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St. Tikhon’s University Review . Series IV: Pedagogy. Psychology

St. Tikhon’s University Review IV :52

PEDAGOGICAL SCIENCE

Solovtsova Irina; Sirotina Elena

Culturological approach to teaching elements of orthodox culture in secondary school

Solovtsova Irina, Sirotina Elena (2019) "Culturological approach to teaching elements of orthodox culture in secondary school ", Vestnik Pravoslavnogo Sviato-Tikhonovskogo gumanitarnogo universiteta. Seriia IV : Pedagogika. Psihologiia, 2019, Iss. 52, pp. 9-21 (in Russian).

DOI of the paper: 10.15382/sturIV201952.9-21
This article is an attempt at theoretical understanding from positions of contemporary ontological pedagogy (pedagogy of being, humanities-related pedagogy) of the essence and ways of implementing the culturological approach in teaching Elements of Orthodox Culture.The authors of the article distinguish three aspects in the cultirulogical approach as a methodological benchmark of teaching Elements of Orthodox Culture, i.e. maintaining the secular character of education, implementing the principle of cultural feasibility in its contemporary pedagogical interpretation, and reasonable demonstration of symbols of Orthodox culture. In providing grounds for the structure of Orthodox culture, the authors of the article distinguish those components which are signifi cant from the point of view of educational and upbringing-related tasks. Examining the possibilities of a culturological approach from the point of view of providing secular character of education, the authors pay special attention to the necessity of studying Orthodox culture from culturological positions of moral, aesthetic, and sacred constituents in their integrity. Analysing the special features of implementing the principle of cultural feasibility, particular attention is paid to to the necessity of taking into account such characteristics of Orthodox culture as the uniqueness that allows one to identify the special features of Orthodox culture, symbolism that orientates teachers and students towards discovering senses of Orthodox culture, dynamics that creates the foundation for understanding the link between tradition and modernity in Orthodox culture. It should be noted that especially full and consistent implementation of the principle of cultural feasibility is achieved on condition of correct organisation in the process of teaching value- and sense-related interrelationship within the framework of the triad of “student — teacher — culture”. The article also describes such methods of studying phenomena of Orthodox culture as a problem-raising question, refl ective techniques which allow one to identify the features of Orthodox culture, i.e. uniqueness, symbolism, and dynamics.
ontological pedagogy, Orthodox Christian culture, culturological approach, characteristics of culture, principles of teaching, principle of cultural congruence, spiritual education, values, meanings, value-meaning interaction, problem question, problem-solving task, refl ection
  1. Abramov S. (2016) “Problema vzaimodeistviia pedagoga i vospitannika v protsesse dukhovnonravstvennogo vospitaniia” [Problem of Interaction between the Teacher and Student in the Process of Spiritual and Moral Education]. Vestnik PSTGU. Ser. IV. Pedagogika. Psikhologiia, vol. 4 (43), pp. 32–40 (in Russian).
  2. Divnogortseva S. (2015) “Dukhovnye dominanty pravoslavnoi pedagogicheskoi kul'tury” [Spiritual Keynotes of Orthodox Pedagogical Culture]. Slovo.ru: Baltiiskii aktsent, vol. 4, pp. 105–112 (in Russian).
  3. Ianushkiavichene O. (2015) “Metodologiia prepodavaniia Pravoslavnoi Kul'tury” [Methodology of Teaching Orthodox Culture]. Pravoslavnoe obrazovanie, vol. 1 (11), pp. 56–63 (in Russian).
  4. Petrakova T. (2016) “Dukhovno-nravstvennoe vospitanie shkol'nikov v tsennostnom kontekste sovremennogo obrazovaniia” [Spiritual and Moral Education of School Students in Value- Related Context of Contemporary Education]. Iaroslavskii pedagogicheskii vestnik, vol. 5, pp. 15–20 (in Russian).
  5. Skliarova T. (2012) “Teoriia i metodika prepodavaniia religioznoi kul'tury v shkole” [Theory and Techniques of Teaching Religious Culture at School]. Vestnik PSTGU. Ser. IV. Pedagogika. Psikhologiia, vol. 4 (27), pp. 7–12 (in Russian).
  6. Skliarova T. (2015) “Razvitie sub»ektnoi pozitsii uchashchikhsia v protsesse izucheniia religioznykh tsennostei” [Development of Subjective Stance of Students in Studying Religious Values]. Vestnik PSTGU. Ser. IV. Pedagogika. Psikhologiia, vol. 4 (39), pp. 22–28 (in Russian).

Solovtsova Irina


Academic Degree: Doctor of Sciences* in Education;
Academic Rank: Professor;
Place of work: Volgograd State Social-Pedagogical University; 27 Lenina Prospect, Volgograd, 400066, Russian Federation;
ORCID: 0000-0002-6191-5306;
Email: irina_solovcova@mail.ru.

*According to ISCED 2011, a post-doctoral degree called Doctor of Sciences (D.Sc.) is given to reflect second advanced research qualifications or higher doctorates.


Sirotina Elena


Place of work: Volgograd Educational Centre “Istoki”; 32 Lenina Prospect, Volgograd, 400066, Russian Federation;
ORCID: 0000-0002-4222-4702;
Email: sea_sirotina@mail.ru.
Hezser Catherine

EDUCATION. The Contents and Procedures of Jewish Elementary Education

Hezser Catherine (2019) "EDUCATION. The Contents and Procedures of Jewish Elementary Education ", Vestnik Pravoslavnogo Sviato-Tikhonovskogo gumanitarnogo universiteta. Seriia IV : Pedagogika. Psihologiia, 2019, Iss. 52, pp. 22-58 (in Russian).

DOI of the paper: 10.15382/sturIV201952.22-58
In this part of her book “Jewish Literacy in Roman Palestine” Catherine Hezser trying to understand what and how Jewish children were taught by primary teachers. She demonstrates how the representations from rabbinical texts are combined with information from other written sources, and how, in general, it is consistent with the Greco-Roman educational practice. Hezser maintains that the image of Torahcentricity of Jewish education was not a Pharisaic-rabbinic peculiarity. The notion that the Torah was the national Jewish heritage probably shared by wider circles in ancient Jewish society. Just as the reading of Homer in Graeco-Roman schools, the focus on the Torah in Jewish education will have both integrated and differentiated between the Jewishly educated. The rabbinic image of Jewish primary education, which focused on the reading of Hebrew letters and portions of the Torah, may have had some basis in reality. Its goal was to create a pool of men with a basic religious education who could serve as Torah readers in synagogues. But this type of education did not have any practical advantages. The loud reading and reciting in Greco-Roman schools is very reminiscent of the rabbinic traditions which tell of children reading or reciting texts with their teacher. In ancient Jewish society instruction in writing was generally given to laypeople only when, where, and to the degree in which it was actually needed for a particular purpose, rather than being considered part of regular primary education. One might argue that in the tannaitic period instruction in writing was basically limited to scribes, but it was available for all children in amoraic times. Such an argumentation is not based on any evidence, however, and is therefore not very persuasive.
Keywords: Roman Palestine, Jewish literacy, Torah, primary education, rabbinic texts, rabbinic texts,
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Leiden, 1972.Hachlili R. Did the Use of the Alphabet Already Have aMagical Significance in the First Century C.E.? (Hebr.) // Cathedra. Vol.31, 1984.Hachlili R. The Goliath Family in Jericho: FuneraryInscriptions from a First Century A.D. Jewish Monumental Tomb // Bulletin ofAmerican School of Oriental Studies. Vol.235, 1979. Haran M. On the Diffusion of Literacy and Schools inAncient Israel // Vetus Testament Studies. Vol.40, 1988. Harris W. Literacy and Epigraphy // Zeitschrift fürPapyrologie und Epigraphik. 1983. Bd.52.Harvey D. Greeks and Romans Learn to Write //Communication Age in the Ancient World. Ed.by Eric A.Havelock & JacksonP.Hershbell. N.Y., 1978.Hengel M. Judaism and Hellenism. Studies in theirEncounter in Palestine during the Early Hellenistic Period. Vol. 1:Minneapolis, 1991.Hezser C. Form, Function, and Historical Significance ofthe Rabbinic Story in Yerushalmi Neziqin. Tübingen, 1993.Hezser C. The Social Structure of the Rabbinic Movementin Roman Palestine. Tübingen: Mohr Siebeck, 1997.Hopkins K. Everyday Life for the Roman Schoolboy //History Today. Vol.43, 1993. Illich I. A plea for research on lay literacy // Literacyand Orality. Ed.by David.R.Olson and Nancy Torrance. Cambridge, 1991.Jastrow M. A Dictionary of the Targumim, the Talmud Babliand Yerushalmi, and the Midrashic Literature. N.Y., 1985.Kaster R.A. Notes on ‘Primer’ and ‘Secondary’ Schools inLate Antiquity // Transactions of the American Philological Association. 1983.Vol.113.Kee H.C. Testament of Levi // Charlesworth, James H. ,ed. The Old Testament Pseudepigrapha. Vol.1. Garden City, 1983.Kloner A. ABCDerian Inscriptions in Jewish Rock-Cut Tombs(Ytbr.) // Proceedings of the Ninth World Conference in Jewish Studies,Jerusalem, August, 1985. Division A. Jerusalem, 1986.Krauss S. Griechische und lateinische Lehnwörter inTalmud, Midrash und Targum. Heft II. Hildesheim, 1987 (repr. B., 1899).Maier J. Die Qumran-Essener: Die Texte vom Toten Meer.Bde. 2-3. 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L'éducation et l'enseignement chez les juifs àl'époque talmudique. P., 1931.Peters N. Die älteste Handschrift der Zehn Gebote.Freiburg, 1905.Puech E. Abécédaire et liste alphabétique de noms hébreuxdébut du Iie s.A.D. // Revue Biblique. Vol.87,1980. Rubin R., Patrich J. Wadi Suweinit // Excavations andSurveys in Israel. Vol.2, 1983. Safrai Sh. Elementary Education, Its Religious and SocialSignificance in the Talmudic Period // Cahiers d’Histoire Mondiale. 1968.Vol.11.Sawyer J.F.A. Sacred Languages and Sacred Texts.Religioin in the First Christian Centures. L.-N.Y., 1999.Schäfer P. Der vorrabbinische Pharisäismus // Paulus unddas antike Judentum. Hrsg.von Martin Hengel. Tübingen, 1991.Schwabe M., Lifshitz B. Beth She’arim. Vol.2: The GreekInscriptions. Jerusalem, 1974.Stemberger G. Verdienst und Lohn – Kernbegrifferabbinischer Frömmigkeit? Überlegungen zu Mishna Avot //Franz-Delitzsch-Vorlesungen 1997. Münster, 1998.Testa E. Herodion. Vol.IV:1Graffiti e Gli Ostraca. Jerusalem, 1972.de Vaux, Roland. Fouilles au Khirbet Qumran // RevueBiblique. Vol.61, 1954. Yadin Y., Naveh J., Masada. Vol.1. The Yigael Yadin Excavations 1963-1965. Final Reports:The Aramaic and Hebrew Ostraca and JarInscriptions. Jerusalem, 1989.Zalateo G. “Papirischolastici” // Aegyptus 41, 1961.

Hezser Catherine


Place of work: University of London;
Post: Professor;
ORCID: 0000-0002-4586-0085;
Levinson Kirill

Office hours of soviet scholars in the period after World War II

Levinson Kirill (2019) "Office hours of soviet scholars in the period after World War II ", Vestnik Pravoslavnogo Sviato-Tikhonovskogo gumanitarnogo universiteta. Seriia IV : Pedagogika. Psihologiia, 2019, Iss. 52, pp. 75-110 (in Russian).

DOI of the paper: 10.15382/sturIV201952.75-110
This article deals with offi cial working hours of Soviet academic staff members and university researchers, i.e. how it was regulated, used, structured, perceived and discussed. The period studied in 1945‒1991; the research takes into account both professors and teachers of higher educational institutions and researchers of scientifi c institutions in the system of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR, Academy of Medical Sciences, Academy of Pedagogical Sciences, as well as branch ministries, because many of them combined or alternated work at university with work for an academic institute. Besides, this allows us to make exciting comparisons. The study draws on the data of questionnaire interviewing carried out by Yu. Sheinin in the early 1970s through Literaturnaia gazeta, interviewing carried out by the author of the article by email in 2018, as well as relevant memoirs. The article makes the following conclusion: working hours in Soviet science and higher school in the postwar decades were regulated mainly with the aim of maintaining “labour discipline” as a means of administrative control on all levels rather than a care for increasing effi ciency of scholarly work. This regulation was implemented according to the model of all state instutions, with minimal consideration of the specifi city of academic and educational institutions. As Stalin’s militarised forms of administration were gradually giving way to a gentler practice, the control of labour discipline (the main part of which was coming to work in due time and being present in the offi ce) was losing its severity and consistence, and towards the end of the Soviet period in certain institutions it transformed into non-regular and often imitational campaigns. Staff ers do not remember any attempts to really restrict their working day by means of limits established by law.
Soviet history, Soviet academia, Soviet professors, Soviet scholars, working time, working day, day-off , vacation, leave, fixed working hours, irregular working hours, presence at workplace
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  3. Sheinin Yu., Parkov E., Simonenko O. (1971) “Kak vam rabotaetsia?” [How Do You Feel About your Work?]. Literaturnaya Gazeta, August 4, 1971, p. 10 (in Russian).
  4. Sheinin Yu. (1980) “Usloviia nauchnogo truda” [Conditions of Scholarly Work], in L. Bazhenov, M. Akhundov (eds.). Nauka v sotsial'nykh, gnoseologicheskikh i tsennostnykh aspektakh [Social, Gnoseological and Value Dimensions of Science]. Moscow, pp. 77–95 (in Russian).
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Levinson Kirill


Academic Degree: Candidate of Sciences* in History;
Place of work: National Research University «Higher School of Economics»; 20 Miasnitskaya, Moscow, 101000, Russian Federation;
Post: Leading Researcher;
ORCID: 0000-0002-3106-5574;
Email: klevinson@hse.ru.

*According to the International Standard Classification of Education (ISCED) 2011, the degree of Candidate of Sciences (Cand.Sc.) belongs to ISCED level 8 — "doctoral or equivalent", together with PhD, DPhil, D.Lit, D.Sc, LL.D, Doctorate or similar.

PSYCHOLOGY

Egorov Ilya

Cross-cultural study of professional and civil identity of university students from Russia and Belarus in context of attitudes to leaving the country

Egorov Ilya (2019) "Cross-cultural study of professional and civil identity of university students from Russia and Belarus in context of attitudes to leaving the country ", Vestnik Pravoslavnogo Sviato-Tikhonovskogo gumanitarnogo universiteta. Seriia IV : Pedagogika. Psihologiia, 2019, Iss. 52, pp. 113-127 (in Russian).

DOI of the paper: 10.15382/sturIV201952.113-127
This article analyses results of a study of professional and civil identity of young people studying at universities in Russia and Belarus in the context of social orientation to leaving the country. The author of the article studies the mutual dependence of professional and civil identity of the young personality in connection with such an undesirable phenomenon in Russian reality as intellectual losses, the so-called brain- drain. The article demonstrates the importance of intrapersonal confl icts in the system of social orientation as a factor determining the development of the professional and civil self-consciousness of the personality of young people, their professional and civil identity. Based on the empirical study of university students aged 17‒25 in Russia (397 persons in total) and Belarus (196 persons), the article shows similar features in groups of students in Russia and Belarus. Both groups have a high level of professional identitity; positive civil identity prevails; in both groups most young people choose the social orientation characteristic of an intrapersonal confl ict connected with leaving the country (between “cannot/can and do not want/want to leave the country”). The subsequent comparison of professional and civil identity of students in Russia and Belarus has shown that meaningful differences between the groups are seen in the levels of negative and hyperpositive civil identity. Respondents from Belarus have a higher level of hyperpositive and negative civil identity compared with those in Russia. Students from Russia who have low professional identity more often have the social orientation “I cannot and do not want to leave the country”.
cross-cultural study, university students, professional identity, civil identity, attitudes to leaving the country, intrapersonal confl ict of unrealised desire, development of personality
  1. Antsupov A., Shipilov A. (2009) Slovar' konfl iktologa [Dictionary of a Conflictologist]. St. Petersburg (in Russian).
  2. Asmolov A. (ed.) (2016) Kak rozhdaetsia grazhdanskaia identichnost' v mire obrazovaniia: ot fenomenologii k tekhnologii [How Civil Identity in the World of Education is Born: From Phenomenology to Technology]. Moscow (in Russian).
  3. Barrett M., Riazanova T., Volovikova M. (eds.) (2001) Razvitie natsional'noi, etnolingvisticheskoi i religioznoi identichnosti u detei i podrostkov [Development of National, Ethnolinguistic and Religious Identities in Children and Adolescents]. Moscow (in Russian).
  4. Borisov R. (2013) “Teoretiko-kontseptual'noe osmyslenie fenomena grazhdanskoi identichnosti” [“Theoretical and Conceptual Understanding of Civil Identity”]. Psikhologiia obrazovaniia v polikul'turnom prostranstve, № 4, pp. 5–12 (in Russian).
  5. Borisov R. (2016) “Grazhdanskaia identichnost' v terminakh psikhodiagnostiki” [“Civil Identity in Terms of Psychodiagnostics”]. Vestnik Dagestanskogo gosudarstvennogo universiteta, № 31, pp. 95–99 (in Russian).
  6. Erikson E. (1968) Identity: Youth and Crisis. New York.
  7. Filonov L., Anan'eva N. (2006) Slovar'-kompendium psikhologo-antropologicheskoi diagnostiki [Dictionary of Psychological and Anthropological Diagnostics]. Moscow (in Russian).
  8. Korablin I. (2018) “«Utechka mozgov»: empiricheskii analiz (po materialam initsiativnogo sotsiologicheskogo issledovaniia: fevral'‒mart 2017 g.)” [“Brain-Drain”: An Empirical Analysis (based on materials of an initiative sociological research: February‒March 2017)”]. Sotsiodinamika, № 4, pp. 29–42 (in Russian).
  9. Markova A. (1996) Psikhologiia professionalizma [Psychology of Professionalism”]. Moscow (in Russian).
  10. Mitina L. (1998) Psikhologiia professional'nogo razvitiia uchitelia [Psychology of Professional Development of a Teacher]. Moscow (in Russian).
  11. Priazhnikov N. (2008) Professional'noe samoopredelenie: teoriia i praktika [Professional Self- Determination: Theory and Practice”]. Moscow (in Russian).
  12. Stolin V. (1983) Samosoznanie lichnosti [Self-Consciousness of Personality]. Moscow (in Russian).
  13. Shneider L. (2007) Lichnostnaia, gendernaia i professional'naia identichnost': teoriia i metody diagnostiki [Personal, Gender-Related, and Professional Identity: Theory and Methods of Diagnosis]. Moscow (in Russian).
  14. Shneider L. (2018) “Attitiudy patriotizma v otsenke zhelaniia i vozmozhnosti ot»ezda iz svoei strany: kross-kul'turnoe issledovanie” [Attitudes of Patriotism in the Assessment of the Desire and Possibility of Departure from the Country: Cross-Cultural Study]. Aktual'nye problemy psikhologicheskogo znaniia. Teoreticheskie i prakticheskie problemy psikhologii, № 3, pp. 101–112. (in Russian).
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Egorov Ilya


Academic Degree: Candidate of Sciences* in Psychological Sciences;
Academic Rank: Associate Professor;
Place of work: Moscow City University 4; 2nd Sel'skokhoziaistvennyi proezd, Moscow, 129226, Russian Federation;
Post: Associate Professor;
ORCID: 0000-0002-7302-5335;
Email: egorov_cpti@mail.ru.

*According to the International Standard Classification of Education (ISCED) 2011, the degree of Candidate of Sciences (Cand.Sc.) belongs to ISCED level 8 — "doctoral or equivalent", together with PhD, DPhil, D.Lit, D.Sc, LL.D, Doctorate or similar.

The reported study was funded by RFBR according to the research project №18-513-00003 Bel_a.
Naumova Diana

Mutual relationship between autocratic syndrom and career orientations of university students

Naumova Diana (2019) "Mutual relationship between autocratic syndrom and career orientations of university students ", Vestnik Pravoslavnogo Sviato-Tikhonovskogo gumanitarnogo universiteta. Seriia IV : Pedagogika. Psihologiia, 2019, Iss. 52, pp. 128-136 (in Russian).

DOI of the paper: 10.15382/sturIV201952.128-136
This article deals with the question about possible relationship between the autocratic personality and career- and value-related orientations. Based on the study of relevant literature, the author of the article comes to the conclusion that there are studies that examined the problem of infl uence of several factors on the autocratic personality, among which are the level and character of education. Students of the humanities have the level of autocracy lower than those who study science. The content of education also affects the level of autocracy. Thus, if students are taught dialogical thinking, the level of autocracy is lower. In the course of professionalisation, the personality builds certain career orientations. Students are in such a stage of the professionalisation, where they internalise basics of their profession and assimilate standards and values of the profession, as well as adjust their career orientations. Cultural traditions also infl uence the development of value-related orientations in career. This study was carried out with participation of students from Russia, mainly those who study the humanities. The author of the article made use of techniques for measuring the autocratic syndrom by T. Adorno and career orientations of “Anchors of a Career” by E. Shein. In the course of the study, it was discovered that the core of the autocratic syndrom with the group in question is made up by such features as autocratic aggression and autocratic submission, stereotypes, and the “complex of power”. The leading career orientations of young people are challenge, stable work, autonomy, integration of the lifestyle. The article makes the conclusion that such career orientations as challenge, stable work and service can be incorporated into the structure of the autocratic syndrom and are additional implicit characteristics of an autocratic personality.
young people, career orientations, values, attitudes, autocratic syndrom, authoritarianism, adept, professionalisation, career, socialisation
  1. Blau M. (1994) “Razlichnye tochki zreniia na sotsial'nuiu strukturu i ikh obshchii znamenatel'” [Diverse Points of View on the Social Structure and their Common Denominator], in V. Dobren'kov (ed.) Amerikanskaia sotsiologicheskaia mysl': Teksty [Americal Sociological Thought: Texts]. Moscow, pp. 8–29 (in Russian).
  2. Egorov I. (2017) Grazhdanskoe mirovospriiatie molodezhi: fenomenologiia, diagnostika i psikhologo- pedagogicheskie usloviia formirovaniia [Civil World Outlook of Young People: Phenomenology, Diagnostics and Psycholo-Pedagogical Conditions of Formation]. Moscow (in Russian).
  3. Gulevich O. (2007) Psikhologiia mezhgruppovykh otnoshenii [Psychology of Relations within a Group]. Moscow (in Russian).
  4. Mogilevkin E., Novgorodov A. (2011) “Issledovanie vedushchikh motivov kar'ernogo samoopredeleniia u studentov vuza” [Study of Leading Motives in Career Choice among University Students]. Territoriia novykh vozmozhnostei. Vestnik Vladivostokskogo gosudarstvennogo universiteta ekonomiki i servisa, № 1, pp. 61–78 (in Russian).

Naumova Diana


Academic Degree: Candidate of Sciences* in Psychological Sciences;
Academic Rank: Associate Professor;
Place of work: Department of Psychology Institute for Pedagogics and Psychology of Education, Moscow City University;
Post: Associate Professor;
ORCID: 0000-0001-7427-0079;
Email: seroglazka3@yandex.ru.

*According to the International Standard Classification of Education (ISCED) 2011, the degree of Candidate of Sciences (Cand.Sc.) belongs to ISCED level 8 — "doctoral or equivalent", together with PhD, DPhil, D.Lit, D.Sc, LL.D, Doctorate or similar.

Fominova Alla; Mayasova Tatiana

Retrospective analysis of emotional experiences in primary school by students of a pedagogical university

Fominova Alla, Mayasova Tatiana (2019) "Retrospective analysis of emotional experiences in primary school by students of a pedagogical university ", Vestnik Pravoslavnogo Sviato-Tikhonovskogo gumanitarnogo universiteta. Seriia IV : Pedagogika. Psihologiia, 2019, Iss. 52, pp. 137-147 (in Russian).

DOI of the paper: 10.15382/sturIV201952.137-147
This article presents results of study by students of pedagogical university of their own experiences in primary school. The relevance of this topic is connected with the study of most signifi cant emotional experiences of school children that come to be fi xed in memory. The goal of the study was to identify and give a psychological analysis of emotion-generating situations of school life in memories of students in the course of study of psychology of early school age. In the study, 156 students of the 2 nd and 3 rd years of pedagogical universities of Moscow and Nizhny Novgorod took part. This research combined a study and psychotherapeutic practice with students aimed at overcoming negative experiences related to their school life in childhood. Students analysed their own emotion-generating school situations according to a scheme based on the stages in rational and emotive counselling by A. Ellis. As a result, the following situations causing emotional tension in school life have been identifi ed: public negative assessment of the student; getting a bad mark; quarrels with classmates. Positive emotional memories of students are related to the situation of success, external encouragement of success (marks, diplomas), situations of social interest (feelings of friendship, emotional support, personal empathy). The activation by students of their own childhood memories helps them thoroughly feel the child’s susceptibility to uneasy situations in school life. It is important for the teacher not to lose the bond with his own childhood and perceive well various specifi c features in children’s behaviour. As this study has shown, the process of work with students itself, the retrospective analysis of emotional experiences at school help prospective educators to realise the direction of solution to their own emotional problems and to comprehend the directions in helping children to develop skills of coping with school problems.
retrospective analysis of school experiences, emotions, primary school age, student-teacher relationship, problem of school success, development of pedagogical reflection
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Fominova Alla


Academic Degree: Candidate of Sciences* in Psychological Sciences;
Academic Rank: Associate Professor;
Place of work: Moscow Pedagogical State University; 88 Vernadskogo Prospect, Moscow, 119571, Russian Federation;
Post: Professor, Department of Psychological Anthropology;
ORCID: 0000-0002-8158-1008;
Email: afominova@list.ru.

*According to the International Standard Classification of Education (ISCED) 2011, the degree of Candidate of Sciences (Cand.Sc.) belongs to ISCED level 8 — "doctoral or equivalent", together with PhD, DPhil, D.Lit, D.Sc, LL.D, Doctorate or similar.


Mayasova Tatiana


Academic Degree: Candidate of Sciences* in Biology;
Academic Rank: Associate Professor;
Place of work: Nizhny Novgorod State Pedagigucal University; 1 Ulyanova Str., Nizhny Novgorod, 603950, Russian Federation;
Post: associate professor of physiology and health and safety of the person;
ORCID: 0000-0002-6292-0545;
Email: vip.mayasova@mail.ru.

*According to the International Standard Classification of Education (ISCED) 2011, the degree of Candidate of Sciences (Cand.Sc.) belongs to ISCED level 8 — "doctoral or equivalent", together with PhD, DPhil, D.Lit, D.Sc, LL.D, Doctorate or similar.