This article is devoted to the ideas of two Russian representatives of traditionalist pedagogical views the late 19th — early 20th centuries, namely Konstantin Pobedonostsev (Russ. Константин Победоносцев), Ober-Procurator of the Holy Synod, and the “all-Russian father” St. John Of Kronstadt (Св. Иоанн Кронштадтский). During that troubled times, Russia experienced a rise in various previously unheard-of ideologies: revolutionary, liberal, nihilistic, radical, etc. The vast majority of intellectuals tended to adhere to these ideas. Against this background, everything traditional seemed old and obsolescent. Hence the image of Pobedonostsev as a narrow-minded “guardian”, retrograde, which, unfortunately, is still alive and is propagated in fi ction, cinema, journalism and thus is fi rmly rooted in mass consciousness. Meanwhile, Pobedonostsev and John of Kronstadt created entirely novel educational systems, the former for the whole country, the latter within the confi nes of his city. These two examples of traditionalist education reforms demonstrate how entirely new and innovative socioeducational systems can grow on national historic soil.
traditionalism, pedagogy, school history, K. P. Pobedonostsev, St. John of Kronstadt, school system, innovation, education, education in Russia, upbringing and education
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Belenchuk Larisa Academic Degree:
Candidate of Sciences*
in Education; Place of work:
Centre for the History of Pedagogy and Education, Institute of Education Development Strategy of the Russian Academy of Education; 5/16 Makarenko Str., Moscow 105062, Russian Federation; Post:
leading researcher; ORCID: 0000-0002-8859-3634
*According to the International Standard Classification of Education (ISCED) 2011, the degree of Candidate of Sciences (Cand.Sc.) belongs to ISCED level 8 — "doctoral or equivalent", together with PhD, DPhil, D.Lit, D.Sc, LL.D, Doctorate or similar.
The article is written in 2018 within the framework of the project № 27.8089.2017/БЧ of Institute for strategy of education development of the Russian academy of education.