shrifta 1491‒2000. Inventar’ sokhranivshikhsia ekzempliarov i ukazatel’ literatury [Slavic editions of Cyrillic (Church Slavonic) printing 1491‒2000. Inventory of preserved copies and index of literature], vol. 2, book 1 1551–1592. Moscow (in Russian).
  9. Nemirovskii E. (1983) Ostrozhskaia azbuka Ivana Fedorova. Issledovanie slovoukazatel' [Ostrog ABC-book of Ivan Fedorov. Study keyword index]. Moscow (in Russian).

Ivlyanova Ekaterina


Student status: Graduate student;
Place of study: Sunday School of Church of St. Dimitriy, Metropolitan of Rostov, in Ochakovo; 22A/2 Pervaya Chobotovskaya alleya, Moscow 119519, Russian Federation;
ORCID: 0000-0001-7360-0187;
Email: katenela@mail.ru.
This article was supported by a grant from the PSTGU Development Fund “School religious (christian) education in Russia and abroad: historical experience, problems and prospects”.
Pashkova Tatiana

Secondary school textbooks in Russian history in catalogues of Ministry of Public Education (1860–1916)

Pashkova Tatiana (2020) "Secondary school textbooks in Russian history in catalogues of Ministry of Public Education (1860–1916) ", Vestnik Pravoslavnogo Sviato-Tikhonovskogo gumanitarnogo universiteta. Seriia IV : Pedagogika. Psihologiia, 2020, Iss. 58, pp. 57-73 (in Russian).

DOI of the paper: 10.15382/sturIV202058.57-73
The article studies the textbooks in Russian history for secondary schools, recommended for use by the Ministry of Public Education during the 19th — early 20th centuries. The purpose of the article is to characterise the overall content of these textbooks, analyse the structure and dynamics of their composition, the status and period of being included in catalogues of the ministry. The article concludes that the situation with textbooks in Russian history underwent a signifi cant evolution during the studied period. In the fi rst half of the 19th century, there was a lack of educational literature for secondary school; the ministry offi cially approved only two books by prominent historians, i.e. by I. K. Kaydanov and N. G. Ustryalov. Since the beginning of the 1880s, the number of authors who published textbooks in Russian history and the number of books that had parallel circulation, started to increase. The Ministry approved the use of textbooks written by not only professional scholars, but also by ordinary teachers of gymnasiums and schools (both in the capitals and in provinces). Thus, secondary schools were theoretically provided with a wide selection of textbooks. The study revealed the circle of the most successful authors whose textbooks were kept in the catalogues of the ministry for decades. On the other hand, some books entered the registries for a very short time, sometimes once. But regardless of the length of time, the authors were supported by the Ministry, the majority repeatedly reprinted their texts, which may indirectly point to the relevance of the latter in school teaching. The study of the catalogues of textbooks allows us to identify certain priorities of the department as to the content and method of presentation of materials on Russian history; it also allows one to study the requirements for the technical side of textbooks.
Ministry of Public Education, Scientifi c Committee, textbooks catalogues, schoolbooks in Russian history, educational policy, secondary school
  1. Fuks A. (2017) Shkol’nye uchebniki po otechestvennoi istorii kak istoriografi cheskii fenomen (konets XVII v. — vtoraia polovina 1930-kh gg.) [School textbooks in Russian history as a historiographic phenomenon (late 17th century — the second half of the 1930s)]. Moscow (in Russian).
  2. Pashkova T., Kameneva E., Karasev E., Kutsevalov N., Russkova D. (2019) “Katalogi uchebnykh knig dlia srednikh uchebnykh zavedenii vedomstva Ministerstva narodnogo prosveshcheniya: k istorii vosniknoveniia (1830-e — 1860-е gg.)” [The catalogues of textbooks for secondary schools of the Ministry of Public Education: The study of their emergence (1830s — 1860s)]. Voprosy obrazovaniia, 3, p. 257–275 (in Russian).
  3. Pashkova T., Kameneva E., Karasev E., Kutsevalov N., Russkova D. (2019) “Katalogi uchebnykh knig dlia srednikh uchebnykh zavedenii vedomstva Ministerstva narodnogo prosveshcheniia: printsipy sostavleniia, struktura, evolutsiia (vtoraia polovina XIX — nachalo XX v.)” [The catalogues of textbooks for secondary schools of the Ministry of Public Education: Principles of compilation, structure, evolution (second half of the 19th — beginning of the 20th centuries). Voprosy obrazovaniia, 4, p. 276–293 (in Russian).
  4. Studenikin M. (2016) Metodika prepodavaniia istorii v russkoi shkole XIX — nachala XX v. [Methods of teaching history in the Russian school of the 19th — early 20th centuries]. Мoscow (in Russian).

Pashkova Tatiana


Academic Degree: Candidate of Sciences* in History;
Academic Rank: Associate Professor;
Place of work: Herzen State Pedagogical University; 48 Naberezhnaya reki Moiki, St. Petersburg 191186, Russian Federation;
Post: Associate Professor, Department of Russian History;
ORCID: 0000-0001-7504-6298;
Email: tatianapashkova22@gmail.com.

*According to the International Standard Classification of Education (ISCED) 2011, the degree of Candidate of Sciences (Cand.Sc.) belongs to ISCED level 8 — "doctoral or equivalent", together with PhD, DPhil, D.Lit, D.Sc, LL.D, Doctorate or similar.

The research was supported by Russian Foundatiaon for Basic Research, project № 19-013-00260А "The historical policy of the Ministry of Public Education in the mirror of secondary schools’ textbooks on Russian history (XIX - early XX centuries).
Kurovskaya Yulia

The history of primary school textbooks: developing Vitaly Grigorievich Bezrogov’s academic ideas

Kurovskaya Yulia (2020) "The history of primary school textbooks: developing Vitaly Grigorievich Bezrogov’s academic ideas ", Vestnik Pravoslavnogo Sviato-Tikhonovskogo gumanitarnogo universiteta. Seriia IV : Pedagogika. Psihologiia, 2020, Iss. 58, pp. 74-83 (in Russian).

DOI of the paper: 10.15382/sturIV202058.74-83
The article addresses the major parts of the scientifi c legacy of Vitaly Grigorievich Bezrogov. It outlines the main ideas of his studies in the fi eld of the history of educational literature for the primary school in various periods of development of culture and education. The article highlights the following directions of his academic activity: the study of development and specifi city of the linguistic picture of the world which is concealed in German textbooks for primary school of the 16th — 17th centuries; the study of features of the urban discourse in educational literature for primary school in Russia of the 20th century. The article describes the concept of Urbs — the City — portrayed in Orbis pictus by John Amos Comenius’ and formed by its cognitive features which in their unity refl ect various sides of the urban space. In Comenius’ Encyclopaedia of Visible World (widely known as The Visible World in Pictures or Orbis Pictus), the city is pervaded by the “spirit of geometry” and is exquisite in its inner logic and strictness of lines. It is presented for the child as an integral constituent of the world of man, the place of his mental and physical strength and the centre of his vital energy, the space of his socialisation and the milieu of his assimilation of culture; the territory where his skills and abilities, innate and acquired in urban life, come to practice. The article stresses the value of Vitaly Grigorievich Bezrogov’s contribution to the contemporary pedagogical studies and to the theory of education; it also discusses the ways of further development of the scholar’s ideas.
Vitaly Grigorievich Bezrogov, Comenius, history of teaching, scientific legacy, primary education, picture of the world, urban discourse, student, textbook
  1. Bezrogov V. (2016) “Uchebnik i ego istoriia kak predmet pedagogicheskogo issledovaniia” [Textbook and its history as a topic of pedagogical research], in R. Boziev, V. Pichugina, V. Serikov (eds). Metodologiia nauchnogo issledovaniia v pedagogike [Methodology of scientific research in pedagogy]. Moscow, p. 171–175 (in Russian).
  2. Bezrogov V. (2017) “K voprosu o rannikh perevodakh “Orbis sensualium pictus” Yana Amosa Komenskogo na russkii iazyk” [Early unpublished Russian translations of Orbis Sensualius Pictus by John Amos Comenius]. Vestnik PSTGU. Ser. IV: Pedagogika. Psikhologiia, 45, p. 11– 30 (in Russian).
  3. Bezrogov V. (2017) “Torzhestvo raznorechiia: Orbis sensualium pictus v kontekste pervykh pereizdanii (1653–1703)” [The triumph of many languages: Orbis sensualium pictus in the context of its first reprints (1653–1703)], in Nasledie Yana Amosa Komenskogo: vzgliad iz XXI veka: Materialy mezhdunarodnogo nauchno-prakticheskogo foruma (Sankt-Peterburg, 7–8 iiunia 2017 g.) [The legacy of John Amos Komensky: A view from the 21st century: Materials of the international scientific and practical forum (Saint Petersburg, June 7–8, 2017)]. St. Petersburg, p. 105–117 (in Russian).
  4. Bezrogov V. (2018) “Die un/sichtbare Welt: retseptsiia Orbis Sensualium Pictus Ia. A. Komenskogo v Rossii 1-oi pol. XVIII v.: obrazovatel'nye praktiki i rannie perevody” [Die un/sichtbare Welt: Reception of J. A. Komensky’s Orbis Sensalium Pictus. Pedagogical practices and early translations]. Detskie chteniia, 13, 1, p. 220–284 (in Russian).
  5. Bezrogov V. (2018) “Posobie Komenskogo Vestibulum v russkoyazychnom regione: k istorii pervykh perevodov” [Komensky’s handbook Vestibulum in the Russian-speaking region: On the history of the first translations]. Intellektual'nye traditsii v proshlom i nastoiashchem (issledovaniia i perevody), 4, p. 29–59 (in Russian).
  6. Bezrogov V. (2019) “Uchebnik sredi istoriko-pedagogicheskikh istochnikov” [School textbook as a source for the history of education], in Istochniki issledovaniia o pedagogicheskom proshlom: interpretatsiia problem i problemy interpretatsii. Sbornik nauchnykh trudov mezhdunarodnoi nauchno-prakticheskoi konferentsii [Sources of research on the pedagogical past: Interpretation of problems and problems of interpretation. Collection of scientific papers of the international scientific and practical conference]. Moscow, p. 246–252 (in Russian).
  7. Bezrogov V., Kurovskaya Yu. (2016) “K istorii nazvanii uchebnykh knig kak sposobov organizatsii obrazovatel'noi informatsii: Orbis pictus Komenskogo” [On the history of the titles of educational books as ways of organising educational information: Komensky’s Orbis pictus”], in Simvolicheskaia vselennaia rebenka: mezhdu informatsiei i znaniiami [Symbolic universe of the child: Between information and knowledge]. St. Petersburg, p. 217–224 (in Russian).
  8. Bezrogov V., Kurovskaya Yu. (2016) “Mezhdunarodnyi aspekt obrazovatel'nogo prostranstva: Orbis pictus Komenskogo kak proekt uchebnika dlia vsekh stran” [International aspect of the educational space: Komensky's Orbis pictus as a textbook project for all countries], in Informatsionnoe prostranstvo i deti: obrazovatel'nye vozmozhnosti i manipuliativnye vozdeistviia [Information space and children: Educational opportunities and manipulative effects]. St. Petersburg, p. 298–306 (in Russian).
  9. Bezrogov V., Kurovskaya Yu., Levinson K. (2017) “Pictura et educatio v preddverii Komenskogo: illyustratsiia mezhdu drobnost'iu i tselostnost'iu v zapadnoevropeiskikh uchebnikakh nachala XVII veka” [Picturа et educatio. In anticipation of John Amos Comenius: Illustrations in Western European textbooks of the early 17th century”]. Psikhologo-pedagogicheskii poisk, 2 (42), p. 26–44 (in Russian).
  10. Komenskii Yan A. (1957) Mir chuvstvennykh veshchei v kartinkakh [The visible world in pictures]. Moscow (in Latin and Russian).
  11. Levinson K., Kurovskaya Yu., Bezrogov V. (eds) (2017) Shkol'nye posobiia rannego Novogo vremeni: ot Chasoslova k Orbis sensualium pictus [Early modern schoolbooks: From prayerbook to Orbis sensualium pictus]. Moscow (in Russian).

Kurovskaya Yulia


Academic Degree: Candidate of Sciences* in Philology;
Academic Degree: Doctor of Sciences* in Education;
Academic Rank: Associate Professor;
Place of work: Institute for Strategy of Education Development of the Russian Academy of Education; 16 Zhukovskogo Str., 105062, Moscow, Russian Federation;
Post: Deputy Head of the Chair on Global Education;
ORCID: 0000-0001-7832-9402;
Email: kurovskaja@mail.ru.

*According to ISCED 2011, a post-doctoral degree called Doctor of Sciences (D.Sc.) is given to reflect second advanced research qualifications or higher doctorates.

The reported study was funded by RFBR, project number 20-013-00246.
Kirikova Olga; Kostina Tatiana

Gottlob F. W. Juncker’s proposal “for the introduction of identical books in all schools of Russian Empire”

Kostina Tatiana, Kirikova Olga (2020) "Gottlob F. W. Juncker’s proposal “for the introduction of identical books in all schools of Russian Empire” ", Vestnik Pravoslavnogo Sviato-Tikhonovskogo gumanitarnogo universiteta. Seriia IV : Pedagogika. Psihologiia, 2020, Iss. 58, pp. 84-106 (in Russian).

DOI of the paper: 10.15382/sturIV202058.84-106
In the middle 1730s, Petersburg Academy of Sciences debated whether to make a set of schoolbooks in German and in Russian. This plan was partly carried out, and the books published in 1738‒1748 became a stable part of school education in Russia, being in demand up to the middle 1780s. “Obedient Proposal for the Introduction of Identical Books to all Schools of Russian Empire, that made to Your Excellency Baron von Korff and all Members of the Academy” (“Unmaaßgeblicher Vorschlag an Er. Excell. der Herrn Cammer-Herrn von Korff , als Chef, und die sämtlichen Glieder der Academie der Wissenschaften, die Einführung gleicher Bücher in die sämtlichen Schulen der Russischen Reiches betreff end”, 1735), a report by G. F. W. Juncker discovered in the St. Petersburg Branch of the Archive of the Russian Academy of Sciences, clarifi es both the scale and the details of the plan. The article revises Juncker’s biography, its facts being made more precise and incorporated in the context of the history of pedagogy in Russia; it also analyses the content of the report. This original project is rich in project, rich in ideas that are topical in conditions of development of pedagogical thought in Russia, e.g. the use of multifont and multilanguage ABC-books, the publication of anthologies of prominent authors belonging not only to the Classical Latin, but also to the new German and French literatures, etc. Some ideas described in the project came to be put into practice later, though Juncker’s priority in the utterance and his infl uence on their implementation are not obvious. Being introduced into use, the report will make it possible to broaden the picture of the development of pedagogical thought in Russia as well to study the role of the Academy of Sciences in its formative process.
18th century, history of education, history of Petersburg Academy of Sciences, history textbooks, Johann A. Korff , Gottlob F. W. Juncker
  1. Amburger E. (1961) “Die nichtrussischen Schüler des Akademischen Gymnasiums in St. Petersburg 1726–1750”. Beiträge zur Geschichte der deutsch-russischen kulturellen Beziehungen. Giessen. P. 184–213.
  2. Bezrogov V. (2017) “XVII vek v Severnoi i Tsentral'noi Evrope: ratsionalizm, eruditsiia i mestnyi govor” [The 17th century in Northern and Central Europe: Rationalism, erudition and local speech”], in K. A. Levinson, Yu. G. Kurovskaya, V. G. Bezrogov (eds) Shkol'nye posobiia rannego Novogo vremeni: ot Chasoslova k Orbis sensualium pictus [School textbooks of the Early New Age: From the Book of Hours to Orbis sensualium pictus]. Moscow, p. 270–358 (in Russian).
  3. Bezrogov V. (2018) “Die un/sichtbare Welt: retseptsiia Orbis sensualium pictus Ia. A. Komenskogo v Rossii 1-i pol. XVIII v.: obrazovatel'nye praktiki i rannie perevody” [Die un/sichtbare Welt: reception of Orbis sensualium pictus by J. A. Comenius in Russia of the fi rst half of the 18th century: Educational practices and early translations]. Detskie chteniia, 1, p. 220–284 (in Russian).
  4. Guseva A. (2010) Svod russkikh knig kirillovskoi pechati XVIII veka tipografi i Moskvy i Sankt- Peterburga i universal'naia metodika ikh identifi katsii [The collection of Russian books of the Cyrillic printing of the 18th century from printing houses of Moscow and St. Petersburg and the universal methodology for their identifi cation]. Moscow (in Russian).
  5. Ilizarov S. (ed.) (2006) G. F. Miller. Izbrannye trudy [Selected works]. Moscow (in Russian).
  6. Keipert H. (1987) “Der Fremdsprachenunterricht in der Frühzeit des Petersburger Akademie- Gymnasiums”, in Polata Knigopisnaia: an Information Bulletin Devoted to the Study of Early Slavic Books, Texts and Literatures, 16 (August), p. 68–82.
  7. Kirikova O. (2019) “Shkol'nyi proekt professora G. F. V. Iunkera” (1735) [School project of Professor G.F.V. Junker (1735)], in Nauka i tekhnika: Voprosy istorii i teorii [Science and technology: Issues in history and theory]. St. Petersburg, p. 90–91 (in Russian).
  8. Kirikova O., Kostina T. (2018) “Uchebnye knigi v gimnazii Akademii nauk 1730-kh gg.” [School books at the gymnasium of the Academy of Sciences of the 1730s]. Detskie chteniia, 1, p. 194–219 (in Russian).
  9. Korshunova N. (2010) “Shkol'naia reforma Ekateriny II” [School reform of Catherine II]. Vestnik Cheliabinskogo gosudarstvennogo pedagogicheskogo universiteta, 8, pp. 107–114 (in Russian).
  10. Kostin A., Kostina T. (2019) “«Russkii avtor» v 1739 godu: T. 3. Baier, I. I. Taubert i formirovanie russkogo shkol'nogo kanona” [““Russian author” in 1739: T. 3. Bayer, I. I. Taubert and the formation of the Russian school canon”]. Slověne = Slovѣne: International Journal of Slavic Studies, 8/2, p. 163–197 (in Russian).
  11. Madariaga I. de. (1979) “The Foundation of the Russian Educational System by Catherina II”. The Slavonic and East European Review, 57/3, p. 369–395.
  12. Metzger E. A., Metzger M. M. (Hrsgg) (1991) Herrn von Hoff mannswaldau und andrer Deutschen auserlesener und bissher ungedruckter Gedichte: Benjamin Neukirchs Anthologie: Bd 7: Nach dem Druck vom Jahre 1727 mit einer kritischen Einleitung und Lesarten; sowie einem Anhang Poetischer Staar-Stecher (1730). Tübingen.
  13. Nemirovskii E., Shustova Iu. E. (2015) “Kirillicheskie Azbuki i Bukvari XVI–XVIII vv.: bibliografi cheskii svod izdanii” [Cyrillic ABC-books and primers of the 16th — 18th centuries: Bibliographic synopsis of editions”], in Tendriakova M., Bezrogov V. (eds) “V Rossii nado zhit' po knige”: nachal'noe obuchenie chteniiu i pis'mu (stanovlenie uchebnoi knigi v XVI–XIX vv.) [“One must live by a book in Russia”: Elementary teaching of literacy (The formation of a textbook in the 16th — 19th centuries)]. Moscow, p. 185–337 (in Russian).
  14. Neugebauer W. (1985) Absolutistischer Staat und Schulwirklichkeit in Brandenburg-Preussen. Berlin; New York.
  15. Pumpianskii L. (1936) “Trediakovskii i nemetskaia shkola razuma” [Trediakovsky and the German school of reason], in Zhirmunskii V. (ed.) Zapadnyi sbornik [Western collection]. Moscow; Leningrad, p. 157–186 (in Russian).
  16. Ramazanova D., Shustova Iu. (2018) Kirillicheskie Bukvari iz sobraniia Nauchno-issledovatel'skogo otdela redkikh knig Rossiiskoi gosudarstvennoi biblioteki: opisanie izdanii i ekzempliarov [Cyrillic ABC-books from the collection of the Research Department of Rare Books of the Russian State Library: Description of publications and copies], Moscow (in Russian).
  17. Rjéoutski V. (2018) “Migrants and language learning in Russia (late 17th — fi rst half of 18th c.)”. Paedagogica Historica, 54/6, p. 691–703.
  18. Rzheutskii V. (2013) “Vospitanie i obrazovanie” [Upbringing and education”], in Karp S. (ed.) Vsemirnaia istoriia [World history], 4. Moscow, p. 161–179 (in Russian).
  19. Sergeev M. (2019) “K voprosu o znachenii nemetskikh uchebnykh posobii dlia prepodavaniia frantsuzskogo iazyka v Rossii v XVIII v.” [On the signifi cance of German textbooks for teaching French in Russia in the 18th century]. Journal of applied linguistics and lexicography, 1/1, p. 102–116 (in Russian).
  20. Shmidt Kh. (1999) “Russkaia tema v nauchnoi publitsistike g. Galle i Gall'skogo universiteta v seredine XVIII v.” [The Russian theme in the scientifi c journalism of the city of Halle and the University of Halle in the middle of the 18th century”], in XVIII vek, vol. 21. Pamiati Pavla Naumovicha Berkova (1896–1969) [The 18th century. In memoriam Pavel Naumovich Berkov (1896–1969)]. St. Petersburg, p. 108–118 (in Russian).
  21. Smagina G. (2010) “Akademiia nauk i sozdanie uchebnoi literatury v XVIII v.” [Academy of Sciences and the creation of educational literature in the XVIII century], in Alferov Zh. (ed.) Akademiia nauk v istorii kul'tury Rossii XVIII–XX vekov [Academy of Sciences in the history of Russian culture of the XVIII–XX centuries]. St. Petersburg, p. 11–38 (in Russian). Ustavy Akademii nauk SSSR (1974) [Statutes of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR]. Moscow (in Russian).
  22. Winter E. (1953) Halle als Ausgangspunkt der deutschen Russlandkunde in 18. Jahrhundert. Berlin.
  23. Zhivov V. M. (2017) Istoriia iazyka russkoi pis'mennosti [History of the Russian writing language], vol. 2. Moscow (in Russian).

Kirikova Olga


Academic Rank: Senior Research Fellow;
Place of work: St. Petersburg Branch of the Archive of the Russian Academy of Sciences; 1 Universitetskaya nab., St. Petersburg 199034, Russian Federation;
Post: Senior Researcher;
ORCID: 0000-0002-2527-5815;
Email: kirikova.o@bk.ru.

Kostina Tatiana


Academic Degree: Candidate of Sciences* in History;
Place of work: St. Petersburg Institute of History of the Russian Academy of Sciences; 7 Petrozavodskaya Str., St. Petersburg 197110, Russian Federation;
Post: Researcher;
ORCID: 0000-0002-5136-4328;
Email: tanyabizyaeva@yandex.ru.

*According to the International Standard Classification of Education (ISCED) 2011, the degree of Candidate of Sciences (Cand.Sc.) belongs to ISCED level 8 — "doctoral or equivalent", together with PhD, DPhil, D.Lit, D.Sc, LL.D, Doctorate or similar.

This article was prepared with the support of the Russian Foundation for Basic Research, project No. 18-013-00595.
Šor Tatjana

Teacher training seminaries in Baltic countries in the early 20th century

Šor Tatjana (2020) "Teacher training seminaries in Baltic countries in the early 20th century ", Vestnik Pravoslavnogo Sviato-Tikhonovskogo gumanitarnogo universiteta. Seriia IV : Pedagogika. Psihologiia, 2020, Iss. 58, pp. 107-128 (in Russian).

DOI of the paper: 10.15382/sturIV202058.107-128
The article studies the structure and activities of teacher training seminaries in the Baltic countries at the beginning of the 20th century. The end of the 19th — beginning of the 20th centuries was marked by an intensive development of the education system in the Russian Empire. It was most developed in the Western outskirts, where, according to the census of 1897, the highest percentage of literacy of the local population was observed. Teacher training seminaries in the Baltic countries already had a certain tradition in line with the Prussian models. They were funded by the local nobility. The lessons were in the German, Latvian, and Estonian languages. In 1870, the fi rst government-run Baltic-region teacher training seminary was estabslished, with Russian as a language of instruction. Prior to World War I, teachers’ seminaries with Russian a language of instruction operated in three Baltic provinces, i.e. two in Courland (Kuldīga, founded in 1870 and Ilūkste, 1910), two in Livland (Tartu, 1878, and Valmiera, 1894) and one in Estland (Rakvere, 1912). They trained 449 persons; 100 students completed the full course with a degree of primary school teacher, and 117 were accepted as students. There was a plan to open a teachers’ seminary for women in Võru. In connection with the evacuation of educational institutions from the occupied Western territories, the network of local teachers’ seminaries ceased to fulfi l its primary function of providing personnel for local government-run schools. In Estonia and Latvia, teaching seminaries with the Russian language of instruction ceased to function after 1918.
teachers’ seminaries, Baltic provinces, Latvia, Estonia, Kuldiga, Tartu, Valga, Valmiera, Ilukste, Rakvere
  1. Allese E. (ed.) (2002) Rakvere Õpetajate Seminar 1912–1957 [Rakvere teachers’ seminar]. Tallinn.
  2. Feigmane T. (2003) “Deputaty-staroobryadtsy v Latviiskom Seime” [Old Believer Deputies in the Latvian Sejm], in Russkie v Latvii. Vyp. 3. Iz istorii i kul'tury staroveriya [Russians in Latvia. Issue 3. From the history and culture of Old Believers]. Riga. P. 183–205 (in Russian).
  3. Ivanov I. (2008) “Kallistratov M. A.”, in Vydaiushchiesia russkie latviitsy. Biografi cheskii spravochnik [The outstanding Russian Latvians. Biographical reference]. Riga, p. 58 (in Russian).
  4. Jõgi M. (1998) “Raam, Voldemar-Oskar”, in: Rannap H. (ed.) Eesti kooli biograafi line leksikon [Estonian school biographical lexicon]. Tallinn, p. 193–194 (in Estonian).
  5. Ķestere I. (2005) “Irlavas skolotāju seminārs” [Irlava teachers’ seminar]. Latvijas enciklopēdija. Rīga.
  6. Kiirats M., Põld P., Tork J. (eds) (1929) Tartu Õpetajate Seminar 1828–1928 [Tartu teachers’ seminar]. Tartu.
  7. Klasovskaia O. (2006) Otechestvennye uchebniki po pedagogike kak sredstvo professional'nogo obrazovaniia uchitelei: Vtoraia polovina XIX — nachalo XX veka [Russian textbooks in pedagogy as a means of professional education of teachers: The second half of the 19th — early 20th centuries]. Piatigorsk (in Russian).
  8. Laul E. (ed.) (1989) Eesti kooli ajalugu [History of Estonian School, 12th Century — 1860]. Tallinn.
  9. Moskovkin V., Sadovski M. (2017) “Rol' uchebnogo posobiia P. E. Roshchina «Ocherk glavnykh prakticheskikh polozhenii pedagogiki, didaktiki i metodiki, primenennoi k uchebnym predmetam nachal'nogo obrazovaniia» v sisteme dorevoliutsionnogo rossiiskogo obrazovaniia” [The role of P. E. Roshchin’s manual “Outline of the main practical provisions of pedagogy, didactics and methodology applied to the subjects of primary education” in the system of pre-Revolutionary Russian education]. Alma mater. Vuzovskaia Nauka. Vestnik vysshei shkoly, 8, p. 114–118 (in Russian).
  10. Smirnova V. (2014) “K 155-letiiu so dnia rozhdeniia Mikhaila Ivanovicha Demkova” [On the 155th anniversary of Mikhail Ivanovich Demkov]. Istoriko-pedagogicheskii zhurnal, 2, p. 20–25 (in Russian).
  11. Teedema L. (ed.) (2006) Arhiivijuht II. Haridus. Teadus. Tartu.
  12. Tomāss Ed. (ed.) (1940) Baltijas skolotāju seminārs 1870–1919 [Baltic teachers’ seminar 1870– 1919]. Riga.
  13. Ushinskii K. (1988) “Proekt uchitel'skoi seminarii” [Project of a teachers’ seminary], in Pedagogicheskie sochineniia v 6 tomakh [Pedagogical works in 6 vols], vol. 2. Moscow (in Rus sian).
  14. Vičs A. (1940) Latviesu skolu vēsture. Piektā grāmata. Laikmets no 1905–1915 [History of Latvian school. The fifthbook. The period of 1905–1915]. Riga (in Latvian).
  15. Zhukov L. (1980) Podgotovka narodnykh uchitelei v Lifliandskoi i Kurliandskoi guberniiakh v epokhu kapitalizma [Training of teachers in Livonia and Courland in the era of capitalism]. Riga (in Russian).

Šor Tatjana


Academic Degree: Candidate of Sciences* in Philology;
Place of work: Independent Researcher;
ORCID: 0000-0002-4584-7622;
Email: tshor2006@gmail.com.

*According to the International Standard Classification of Education (ISCED) 2011, the degree of Candidate of Sciences (Cand.Sc.) belongs to ISCED level 8 — "doctoral or equivalent", together with PhD, DPhil, D.Lit, D.Sc, LL.D, Doctorate or similar.

Ilyukha Olga

Exploring forbidden and mysterious places by children in a new soviet town: the case of post-war Sortavala

Ilyukha Olga (2020) "Exploring forbidden and mysterious places by children in a new soviet town: the case of post-war Sortavala ", Vestnik Pravoslavnogo Sviato-Tikhonovskogo gumanitarnogo universiteta. Seriia IV : Pedagogika. Psihologiia, 2020, Iss. 58, pp. 129-143 (in Russian).

DOI of the paper: 10.15382/sturIV202058.129-143
This article demonstrates how children looked at and explored the landscape of a town ceded from Finland to the USSR during World War II. As opposed to their parents, the generation born after the war was exploring and assimilating the spaces of Sortavala as their own, natural, granted from the very beginning. Children did not have post-war fears of adults as to the possible return of the previous residents of the town, nor did they have doubts about becoming rooted in the land that only recently had become Soviet. The spatial organisation of the Soviet childhood was subject to unifi - cation and control by adults. But children created their own topography of the urban milieu which had its “locations of freedom”, feebly controlled or not controlled at all by adults. There were their own rules where their games and dreams could be made real. In the confi nes of these locations, children’s mythological ideas about the world found their expression most vividly. It is noteworthy that in Sortavala such places, among others, were Finnish cemeteries. These were zones of cultural alienation for adults. The article pays attention to the places of the town that were free from prohibitions and which due to children’s perception and fantasies acquired features of mystery and attraction. The practices of exploring the urban space by children became part of assimilating the cultural landscape “from below”. It existed contrary to the structured and standardised “exploration of the home land” that was forcibly introduced “from above”. The sources of the article are, primarily, documents in form of memoirs, i.e. memoir texts, including recorded interviews about the childhood, essays and poetry. Due to the fact that they are non-contradictory, accordant in their content and mutually supplementing, they are regarded as an integrated text about Sortavala post-war childhood.
history of childhood, childhood anthropology, urban landscape, territorial behaviour, Sortavala, Karelia, Soviet-Finnish borderlands
  1. Antropova Iu. (2016) “Sovremennyi gorodskoi sotsium i prostranstvo detstva: problemy sopriazhennogo razvitiia” [Modern urban society and the space of childhood: problems of concurrent development]. Izvestiia Saratovskogo universiteta: Sotsiologiia. Politologiia, 16 (2), p. 153–161 (in Russian).
  2. Asonova E. (2010) “Novye tsennosti v detsko-roditel’skikh otnosheniiakh” [New values in parent-child relationships]. Pro et Contra, 1–2 (48), p. 78–93 (in Russian).
  3. Bezrogov V. (2003) “Arkhiv vospominanii o detstve Universiteta Rossiiskoi akademii obrazovaniia” [Archive of childhood memories of the University of the Russian Academy of Education]. Razvitie lichnosti, 1, p. 186–203 (in Russian).
  4. Bezrogov V. (2010) “Pomnit’ nel’zya zabyt’: kollektivnaia pamiat’, vospominaniia o detstve i tema voiny v uchebnikakh dlia nachal’noi shkoly kontsa 1940-kh — nachala 2000-kh gg.” [Remember or forget: collective memory, childhood memories and the theme of war in textbooks for elementary schools in the late 1940s — early 2000s”], in Rozhkov A. (ed.) Vtoraia mirovaia voina v ramkakh detskoi pamiati [World War II as part of children’s memory]. Krasnodar. P. 31–65 (in Russian).
  5. Cherednikova M. (1995) Sovremennaia russkaia detskaia mifologiia v kontekste faktov traditsionnoi kul’tury i detskoi psikhologii [Modern Russian children’s mythology in the context of the facts of traditional culture and child psychology]. Ul’yanovsk (in Russian).
  6. Linnik Iu. (2008) “Moia fennomaniia” [My fennomania”]. Sever, 3–4, p. 222–232 (in Russian).
  7. Osorina M. (2008) Sekretnyi mir detei v prostranstve mira vzroslykh [The secret world of children in the space of the world of adults]. St. Petersburg (in Russian).
  8. Pershina N. (2008) “Dver’ v proshloe ili?..” [Door to the past or?..]. Sever, 3–4, p. 234–238 (in Russian).
  9. Sal’nikova A. (2019) “Gorod detstva v avtobiografi cheskikh narrativakh kazanskikh istorikov” [City of childhood in autobiographical narratives of historians from Kazan]. Vestnik Permskogo universiteta: Istoriya, 1 (44), p. 129–137 (in Russian).
  10. Sal’nikova A. (2017) “Konstruirovanie «detskogo» prostranstva sovetskogo goroda v 1917– 1927 gg. (k postanovke problemy)” [The construction of the “children’s” space of the Soviet city in 1917–1927 (raising the issue)]. Dialog so vremenem. Al’manakh intellektual’noi istorii, 60, p. 222–237 (in Russian).
  11. Toporkov A. (2000) “Detskie sekrety v nauchnom osveshhenii (Obzor sovremennoi literatury po detskomu fol’kloru)” [“Children's secrets in a scientifi c description (a review of contemporary literature on children's folklore)”]. NLO, 5 (45), p. 352–359 (in Russian).

Ilyukha Olga


Academic Degree: Doctor of Sciences* in History;
Academic Degree: Candidate of Sciences* in History;
Academic Rank: Senior Research Fellow;
Place of work: Institute of Linguistics, Literature and History of Karelian Research Centre, Russian Academy of Sciences; 11 Pushkinskaya Str., Petrozavodsk 185910, Republic of Karelia, Russian Federation;
Post: Director of the Institute of Linguistics;
ORCID: 0000-0002-1672-5925;
Email: ilyukha.olga@mail.ru.

*According to the International Standard Classification of Education (ISCED) 2011, the degree of Candidate of Sciences (Cand.Sc.) belongs to ISCED level 8 — "doctoral or equivalent", together with PhD, DPhil, D.Lit, D.Sc, LL.D, Doctorate or similar.

The article was prepared on the state task of the KarRC RAS.