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St. Tikhon’s University Review . Series IV: Pedagogy. Psychology

St. Tikhon’s University Review IV :53

PEDAGOGICAL SCIENCE

Divnogortseva Svetlana

Teaching of orthodox faith and orthodox culture: objectives, methods of training and its result

Divnogortseva Svetlana (2019) "Teaching of orthodox faith and orthodox culture: objectives, methods of training and its result ", Vestnik Pravoslavnogo Sviato-Tikhonovskogo gumanitarnogo universiteta. Seriia IV : Pedagogika. Psihologiia, 2019, Iss. 53, pp. 9-19 (in Russian).

DOI of the paper: 10.15382/sturIV201953.9-19
The author of this article raises the problem of the need for deep and fundamental training of teachers in the basics of religious faith and religious culture. The practice of teaching these subjects in the modern Russian school has been developing for about thirty years, and the availability and synthesis of experience becomes insuffi cient for the eff ective further development of this process. The author of the article expresses her conviction that in Russian educational space it is time for scientifi c research and the emergence of the science of religious faith and religious culture as educational subjects and patterns of teaching them to diff erent age groups, which will form the basis for the training of relevant teaching staff . Using the example of developing a methodology for teaching the elements of Orthodox faith and Orthodox culture, the article manifests the position of the author and her scientifi c school in setting goals for teaching these subjects at school, which “dictate” approaches to the formulation of principles, teaching methods and revealing its results. In the second part of the article, the author presents examples of some of the problems of teaching methods of Orthodox faith and Orthodox culture, which have been revealed up to now and which can become the subject of scientifi c (pedagogical) research, i.e. the logic of making programmes, features of work with terminology, selection of the content of educational books and the formulation of questions and tasks. The main conclusion of the article concerns the fact that the scientifi c development of teaching methods of Orthodox dogmata and Orthodox culture should not lag behind school education or follow it, but should satisfy its needs, orient school teachers to reasonable and eff ective teaching techniques.
teaching methods, Orthodox faith, Orthodox culture, academic subject, spiritual and moral upbringing, pedagogical activity, pedagogical research
  1. Divnogortseva S. (ed.) (2016) Aktual’nye problemy metodiki prepodavaniia pravoslavnoi kul’tury: kollektivnaia monografi ia [Current Issues in Methodology of Teaching Orthodox Culture: a collective monograph]. Moscow (in Russian).
  2. Divnogortseva S., Ageyeva A. (2017) Metodika prepodavaniia kursa «Osnovy pravoslavnoi kul’tury»: uchebnoe posobie [Methods of Teaching the Course «Elements of Orthodox Culture», textbook]. Moscow (in Russian).
  3. Dorofeeva L. (2013) Chelovek smirennyi v agiografi i Drevnei Rusi (XI — pervaia tret’ XVII v.) [The Humble Man in the Hagiography of Ancient Rus’ (11th — First Third of the 17th Centuries]. Kaliningrad (in Russian).
  4. Federal’nyi gosudarstvennyi obrazovatel’nyi standart osnovnogo obshchego obrazovaniia [Federal State Educational Standard of Main General Education], available at https://xn--80abucjiibhv9a.xn--p1ai/%D0%B4%D0%BE%D0%BA%D1%83%D0%BC%D0%B5%D0%BD%D1%82%D1%8B/543 (17.01.2019, in Russian).
  5. Ioann Lestvichnik. Lestvitsa [St. John Climacus. Ladder of Divine Ascent] (1994) Izdanie Sviato-Uspenskogo Pskovo-Pecherskogo monastyria (in Russian).
  6. Zankov L. (1990) Izbrannye pedagogicheskie trudy [Selected Pedagogical Works]. Moscow (in Russian).
  7. Zenkovskiy V., priest (1995) Psikhologiia detstva [Psychology of Childhood]. Ekaterinburg (in Russian).

Divnogortseva Svetlana


Academic Degree: Doctor of Sciences* in Education;
Academic Rank: Associate Professor;
Place of work: St. Tikhon’s Orthodox University for the Humanities; 6/1 Likhov pereulok, Moscow 127051, Russian Federation; Head of the Department;
Post: Head of Department of the pedagogy and methodology of primary education;
ORCID: 0000-0002-4143-2614;
Email: sdivnogortseva@mail.ru.

*According to ISCED 2011, a post-doctoral degree called Doctor of Sciences (D.Sc.) is given to reflect second advanced research qualifications or higher doctorates.

The article was supported by a grant from the PSTSU Development Fund "School religious (Christian) education in Russia and abroad: historical experience, problems and prospects
Teplov Dmitry

Essence and conditions of ecologisation of general education

Teplov Dmitry (2019) "Essence and conditions of ecologisation of general education ", Vestnik Pravoslavnogo Sviato-Tikhonovskogo gumanitarnogo universiteta. Seriia IV : Pedagogika. Psihologiia, 2019, Iss. 53, pp. 20-27 (in Russian).

DOI of the paper: 10.15382/sturIV201953.20-27
This article deals with the role and understanding of ecologisation of education, opportunity of ecologisation of education in primary, main and secondary general education. It proposes main methodological statements that allow one to achieve aims of ecologisation of general education. It demonstrates the essence of the process of ecologisation, clarifi es the mechanism and conditions of implementing ecologisation both in separate study subjects and in the general system of school education and training. Three stages in the ecologisation of general education are distinguished: including ecological information in the sphere of scientifi c knowledge already in the pre-school and primary general education in the context of making children familiar with the environment; orientation towards extracurricular and non-obligatory work of students in the context of project-and-research method and activity-related approach in the process of education and training; ecologisation of the educational environment of the school. The implementation of the process of ecologisation of teaching will be made up of consistent and systematic employment of the following components: ecologisation of the educational environment of the institution and of the relationship “teacher — student”; inclusion of knowledge that have the character of moral education; selection of ecological aspects in subjects of the scientifi c cycle; using an ecological approach, principles, knowledge in the educational material of other disciplines on the foundation of interdissciplinary links; implementing the principle of interrelationship of educational and extracurricular activity on the foundation of integrity and succession of stages in education. Revealing the essence of ecologisation shows that it undoubtedly makes a certain contribution to the foundation of sustainability.
ecologisation of general education, stages of ecologisation of general education, methodological provisions of the process of ecologisation
  1. Dziatkovskaia E. (2013) “Ekologizatsiia kak vzaimodeistvie predmetnogo i aspektnogo soderzhaniia obrazovaniia” [Ecologisation as Interaction of Subject-Related and Aspect- Related Content of Education]. Pedagogika, 4, 24–29 (in Russian).
  2. Kolesova E. (2018) “Ekologicheskaia sostavliaiushchaia federal’nykh gosudarstvennykh standartov i prioritety razvitiia sovremennogo mira” [Ecology as a Component in Federal State Standards, and Priorities of Development of the Modern World], in Gumanitarnye i estestvennonauchnye faktory resheniia ekologicheskikh problem i ustoichivogo razvitiia [Humanities-Related and Science-Related Factors in Solutions to Ecological Problems and Sustainability], pt. 1. Novomoskovsk, pp. 78–87 (in Russian).
  3. Mamedov N. (1995) “Teoreticheskie osnovy ekologicheskogo obrazovaniia” [Theoretical Foundations of Ecological Education], in Ekologicheskoe obrazovanie i ustoichivoe razvitie [Ecological Education and Sustainable Development]. Moscow, pp. 104–112 (in Russian).
  4. Moiseev N. (1996). “Ekologicheskoe obrazovanie i ekologizatsiia obrazovaniia” [Ecological Education and Ecologisation of Education]. Biologiia v shkole, vol. 3, pp. 28–35 (in Russian).
  5. Preobrazovanie nashego mira: Povestka dnia v oblasti ustoichivogo razvitiia na period do 2030 g. [Transformation of Our World: Agenda in the Field of Sustainable Development for the Period till 2030], available at http://unctad.org/meetings/en/SessionalDocuments/ares70d1_ru.pdf (in Russian).
  6. Skvortsov P. (2014) Kontseptsiia fenologicheskoi raboty na stupeni nachal’nogo obshchego obrazovaniia [Concept of Phenological Work on the Stage of Primary General Education]. Moscow (in Russian).
  7. Skvortsov P. (2015) “Formirovanie poznavatel’nykh universal’nykh uchebnykh deistvii v khode provedeniia uchashchimisia nachal’noi shkoly nabliudenii za sezonnymi izmeneniiami v prirode” [Forming Cognitive Universal Study-Related Actions in the Process of Observing Seasonal Changes in Nature by Primary School Students]. Vestnik PSTGU. Ser. IV: Pedagogika. Psikhologiia, vol. 3 (38), pp. 9–19 (in Russian).

Teplov Dmitry


Academic Degree: Doctor of Sciences* in Education;
Place of work: Moscow Region State University; 24 Very Voloshinoi Str., Mytishchi, 141014, Russian Federation;
Post: Professor in Department of Methodology of Teaching Biology, Chemistry, and Ecology;
ORCID: 0000-0001-5826-5659;
Email: eco_dlt@mail.ru.

*According to ISCED 2011, a post-doctoral degree called Doctor of Sciences (D.Sc.) is given to reflect second advanced research qualifications or higher doctorates.

Hezser Catherine

Education in Roman Palestine. Part 2. The contents and procedures of jewish elementary education

Hezser Catherine (2019) "Education in Roman Palestine. Part 2. The contents and procedures of jewish elementary education ", Vestnik Pravoslavnogo Sviato-Tikhonovskogo gumanitarnogo universiteta. Seriia IV : Pedagogika. Psihologiia, 2019, Iss. 53, pp. 28-58 (in Russian).

DOI of the paper: 10.15382/sturIV201953.28-58
In this part of her book “Jewish Literacy in Roman Palestine”, Catherine Hezser deals with the question of what and how Jewish children were taught by teachers in primary education. She demonstrates how the data from Rabbinic texts is combined with information from other written sources, and how, in general, it accords with the Graeco-Roman educational practice. Hezser claims that the image of Torah-centricity of Jewish education was not a Pharisaic-Rabbinic feature. The notion that the Torah made up the national Jewish heritage was probably shared by wider circles in ancient Jewish society. Just as the reading of Homer in Graeco-Roman schools, the focus on the Torah in Jewish education had a fuction of both integrating and diff erentiating the Jewish educated population. The Rabbinic image of Jewish primary education, which focused on the reading of Hebrew letters and fragments of the Torah, may have had some basis in reality. Its goal was to create a community of men with a basic religious education who could serve as Torah readers in synagogues. But this type of education did not have any practical advantages. The loud reading and reciting in Graeco-Roman schools is very reminiscent of the Rabbinic lore which tell of people who were walking past synagogues and other places in which children were taught and who heard that they or their teacher were reciting or repeating texts in Hebrew, i.e. a non-living language. As for teaching how to write, it was, in all likelihood, off ered to laypeople only there, then and to that extent, where and when it was really necessary for practical aims, rather than being considered part of standard elementary education. In the Tannaitic period, instruction in writing was basically limited to scribes, but it probably became more available for all children in Amoraic times. However, this argumentation is not based on any evidence and is therefore not very persuasive.
Roman Palestine, Jewish literacy, Torah, primary education, Rabbinic texts
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Hezser Catherine


Academic Degree: Candidate of Sciences* in History;
Academic Rank: Associate Professor;
Place of work: School of History, Religions and Philosophies; SOAS University of London;
Post: Professor in Department of Religions and Philosophies;
Email: grigerm@yandex.ru.

*According to the International Standard Classification of Education (ISCED) 2011, the degree of Candidate of Sciences (Cand.Sc.) belongs to ISCED level 8 — "doctoral or equivalent", together with PhD, DPhil, D.Lit, D.Sc, LL.D, Doctorate or similar.

Tyulenev Vladimir

Schools of grammarians and rhetors in Italia of the first third of the 6th century

Tyulenev Vladimir (2019) "Schools of grammarians and rhetors in Italia of the first third of the 6th century ", Vestnik Pravoslavnogo Sviato-Tikhonovskogo gumanitarnogo universiteta. Seriia IV : Pedagogika. Psihologiia, 2019, Iss. 53, pp. 59-71 (in Russian).

DOI of the paper: 10.15382/sturIV201953.59-71
This article deals with the fate of antique school in Italy during the reign of Theoderic the Great and his closest successors. The fate of grammar and rhetoric schools is the lens, which allows us to consider such diffi cult issues as adaptation of Roman aristocracy to the barbarian conquest and the infl uence of Christianisation on the Roman school. The article proves that in the context of political crisis in the Latin West, it was in the classical education that Roman aristocracy found a way to save the foundations of Roman civilisation and to provide the reproduction of the aristocracy itself. This interest in functioning of the educational system guaranteed support for both schools in the capitals (Rome and Ravenna) and schools in other cities. On the one hand, representatives of local aristocracy acted as patrons of school teachers, supporting them and providing them with pupils, which is exemplifi ed by the work of Ennodius. On the other hand, representatives of Roman aristocracy at the court of Ostrogothian king (fi rst of all, Flavius Cassiodorus) were drawing attention of the new authorities to the fate of Roman schools and, this way, provided cultural succession in conditions of political transformation. It is also proved that despite the traditional opinion about the conservatism of the school in late Classical Antiquity, the school itself came to be experiencing infl uence of Christianity. On the one hand, Ennodius in his speeches compiled according to the “school canon” raises problems that are important for Christian ethics, i.e. chastity, firm family ties, relations of father and son. On the other hand, along with texts of Classical authors (Cicero, Virgil, Terence), teachers, e.g. Parthenius in Ravenna, start to use in education texts of Christian authors, which demostrates mutual infl uence of school and church.
Ancient Roman Pedagogy, Grammar and Rhetoric, School and Ecclesia, Ennodius, Cassiodorus, Deuterius, Parthenius, Theodericus the Great
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  6. Gasti F. (2013) “Cultura e scuola a Pavia nell’età di Ennodio e Boezio”, in D. Mantovani (ed.) Almum Studium Papiense. Storia dell’Università di Pavia, 1/1 (Milano), pp. 105–114.
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  13. Tyulenev V. (2013) “Ennodii i Pomerii: k istorii odnogo pis’ma” [Ennodius and Pomerius: History of One Letter]. Vestnik Ivanovskogo gosudarstvennogo universiteta. Ser. «Gumanitarnye nauki». 3. «Filologiia. Istoriia. Filosofiia», vol. 3 (6), pp. 69–76 (in Russian).
  14. Tyulenev V. (2018) “Rechi Ennodiia: shkol’naia traditsiia i khristianstvo” [Ennodius’ Speeches: School Tradition and Christianity”]. Vestnik Nizhegorodskogo universiteta im. N. I. Lobachevskogo, vol. 3,0 pp. 57–62 (in Russian).
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Tyulenev Vladimir


Academic Degree: Doctor of Sciences* in History;
Academic Rank: Associate Professor;
Place of work: Ivanovo State University; 39 Ermaka Str., Ivanovo, 153025, Russian Federation;
Post: Professor of the Department of General History and International Relations;
ORCID: 0000-0003-3987-3549;
Email: tyulenev.vl@yandex.ru.

*According to ISCED 2011, a post-doctoral degree called Doctor of Sciences (D.Sc.) is given to reflect second advanced research qualifications or higher doctorates.

Shustova Yuliya

Abc-books for writing skills of the late 17th — early 18th centuries from private collections

Shustova Yuliya (2019) "Abc-books for writing skills of the late 17th — early 18th centuries from private collections ", Vestnik Pravoslavnogo Sviato-Tikhonovskogo gumanitarnogo universiteta. Seriia IV : Pedagogika. Psihologiia, 2019, Iss. 53, pp. 72-89 (in Russian).

DOI of the paper: 10.15382/sturIV201953.72-89
This article deals with two ABC-books for writing skills (Russ. азбуки-прописи) of the late 17th — early 18th centuries kept in private collections. They are of considerable scientifi c interest and complement our knowledge about ABC-books in scrolls and about the culture of teaching writing skills. ABC-books for writing skills are also of interest for the history of educational thought in Russia, are important sources in the history of education and history of study materials in literacy. Both ABC-books are written in columns in tachygraphy (Russ. скоропись) and are manuals in teaching how to write. Both ABC-books are defective, they lack initial segments of the columns. It came to be possible to make oneself familiar with the ABC-books during presales at the Auction House “Litfond” in 2016. The fi rst ABC-book, according to paleographic features dated the late 17th — early 18th centuries, begins from the letter L. This article describes in detail the features of the alphabet, identifi es the sources of the texts included in the ABC-book as examples for writing, analyses the content of the aphorisms. The ABC-book also contains a text written in secret script; its possible reading is proposed. The second ABC-book is dated the end of the 17th — fi rst quarter of the 18th centuries, judging by paleographic features and an exercise text, typical of the time of Peter I. This ABC-book belongs to the type of explanatory ABC-books (Russ. толковая азбука), in which variants of writing of the characters is accompanied by an alphabetic acrostic, which is very frequent both in handwritten ABC-books for writing skills and in printed ABC-books. For the fi rst time, it was printed by Ivan Fedorov in the ABC-book of 1574. The MS begins from the letter I. The article studies the features of the alphabet, gives a detailed description of the acrostic, identifi es its sourses and variae lectiones with regard to the known texts in printed ABC-books and handwritten ABC-books for writing skills. The article also identifi es sources of the texts for exercises in writing which are placed at the end of the ABC-book and analyses their content. The article is accompanied with a supplement, in which the ABC-books in question are published.
ABC-books for writing skills of 17‒18 centuries in scrolls, acquiring writing skills, school and education in Russia, explanatory ABC-books, alphabet acrostic, alphabet, ABC-books
  1. Barabanova E., Bardin S., Bocharova A., Volkova A., Kozhanova A., Mikheeva A., Chistova Iu., Shustova Iu. (2016) Auktsion XXIV. Redkie knigi, avtografy, fotografi i, otkrytki i plakaty [Auction XXIV. Rare Books, Autographs, Photos, Postcards, Posters. Catalogue]. Moscow (in Russian).
  2. Belobrova O. (1968) “Troitse-Sergievskie rukopisi XVI–XVII vv. v Pushkinskom Dome” [Troitse-Sergiev MSs of the 16th — 17th Centuries in Pushkin House]. Trudy otdela drevnerusskoi literatury, 23, Leningrad, 312–318 (in Russian).
  3. Burmistrov S., Bardin S., Bocharova A., Mikheeva A., Chistova Iu. [Shustova Iu.] (2016) Auktsion VII. Redkie knigi, rukopisi, avtografy i fotografi i : Moskva, 4 fevr. 2016 g.: katalog [Auction VII. Rare Books, MSs, Autographs, and Photos. Catalogue]. Moscow (in Russian).
  4. Bush V. (1920) Starinnyia azbuki-propisi [Antique ABC-Books for Writing Skills]. Petrograd (in Russian).
  5. Demkova N., Droblenkova N. (1968) “K izucheniiu slavianskikh azbuchnykh stikhov” [On the Study of Slavonic Alphabetical Verses]. Trudy otdela drevnerusskoi literatury, vol. 23, pp. 27–61 (in Russian).
  6. Dubovik V. (2011). Azbuki-propisi XVII–XVIII vv.: issledovanie i teksty [ABC-Books for Writing Skills: Study and Texts]. Tiumen’ (in Russian).
  7. Grushevs’kii M. (1996). Istoriia ukraїns’koї lіteraturi [History of Ukrainian Literature], vol. 6. Kiїv (in Ukrainian).
  8. Khizhniak Z., Kolosova V. (2001). “Kopins’kii”, in Kievo-Mogilians’ka akademiia v imenakh, XVII–XVIII st. [Kyiv-Mohyla Academy in Names. 17th — 18th Centuries]. Kiїv, pp. 280–281 (in Ukrainian).
  9. Luk’ianenko V. (1958) “K istorii russkogo bukvaria: rol’ i znachenie azbuchnogo akrostikha v protsesse obucheniia russkoi gramote v XIV, XV i pervoi polovine XVI vv.” [On the History of Russian ABC-Book: Role and Signifi cance of Aplphabet Acrostic in Teaching Russian Literacy in 14th – 15th and First Half of the 16th Centuries]. Trudy Leningradskogo gosudarstvennogo bibliotechnogo instituta im. N. K. Krupskoi, vol. 4, pp. 239–254 (in Russian).
  10. Lur’e Ia. (1988) “Beseda trekh sviatitelei” [Interlocution of the Three Saints], in Slovar’ knizhnikov i knizhnosti Drevnei Rusi [Dictionary of Scribes and Book Culture of Ancient Rus’], 2/1. Leningrad, pp. 89–93 (in Russian).
  11. Mishina E. (2006). “Azbuki-svitki XVII – XVIII vv.” [Scroll ABC-Books of the 17th — 18th Centuries], in Ot Srednevekov’ia k Novomu vremeni: sbornik statei v chest’ Ol’gi Andreevny Belobrovoi [From Middle Ages to Modern Time. A Collection of Papers in Honour of O. A. Belobrova]. Moscow, pp. 419–431 (in Russian).
  12. Peretts V. (1932). “Studії nad zagadkami” [Studies of Riddles]. Etnografіchnii vіsnik, 10, Kiїv, pp. 123–204 (in Ukrainian).
  13. Pigin A.(2011). “Azbuka-svitok iz Paleostrovskogo monastyria” [Scroll ABC-Book from Paleostrovsky Monastery]. Vestnik Karel’skogo kraevedcheskogo muzeia, vol. 6, pp. 63–71 (in Russian).
  14. Ramazanova D., Shustova Iu. (2018) Kirillicheskie Bukvari iz sobraniia Nauchno-issledovatel’skogo otdela redkikh knig Rossiiskoi gosudarstvennoi biblioteki: opisanie izdanii i ekzempliarov [Cyrillic ABC-Books from Collection of the Research Department of Rare Books, Russian State Library: Description of Editions and Copies]. Moscow (in Russian).
  15. Tvorogov O. (1987) “Pchela”, in Slovar’ knizhnikov i knizhnosti Drevnei Rusi (XI — pervaia polovina XIV v.) [Dictionary of Scribes and Book Culture of Ancient Rus’ (11th — First Half of the 14th Centuries)], vol. 1. Leningrad, pp. 382–387 (in Russian).

Shustova Yuliya


Academic Degree: Candidate of Sciences* in History;
Academic Rank: Associate Professor;
Place of work: Russian State University for the Humanities; 6 Miusskaya Sq., Moscow, 125993, Russian Federation; Russian State Library; 3/5 Vozdvizhenka Str., Moscow, 119019, Russian Federation;
Post: Professor;
ORCID: 0000-0002-8909-4976;
Email: shustova@yandex.ru.

*According to the International Standard Classification of Education (ISCED) 2011, the degree of Candidate of Sciences (Cand.Sc.) belongs to ISCED level 8 — "doctoral or equivalent", together with PhD, DPhil, D.Lit, D.Sc, LL.D, Doctorate or similar.

Salnikova Alla

Abc-books for baptised tatars of the second half of the 19th — first decades of the 20th centuries

Salnikova Alla (2019) "Abc-books for baptised tatars of the second half of the 19th — first decades of the 20th centuries ", Vestnik Pravoslavnogo Sviato-Tikhonovskogo gumanitarnogo universiteta. Seriia IV : Pedagogika. Psihologiia, 2019, Iss. 53, pp. 90-101 (in Russian).

DOI of the paper: 10.15382/sturIV201953.90-101
This article deals with the history of the Baptised-Tatar ABC-book (Russ. букварь) which was designed for a specifi c ethno-confessional group, namely Volgaand Ural-region Tatars, i.e. baptised Orthodox Tatars (Kryashens). This ethnoconfessional group had been forming mainly during the second half of the 16th — fi rst half of the 18th centuries, after the conquest of the Khanate of Kazan in 1552 and its inclusion in the Russian state. The article gives a detailed description of the fi rst ABC-book for the baptised Tatars: Букварь, краткая священная история, сокращенный катехизис и молитвы (Russ. “ABC-book, concise Holy History, abridged catechism, and prayers”), prepared and published in 1862 by the prominent Russian orientalist, educationalist and missionary N.M. Il’minskiy. Attention is paid to its novel character as an ABC-book in the Tatar language designed in Cyrillic script. The article studies the history of preparation of the ABC-book, the problem of authorship, the problem of adapting the Russian alphabet to Tatar phonetic features. The ABC-book was republished many times up to 1917 and was the only ABC-book for baptised Tatars during all this period. The article also identifi es the role and place of this ABC-book in the integrated system of Christian enlightenment of non-Russian ethnic groups of Russia developed by N.I. Il’minskiy, as well as in the formation of Orthodox religious consciousness among baptised Tatars. Special attention is paid to the fi rst Sovied Baptised- Tatar ABC-books published in the second half of the 1920s in Arabic and then in Latin scripts as a specifi c cultural and historical phenomenon refl ecting the national and educational strategy of Soviet authorities prior to transition to the unifi ed system of school education in the USSR, both as a medium of integrating a child not only into the new Soviet reality, but also into the new Tatar educational and ethno-cultural space which took into account the cultural specifi city of each ethno-cultural group, reaching as far as separate education. Overall, the ABC-book is discussed in the context of the authoritative “imperial” educationl perspective and the adjustment of the Imperial and Soviet educational policy to specifi c conditions of multi-ethnic and multi-confessional environment.
ABC-books, baptised Tatars (Kryashens), Volga-Ural Tatars, state educational policy, multi-ethnic space, multi-confessional space, educational system of N. I. Il’minsky, Soviet “graphic revolutions”, Russian Empire and USSR, second half of 19th century — 1920s
  1. Alekseev I., Shîrîf G. (1926) Iakty iul. Beten suzler metody buencha, komplekslar belen gosprogrammalaryna karatyp kreshen shkollary echen tezelgen bukvar’ ‘’em uku kitaby. Kazan (in Tatar).
  2. Alekseev I., Shîrîf G. (1926) IaŠa avyl. Avyl tatar mekteplere echen beten suzler ysuly belen tezelgen elifba. Kazan (in Tatar).
  3. Aliksij ef I., Grigurij ef A. (1928) Jana tormoş. Ker‰şen şkollar’ ŒsŒn ‰lifba. Qazan (in Tatar).
  4. Aliksij ef I., Grigurij ef A. (1928) Jana tormoş. Ker‰şen şkollar’ ŒsŒn ‰lifbadan suᶇ uqu kitab’. Qazan (in Tatar).
  5. Gorokhov V. (1941) Reaktsionnaia shkol’naia politika tsarizma v otnoshenii tatar Povolzh’ia [Reactionary School Policy of Tsarism towards Volga-Region Tatars]. Kazan’ (in Russian).
  6. Grigor’ev A. (1927) Ker‰shenn‰r arasynda «IaŠalif» m‰s’‰l‰l‰re. Kazan (in Tatar).
  7. Islaev F. (2001) Islam i pravoslavie v Povolzh’e XVIII stoletiia: ot konfrontatsii k terpimosti [Islam and Orthodoxy in Volga Region of the 18th Century: From Confrontation to Tolerance]. Kazan’ (in Russian).
  8. Islaev F. (1999) Pravoslavnye missionery v Povolzh’e [Orthodox Missionaries in Volga Region]. Kazan’ (in Russian).
  9. Iskhakov D. (2006) “Kreshchenye tatary” [Baptised Tatars], in G. Sabirzianov (ed.) Tatarskaia entsiklopediia [Tatar Encyclopaedia], vol. 3. Kazan, 462−464 (in Russian).
  10. Iskhakov R. (2011) Missionerstvo i musul’mane Volgo-Kam’ia [Missionaries and Muslims of Volga and Kama Regions]. Kazan’ (in Russian).
  11. Iskhakov R. (2015) “K istorii sozdaniia pervogo tatarskogo kirillicheskogo alfavita i formirovaniia pis’mennoi traditsii tatar-kriashen (kreshchenykh tatar)” [On the History of Preparation of the First Tatar Cyrillic Alphabet and Development of Written Tradition of Tatars-Kryashens]. Izv. Samarsk. tsentra RAN, vol. 17/3, pp. 319−322 (in Russian).
  12. Iskhakov R. (2015) “Osveshchenie politiki khristianizatsii tatar Volgo-Kam’ia v otechestvennoi dorevoliutsionnoi istoriografi i” [The Study of the Policy of Christianisation of Tatars of the Volga and Kama in Russian Pre-Revolution Historiography]. Kriashenskoe istoricheskoe obozrenie, vol. 1, pp. 20−56 (in Russian).
  13. Iskhakov R. (2015) “Razvitie konfessional’nogo obrazovaniia kreshchenykh tatar v XVIII v.” [Development of Confessional Education of Baptised Tatars in the 18th Century]. Vestnik Kazanskogo gosudarstvennogo universiteta kul’tury i iskusstv, vol. 3, pp. 78−82 (in Russian).
  14. Khakimov R. (ed.) (2017) Istoriia i kul’tura tatar-kriashen (XVI−XX vv.) [History and Culture of Tatars-Kryashens (16th — 20th Centuries)]. Kazan’ (in Russian).
  15. Kurbatov Kh. (1999) Tatar teleneŠ alfavit h‰m orfografi ia tarikhy. Kazan (in Tatar).
  16. Lipakov E. (2002) “Il’minskogo alfavit” [Il’minskiy’s Alphabet], in G. Sabirzianov (ed.) Tatarskia entsiklopediia [Tatar Encyclopaedia], vol. 2. Kazan, 558 (in Russian).
  17. Nogmanov A. (2005) Samoderzhavie i tatary [Tsar’s Power and Tatars]. Kazan’ (in Russian).
  18. Sal’nikova A., Galiullina D. (2014) Tatarskaia “Alifba”. Natsional’nyi bukvar’ v mul’tikul’turnom prostranstve (konets XIX — nachalo XX v.) [Tatar “Alifba”. Ethnical ABC-Book in Multi-Cultural Space (Late 19th — Early 20th Centuries]. Moscow (in Russian).
  19. Sal’nikova A., Galiullina D. (2013) “Tatarskii bukvar’ na kirillitse: ot bukvaria N. I. Il’minskogo do sovetskikh uchebnikov kontsa 1930−1950-kh gg.” [Tatar ABC-Book in Cyrillic Scripts: From N. I. Il’minskiy’s ABC-Book to Soviet Textbooks of the Late 1930s — 1950s]. Otechestvennaia i zarubezhnaia pedagogika, 4 (13), 102−120 (in Russian).
  20. Sudakova N. (1972) Iz istorii metodiki prepodavaniia russkogo iazyka v nerusskoi shkole [From the History of Teaching the Russian Language in a Non-Russian School]. Makhachkala (in Russian).

Salnikova Alla


Academic Degree: Doctor of Sciences* in History;
Academic Rank: Professor;
Place of work: Kazan (Volga) Federal University; 18 Kremlevskaia Str., Kazan. 420008, Russian Federation;
Post: Professor;
ORCID: 0000-0002-5498-1401;
Email: Alla.Salnikova@kpfu.ru.

*According to ISCED 2011, a post-doctoral degree called Doctor of Sciences (D.Sc.) is given to reflect second advanced research qualifications or higher doctorates.

Šor Tatjana

Review of articles about the soviet school in the estonian academic journal Kasvatus (“education”)

Šor Tatjana (2019) "Review of articles about the soviet school in the estonian academic journal Kasvatus (“education”) ", Vestnik Pravoslavnogo Sviato-Tikhonovskogo gumanitarnogo universiteta. Seriia IV : Pedagogika. Psihologiia, 2019, Iss. 53, pp. 102-119 (in Russian).

DOI of the paper: 10.15382/sturIV201953.102-119
This review deals with publications about the Soviet school and pedagogy in the Estonian academic journal Kasvatus (“Education”) in the 1920s — 1930s. They refl ect the educational policy of the period of elimination of illiteracy in Soviet Russia prior to the period of industrialisation and of polytechnicisation of the school. Several notes and articles touch upon problems related to experiments, development and reforms of the Soviet school, statistics of education and forms of educational institutions. An outline by the Estonian children’s writer and educationalist A. Oengo-Johanson reveals the content of the all-Union pedagogical exhibition in Leningrad in 1929 and criticises the politicisation of the educational process. Doctoral student E. Oissar analyses the content and methods of teaching in the reformed Soviet school until 1930. A series of works by Soviet authors were translated and published in the early 1930s, including “From the Experience of the Methodology of Psychological Observations on Children” (Из опыта методики психологических наблюдений над детьми) by the disfavoured Soviet psychologist M. Basov. An article by the economist L. Sabsai dealt with the success of education during the ten years of the Soviet power. Moscow teacher S. Klyavin devoted his work to the Soviet polytechnic school.
journal Kasvatus (“Education”), Estonia, USSR, school, education, reforms
  1. Abramov J., Käis J., Hinnov P. (eds.) (1927). Pestalozzi elukäik ja ilmavaade: 100 surmapäevaks toimetanud Võru Õpetajateseminar. Võru.
  2. Album Academicum Universitatis Tartuensis 1918–1944. Kõide 2 (1994). Tartu; Tallinn.
  3. Andresen L. (1995). Eesti kooli ajalugu. Algusest kuni 1940.aastani. Tallinn.
  4. Arnold V. (1998). “Port, Jaan”, in Eesti kooli biograafi line leksikon. Tallinn, 183–184.
  5. Basov M. (1926). “Metodika psikhologicheskikh nabliudenii nad det’mi: s 14 risunkami i 2 diagrammami v tekste” [Methodology of Psychological Observations on Children: with 14 pictures and 2 diagrams in the text]. Moscow; Leningrad (in Russian).
  6. Basov M. (1931). Obshchie osnovy pedologii [General Foundations of Pedology]. Moscow; Leningrad (in Russian).
  7. Basov M., Zeiliger E., Levina M. (eds.) (1925). Pedagog i issledovatel’skaia rabota nad det’mi [Educationalist and Study of Children]. Leningrad (in Russian).
  8. Bauer H. (1961). “Veit Valentin, 1885–1947”, in S. W. Halperin (ed.) Some 20th-Century Historians. Chicago, 103–141.
  9. Bokowneff P. (ed.) (1926) Märkusi saksa keele foneetikast eesti koolidele = Bemerkungen zu einer Phonetik der deutschen Sprache für estnische Schulen. Tartu.
  10. Bykova E. (2011). “Reformirovanie sistemy shkol’nogo obrazovaniia v SSSR v 1917–1930 gg.: organizatsionnye i ideologicheskie aspekty” [Reforms in the System of School Education in the USSR in the Period of 1917‒1930s: Aspects of Organisation and Ideology]. Vestnik Tomskogo gosudarstvennogo universiteta. Filosofi ia. Sotsiologiia. Politologiia, 1 (13), 182 (in Russian).
  11. Eisen F., Horm V. (1985). Koolile pühendatud elu: Johannes Käis 1885–1950. Tallinn.
  12. Elango A. (1933). “Ovide Decroly ja tema meetod”. Kasvatus, 2, 49–53.
  13. Elango A. (1998). “Roos, Ants”, in Eesti kooli biograafi line leksikon. Tallinn, 210.
  14. Fein V., Vershinin S. (2013). Taganrogskie Sabsovichi i ikh potomki: Opyt genealogicheskogo issledovaniia [The Sabsovich Family from Taganrog and their Descendants]. Moscow (in Russian).
  15. Kasvatus. 1919 1: 3; 1923 1: 33; 1925 12: 75; 1927 1: 8; 1928 2: 118, 10: 516–517, 521; 1929 1: 42–43, 6: 257, 8: 376–377; 1930 10: 457–474; 1931 4: 168, 170–172, 188, 5: 198–207; 1933 1: 46, 2: 60–71, 4: 145–153; 1934 7: 340–341; 1936 6: 280–281; 1937 4: 189–190; 1937 4: 189–190, 8: 461–462; 1939 10: 449–450.
  16. Levchenko E. (2008). “Mikhail Iakovlevich Basov: zhiznennyi put’ i psikhologicheskaia kontseptsiia” M. Ia. Basov: Biography and Psychological Conception]. Metodologiia i istoriia psikhologii, 3/4, 21–45 (in Russian).
  17. Monroe P. (ed.) (1926). A Cyclopedia of Education, 1–5. New York.
  18. Oissar E. (1931). “Kool Nõukogude-Venemaal (Sotsialistlikkude Nõukogude Vabariikide Liidus)”. Kasvatus, 3: 123–127; 4: 166–172.
  19. Prinits O. (1998). “Grüntal Julius”, in Eesti kooli biograafi line leksikon. Tallinб 47–48.
  20. Raikov B., Ul’ianovskii V., Iagodovskii K. (1924). Issledovatel’skii metod v pedagogicheskoi rabote [Scientifi c Method in Educational Work]. Leningrad (in Russian).
  21. Riik on loodud — loogem kodanikka (1919). Kasvatus, august, 1, 1–3.
  22. Haridusministeeriumi sajand 1918–2018 / Koostaja Liivi Uuet; vastutav toimetaja Tõnu Tannberg. Tartu, 2018. Lk. 24.
  23. Pestalozzi elavad sõnad: valik J.H. Pestalozzi teostest / Toim. P. Põld. Tõlk. E. Oissar, S. Schönberg (Riig). Tartu, 1927. (EKS Pedagoogilise Toimkonna Toimetused).
  24. Vilbaste M. (1998). “Murdmaa, Enn”, in Eesti kooli biograafi line leksikon. Tallinn, 154.

Šor Tatjana


Academic Degree: Candidate of Sciences* in Philology;
Post: Independent Researcher;
ORCID: 0000-0002-4584-7622;
Email: tshor2006@gmail.com.

*According to the International Standard Classification of Education (ISCED) 2011, the degree of Candidate of Sciences (Cand.Sc.) belongs to ISCED level 8 — "doctoral or equivalent", together with PhD, DPhil, D.Lit, D.Sc, LL.D, Doctorate or similar.

Vishnyakova Yulia

Education through the example: eighty years of the biographical series Жизнь замечательных людей (“Lives of remarkable people”) of the publishing house Молодая гвардия

Vishnyakova Yulia (2019) "Education through the example: eighty years of the biographical series Zhizny zamechatelynih lyudey (“Lives of remarkable people”) of the publishing house Molodaia gvardiia ", Vestnik Pravoslavnogo Sviato-Tikhonovskogo gumanitarnogo universiteta. Seriia IV : Pedagogika. Psihologiia, 2019, Iss. 53, pp. 120-132 (in Russian).

DOI of the paper: 10.15382/sturIV201953.120-132
The series “Lives of Remarkable People” over the years of its existence has become a sui generis quality mark. Books of this series are often recommended by teachers to their students when there arise questions about life and work of a certain historical fi gure. They are also off ered as extracurricular reading and are a source of life experience for contemporary young people, this experience being not superfi cial but refi ned, checked many times, time-honoured, having absorbed features of many fates and periods which are impossible to anybody to go through in their life, but are possible to be assimilated, internalised and acquired through reading. Last year, 2018, was 85 years since the moment when the series was initiated by Журнально-газетное объединение (“Association of Magazines and Newspapers”) and 80 years since the series started to come out in the publishing house Молодая гвардия. Contemporary readers of the series are well familiar with its current layout, repertoire, numbers of copies printed. In this article, we would like to address its origins, the fi rst decennia of the existence of the series and, consequently, to the formative period of its famous image. The study has shown that from 1933 to 1959, 264 biographies were published, the numbers of their copies being 15,000 — 100,000. These biographies were written by the best authors. Biographies of writers, poets, and scholars were prevailing as to the numbers of editions during all the three decades. The number of reprinted editions was increasing, which demonstrates the popularity of the series with its readers. Despite difficult periods and circumstances in the history of the country, the series continued to be published and did not lose its standards. The layout was transforming and was acquiring its distinguished style. The history of the series contunues nowadays as well. The idea of the series — moral education based on the biography of an outstanding person — is still living, though its ideology has broadened. The series has good reasons to promote continuous moral education, desire for knowledge and for obtaining authoritative information, developing aesthetical and literary taste, making people accustomed to thoughtful reading.
Lives of Remarkable People (series of biographies), Young Guard (publishing house), book series, biographical series, example, education, pedagogy, publishing, Pavlenkov, Gorky
  1. Bordovskaia N. (2013) “Psikhologiia i pedagogika. Standart tret’ego pokoleniia” [Psychology and Pedagogy. Standard of the Third Generation]. St. Petersburg (in Russian).
  2. Gorbunov Iu. (1999) Florentii Pavlenkov. Ego zhizn’ i izdatel’skaia deiatel’nost’ [F. Pavlenkov. His Life and Editorial Work]. Cheliabinsk (in Russian).
  3. Prometei: Istoriko-biografi cheskii al’manakh serii «Zhizn’ zamechatel’nykh liudei» [Prometheus: Historical and Biographical Almanach of the Series Lives of Remarkable People], vol. 1–2 (1966‒1967) (in Russian).
  4. Trainev V. (2013) Novye informatsionnye kommunikatsionnye tekhnologii v obrazovanii: Informatsionnoe obshchestvo. Informatsionno-obrazovatel’naia sreda. Elektronnaia pedagogika. Blochno-modul’noe postroenie informatsionnykh tekhnologii [New Technologies of Information and Communiation in Education. Information Society. Information and Educational Environment. Electronic Pedagogy. Module-Based Building of Information Technologies]. Moscow (in Russian).
  5. Zhizn’ zamechatel’nykh liudei: Katalog 1933–1973 [Lives of Remarkable People. Catalogue 1933‒1973] (1976). Moscow (in Russian).
  6. Zhizn’ zamechatel’nykh liudei: Katalog 1933–1985 [Lives of Remarkable People. Catalogue 1933–1985] (1987). Moscow (in Russian).

Vishnyakova Yulia


Academic Degree: Candidate of Sciences* in History;
Place of work: Russian State Library; 3/5, Vozdvizhenka str., 119019, Moscow, Russian Federation;
Post: Senior Researcher;
ORCID: 0000-0001-8706-6106;
Email: muzkn2@rambler.ru.

*According to the International Standard Classification of Education (ISCED) 2011, the degree of Candidate of Sciences (Cand.Sc.) belongs to ISCED level 8 — "doctoral or equivalent", together with PhD, DPhil, D.Lit, D.Sc, LL.D, Doctorate or similar.