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St. Tikhon’s University Review. Series III: Philology
St. Tikhon’s University Review III :52

RESEARCH STUDIES

Anatoly Alexeev
DOI of the paper: 10.15382/sturIII201752.11-35
This paper deals with prefaces to the gospels of Matthew, Luke and John. From the point of view of their genre, the fi rst two are the midrash, i.e. an interpretation based on written sources and the oral tradition of Judaism. Their aim is to relate the knowledge about Jesus that was obtained from Mark to the conception of the Messiah, in accordance with which these two Evangelists interpret the borrowed data. The historical and biographical design of both prefaces refl ects the cultural environment of the Hellenistic epoch, whereas their content and literary form are a traditional response to exclusively theological inquiries. John, in turn, draws not only on Mark but also on certain other sources or on his personal experience and goes beyond the conception of the Messiah, evaluating Jesus as a messenger (shaliah) of God or God Himself (drawing no diff erence between the one who sends and the one who is sent is characteristic of ancient cultural traditions). With all its signifi cance, the conception of the Messiah off ered only limited opportunities for the interpretation of the fi gure of the historical Jesus in the light of religious gnoseology (which was given much importance by the Evangelist John), as well as in the light of soteriology, as it came to be evident later, in the period of the second rebellion and acknowledging Simon bar Kokhba as the Messiah. The preface to the gospel of John aims to explain the meaning of Creation and the corresponding anthropology, which was necessary for the formation of the new concept of personal God, and, furthermore, gives an outline of the main issues of the entire gospel. Another way of development of the early Christian thought from messiology to theology was liturgical practice and corresponding word usage. In the fi nal part of the paper, the author points to the inadequacy of the term “Christology” for the circle of problems that make up the base of the Christian theology.
midrash, gospel, preface, prologue, epitome, messiah, messenger, biography, Christology, theology, historism
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Anatoly Alexeev


Degree: Doctor of Philology;
E-mail: alexeev.anatoly@gmail.com.
Bessonov Igor
DOI of the paper: 10.15382/sturIII201752.36-47
This article deals with the disscusion of Daniel 9.25, where the author foresees the coming of the “anointed prince”. The problem in question is the term after which this event will occur. In masoretic version the sentence is rendered in such a manner that the term from ”the going forth of the commandment” to rebuild Jerusalem to the anointed prince will be 7 weeks and 62 weeks will be the term of the rebuilding of the city. According to the Theodotion's translation the anointed prince will come after 62 weeks and 7 weeks. In our opinion the whole passage can be estimated according to the syntax of the verse without any regard to later Masoretic punctuation. The usage of conjunction waw in the verse 9.25 strongly advocates masoretic interpretation of the passage. On the other hand, the text of Theodotion's translation enables us to reconstruct Hebrew Vorlage with the alternative application of waw conjunctions. Following grammatical criteria we can suggest that the extant masoretic rendering was indeed the original one and later Theodotion's version emerged as a result of misunderstanding of the prophecy. We can suppose that the scribe, who produced Theodotion's protograph, in line with a tradition of the day, treated different messianic and royal figures from Dan 9. 24-27 as the same person, what resulted in alteration of the syntax of the passage.
Old Testament, Book of Daniel, seventy weeks, prophecy of seventy weeks, Theodotion's translation, ancient Hebrew syntax, Proto-Masoretic text, Septuagint, Late Biblical Hebrew, early exegesis of the book of Daniel, pre-Christian exegesis of the book of Daniel
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Bessonov Igor


E-mail: himins@yandex.ru.
Головнина Наталья; Frangulian Liliia
DOI of the paper: 10.15382/sturIII201752.48-61
This article deals with the legend of the Emperor Diocletian drawing on the material of hagiographic texts called “cycles” (mid-7th — mid-8th cc.) developed in Coptic literature. Its comparison with data of Greek and Latin historians (Eusebius Pamphilus, Lactantius, Aurelius Victor, Eutropius) allows us to speak about the consistent transformation of the historical image in accordance with the principles of the development and existence of martyria and vitae, the peculiar feature being the fact that the hero is an antagonist. Even fantastic or non-historical narratives from Diocletian’s life are not a random fi gment of imagination, but systematic work within the framework of already developed canonical schemes (primarily related to martyrdom) and of ideal images (primarily of the ruler). The technique of antithesis is also applied: the features missing in the historical description are recreated as the opposite of the accepted ideal. Features most fully appropriate to the created character are chosen from the historical material, i.e. the authors are interested in the truthfulness of the image, as they understand it, rather than the reliability of the factual data. Those plots that are constructed by analogy with biblical narratives or in the light of the exegetical tradition are perceived as legitimate and acceptable. An interesting phenomenon is the consistent perception of hagiographic plots as a source of credible information.
Coptic hagiography, literature of cycles, legend about Diocletian, Emperor Constantine, Emperor Julian, fi ction as means of structural construction, transformation of plots, Antioch, Coptic martyrs, betrayal of the bishop
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Головнина Наталья


E-mail: n_golovnina@list.ru.

Frangulian Liliia


E-mail: 8liya8@gmail.com.
The article is written within the framework of the project № 06-0416/КИП 2 supported by PSTGU Development Foundation
Vdovichenko Andrey
DOI of the paper: 10.15382/sturIII201752.62-75
This article deals with practices of writing and reading, which demonstrate notable features of the natural verbal process. In comparison with “language”, communicative action — the main feature of natural speaking — appears to be a more effective theoretical frame for explaining the production of meaning, the source of which in verbal and nonverbal semiotic acts is individual consciousness. The widespread explanation of writing and reading allows too little space to the communicative production of meaning and too large to the correlation between the sound and a grapheme. Chinese hieroglyphs cannot be explained by such a simplistic model, as well as European phonological orthography. This article shows that between the Chinese and the Europeans there exists a fundamental similarity of writing and reading processes, which allows us to give a non-contradictory explanation of what happens in any case of the graphic recording of verbal (and non-verbal) data. Both the Chinese and the Europeans are able to write and read due to the aprioristic possession of communicative typology (including forms of oral communication), rather than due to the “exact and strict correlation between the sound and the written character”. “Signs” represent hints on already known forms of acts of communication, making these acts recognisable. Members of linguocultural communities do not speak with hieroglyphs or letters. By means of hieroglyphs or letters they only depict (force to retrieve from memory) the “corporal” part of communicative syntagmas. Due to this part, their initial cognitive integrity (the desired integrated act of communication) can be potentially recreated and then interpreted as a semiotic act. The alphabetic or hieroglyphic way of recording becomes a formality and comes down to a question of which of them is more effective and more convenient in certain conditions of communication. The separation of signs from a personal semiotic act (making them a special system, or “language”) disorients the theory of communication (including the verbal communication) because it depicts the communication process as a simplified scheme “sign-meaning”
reading and writing, communicative action, language, semiotic act, letter, hieroglyph, Chinese and European reading or writing process, communicative typology
  1. Aristov V. V., Arshinov V. I., Borodai S. Iu., Ivanov V. P., Ivanov Viach. Vs., Kriukov A. N., Kuskova S. M., Lysenko V. G., Mamchur E. A., Vdovichenko A. V. “Ato mizm i kontinualizm v gumanitarnom znanii i sovremennaia nauka. Materialy kruglogo stola (Institut fi losofi i RAN, 17.06.2015)”, in: Voprosy filosofii, 10, 2016, 125–141.
  2. Iguan C. “Moderznizatsiia kitaiskogo iazyka i pis’mennosti”, in: Novoe v zarubezhnoi lingvistike, 22, 1989, 376–398.
  3. Kobzev A. I. Uchenie o simvolakh i chislakh. Moscow, 1994.
  4. Vdovichenko A. V. Rasstavanie s “iazykom”. Kriticheskaia retrospektiva lingvisticheskogo znaniia. Moscow, 2008.
  5. Vitgenshtein L. Filosofskie raboty, 1. Moscow, 1994.

Vdovichenko Andrey


Degree: Doctor of Philology;
Place of work: ведущий научный сотрудник, профессор;
E-mail: an1vdo@mail.ru.
The article is written within the framework of the project "The development of a communication model of a verbal process in the conditions of crisis of the language model" supported by RSF Foundation and The Institute of linguistics of the Russian Academy of Sciences
Fedotova Marina
DOI of the paper: 10.15382/sturIII201752.76-111
The Menologion, or the Book of Lives of Saints is one of the most signifi cant works by St. Dimitry, Metropolitan of Rostov and Yaroslavl, which was published in four volumes in Kiev within his lifetime (1689–1705) and republished many times after his death. The Martyrology belongs to the hagiographic genre as well as the Menologion (full Russian title: Мартиролог или мученикословие, житиа святых по мѣсяцех и числах въкратцѣ собранныя, в себѣ содержащое). The work on this text began when St. Dimitry was in the Ukraine, in the Monastery of the Savior in Novgorod Seversky, in 1700. This was the period during which, on one hand the writing and publication of the Menologion was in progress, and, on the other hand, it was the period directly preceding St. Dimitry’s move from the Ukraine to Russia. However, for a number of reasons, Dimitry Rostovsky did not complete this opus and only wrote brief Lives for September. The present paper exposes this work by Dimitry Rostovsky to the scientifi c community. It has been critically analysed and prepared for publication. The paper also raises the problem of unresearched and unpublished works by the Rostov Metropolitan that are being discovered in manuscript collections. These unpublished texts include several sermons given by the Metropolitan in the Ukraine, in Moscow, and in Rostov, as well as plays, poems, letters, hymnographic (services, canons) and chronographic texts, etc. The Martyrology only exists in one authored copy kept at the State Historical Museum (Synodal collection, 811), among unedited non-classifi ed materials collected in Rostov in 1704. When Dimitry of Rostov began to work on the Martyrology, he aimed to make its contents accesible to the general public. This was necessary, because the complete Menologion would be unaff ordable to the majority of people. Moreover, the texts within the Menologion, as opposed to brief lives of saints, were lengthy and detailed, which made them cumbersome to read. In contrast to the Menologion, the goal of the Martyrology was to cover all commemorations of each day to provide the reader with the opportunity to know and commemorate all saints. The monthly list of the Martyrology was clearly based on the Menologion, but it has its particular features. Dimitry curtailed the texts and tried to make the texts not only instructive, but also engaging.
Saint Limitry of Rostov, hagiograhpy, Menaion, Martyrology, source criticism, unpublished text
  1. Fedotova M. A. Epistoliarnoe nasledie Dimitriia Rostovskogo: Issledovanie i teksty. Moscow, 2005.
  2. Fedotova M. A. “K istorii Chet’ikh Minei Dimitriia Rostovskogo: rukopisnye materialy”, in: Vestnik NGU. Istoriia, filologiia, 11 (Filologiia), 2012, 123–133.
  3. Fedotova M. A. “Ob odnoi rukopisi iz sobraniia Petra I: k istorii Chet’ikh minei Dimitriia Rostovskogo”, in: Materialy i soobshcheniia po fondam Otdela rukopisei BAN. St Petersburg, 2013, 187–194.
  4. Fedotova M. A. “O neizdannykh sochine niiakh sviatitelia Dimitriia Rostovskogo: k postanovke problemy”, in: Vestnik PSTGU. III: Filologiia, 36, 2014, 47–64.
  5. Kruming A. A. “Chet’i Minei sviatogo Dimitriia Rostovskogo: Ocherk istorii izdaniia”, in: L. A. Iankovskoi, ed. Filevskie chteniia, 9. Sviatoi Dimitrii, mitropolit Rostovskii: Issledovaniia i materialy. Moscow, 1994, 5–52.
  6. Protas’eva T. N. Opisanie rukopisei Sinodal’nogo sobraniia (ne voshedshikh v opisanie A. V. Gorskogo i K. N. Nevostrueva). Moscow, 1970.

Fedotova Marina


Degree: Candidate of Sciences* in Philology;
Place of work: Institute of Russian Literature (the Pushkin House), Russian Academy of Sciences;
Post: fedotova_m@mail.ru;
E-mail: fedotova_m@mail.ru.

*According to the International Standard Classification of Education (ISCED) 2011, the degree of Candidate of Sciences (Cand.Sc.) belongs to ISCED level 8 — "doctoral or equivalent", together with PhD, DPhil, D.Lit, D.Sc, LL.D, Doctorate or similar.

The article is written in 2017 within the framework of the project "The works of Dimitry of Rostov: the unknown texts. Study and publication" supported by RFBR Foundation

PUBLICATIONS

Materova Elizaveta; Nyebolszin Antal Gergely
DOI of the paper: 10.15382/sturIII201752.115-130
This paper presents a translation of the commentary of donatist theologian Tyconius on the fourth and fifth chapter of the Book of Revelation with introduction and notes. This work of Tyconius did not survive as a whole text, but was recently reconstructed on the basis of the numerous quotations in the works of later authors. The commentary is of great interest because of its original ecclesiological ideas. Its influence on the later Latin tradition of interpretation of the Apocalypse was enormous. The work is translated into Russian for the first time.
Tyconius, Apocalypse, Revelation of John, eschatology, ecclesiology, donatism, early Christian exegesis
  1. Androsova V. “Kniga, zapechatannaia sem’iu pechatiami (Otkr 5. 1): tri iarkikh sviatootecheskikh tolkovaniia”, in: Vestnik PSTGU. I: Bogoslovie. Filosofiia, 1, 2013, 71–87.
  2. Androsova V. Nebesnye knigi v Apokalipsise Ioanna Bogoslova. Мoscow, 2013.
  3. Aune D. E. Revelation 1–5. Dallas, 1997.
  4. Bogaert P. M. “Les Quatre Vivants, l’Évangile et les évangiles”. Revue théologique de Louvain, 32, 2001, 457–478.
  5. Bogaert P. M. “Ordres anciens des évangiles et tétraévangile dans un seul codex”, in: Revue théologique de Louvain, 30, 1999, 297–314.
  6. Dulaey M. “La sixième Règle de Tyconius et son résumé dans le De doctrina Christiana”, in: Revue des études augustiniennes et patristiques, 35, 1989, 83–103.
  7. Schimanowski G. Die himmlische Liturgie in der Apokalypse des Johannes. Die frühjüdischen Traditionen in Offenbarung 4–5 unter Einschluß der Hekhalotliteratur. Tübingen, 2002.
  8. Tavo F. Woman, Mother and Bride. An Exegetical Investigation into the “Ecclesial” Notions of the Apocalypse. Leuven, 2007.
  9. Tavo F. “The Outer Court and Holy City in Rev 11:1–2: Arguing for a Positive Appraisal”, in: Australian Biblical Review, 54, 2006, 56–72.

Materova Elizaveta


Degree: Candidate of Sciences* in Philology;
Place of work: St. Tikhon’s Orthodox University; 6 Likhov per., Moscow 127051, Russian Federation;
E-mail: materowa@mail.ru.

*According to the International Standard Classification of Education (ISCED) 2011, the degree of Candidate of Sciences (Cand.Sc.) belongs to ISCED level 8 — "doctoral or equivalent", together with PhD, DPhil, D.Lit, D.Sc, LL.D, Doctorate or similar.


Nyebolszin Antal Gergely


Degree: Doctor of Theology;
Place of work: St. Tikhon’s Orthodox University for the Humanities; 6/1 Likhov pereulok, Moscow 127051, Russian Federation;
E-mail: gyula@mail.ru.
The article is written within the framework of the project "Latin commentaries on Revelation in patristic period. Annotated translation" supported by PSTGU Development Foundation
Mankov Alexander
DOI of the paper: 10.15382/sturIII201752.131-138
This paper presents new material for the dictionary of the present-day dialect of Staroshvedkoye (Gammalsvenskby), the only Scandinavian dialect on the territory of the former Soviet Union. The present-day state of this dialect has not been described in linguistic literature. The only source of data on Gammalsvenskby is fi eldwork with speakers of the dialect. The main objective of this work is to present material recorded in the interviews in the most complete way possible and to describe the state of the vocabulary and infl ection in the dialect. The entries include the following information: type of infl ection; translation; phrases, sentences and short texts illustrating the usage (with initials of the informants). In many cases full paradigms are given as well. They include all phonetic and morphological forms that have occurred in the interviews.
language documentation, documentary linguistics, field linguistics, endangered language, Swedish dialects, Swedish dialects of Estonia, Gammalsvenskby, dialect dictionary

Mankov Alexander


Degree: Candidate of Sciences* in Philology;
E-mail: mankov2017@gmail.com.

*According to the International Standard Classification of Education (ISCED) 2011, the degree of Candidate of Sciences (Cand.Sc.) belongs to ISCED level 8 — "doctoral or equivalent", together with PhD, DPhil, D.Lit, D.Sc, LL.D, Doctorate or similar.

The article is written in 2017 within the framework of the project "The dialect of Gammalsvenskby: vocabulary learning and the compilation of a dictionary" supported by PSTGU Development Foundation
Davydenkova Maria; _Kaluzhnina _Nadezhda; Strievskaya Olga; Mazurina Natalia; Strievskaya Maria
DOI of the paper: 10.15382/sturIII201752.139-147
This publication continues the edition of the dictionary and contains entries beginning with the letter м. Special features of this edition of the Dictionary, a list of sources, a list of abbreviations as well as explanatory notes were set out in detail in the preceding issues of St. Tikhon’s University Review. All previously published parts of the Dictionary together with the accompanying materials are available at http://pstgu.ru/faculties/philological/science/slov_Nevostr/
  1. Atanasii (Bonchev), Rechnik na tsеrkovnoslavianskiia ezik, Sofia, 1, 2002.
  2. Dvoretskii I., Drevnegrechesko-russkii slovar’, Moscow, 1, 1958.
  3. Kaluzhnina N., “O podgotovke k izdaniiu slovaria tserkovnoslavianskogo iazyka prot. A. I. Nevostrueva”, in: Vestnik PSTGU. III: Filologiia, 3 (9), 2007, 173–179.

Davydenkova Maria


Place of work: St. Tikhon Orthodox University of Humanities; 6 Likhov per., Moscow 127051, Russian Federation;
Post: lecturer;
E-mail: mdavydenkova@yandex.ru.

_Kaluzhnina _Nadezhda


Degree: Candidate of Sciences* in Philology;
Place of work: St Tikhon's Orthodox University;
E-mail: nkaluzhnina@yandex.ru.

*According to the International Standard Classification of Education (ISCED) 2011, the degree of Candidate of Sciences (Cand.Sc.) belongs to ISCED level 8 — "doctoral or equivalent", together with PhD, DPhil, D.Lit, D.Sc, LL.D, Doctorate or similar.


Strievskaya Olga


Place of work: St. Tikhon's University for the Humanities; 6 Likhov per., Moscow 127051, Russian Federation;
Post: lecturer;
E-mail: okstr1966@gmail.com.

Mazurina Natalia


Degree: Candidate of Sciences* in Philology;
Place of work: St George Orthodox Gymnasium; 4/2 Raitsentr st., Krasnogorsk 143406, Russian Federation;
Post: teacher;
E-mail: nat-mazurina07@yandex.ru.

*According to the International Standard Classification of Education (ISCED) 2011, the degree of Candidate of Sciences (Cand.Sc.) belongs to ISCED level 8 — "doctoral or equivalent", together with PhD, DPhil, D.Lit, D.Sc, LL.D, Doctorate or similar.


Strievskaya Maria


E-mail: strievskaya_maria@mail.ru.

BOOK REVIEWS

CHRONICLE

Tolmatchoff Vasily
DOI of the paper: 10.15382/sturIII201752.159-166
This paper paper is dedicated to «Napoleon» (1927), a book by Merezhkovsky which earlier has not been analyzed in detail. This work, in V. M. Tolmatchoff’s estimation, most important in understanding of Merezhkovsky’s emigre period of creative life, synthesizes all the previous key ideas of the writer. Also it corresponds a theme of Napoleon with the Russian history of XX, the European reality of 1920-ies, a vision in Napoleon a religious figure which unwillingly performed a religious mission of world scale, transformed revolution into counter-revolution, sacrificed himself for the future. Imagery of the book is based on the symbolist metaphors, dualisms: in Napoleon Merezhkovsky reveals features of other great heroes as well as of the gods; Napoleon is a contemporary of Stalin and Mussolini. In Merezhkovsky’s view Napoleon is transforming the usual oppostions — a republican in him in a very natural way is becoming a monarch, an atheist appears as a saint of the church of the future. In Merezhkovsky’s view Napoleon is transforming the usual oppostions — a republican in him in a very natural way is becoming a monarch, an atheist appears as a saint of the church of the future.
Merezhkovsky, Napoleon, theme of Napoleon in the work of Merezhkovsky, symbolist interpretation of the image of Napoleon, Napoleon in context of the Russian postrevolutionary history, composition of ''Napoleon'', religious idea of the book, Napoleon as a new saint

Tolmatchoff Vasily


Degree: Doctor of Philology;
Rank: Professor;
Place of work: MGU, Faculty of Philology; PSTGU, Faculty of Philology;
Post: full professor-chairman;full professor;
E-mail: tolmatchoff@hotmail.com.