This article examines the experience of setting up and maintaining an Orthodox embassy church in a traditionally Catholic country. In Spain, the establishing of the church at the embassy was directly conditioned by the development of Russian-Spanish diplomatic links. Since the mid-18th centry, parish clergy and necessary utensils were sent to Madrid, which, however, did not stay there permanently, but were taken to Russia or to other countries when diplomatic relations between Russia and Spain were severed. Deterioration in Russian-Spanish relations occurred when, for instance, the Spanish government denied to acknowledge Emperor Paul’s I election as Master of Maltese Order, or, on a diff erent occasion, when Russia did acknowledge Princess Isabella’s rights to the Spanish throne. The arrangement of the Orthodox church in Madrid depended considerably on the personality of the Russian ambassador. Thus, when Otto Magnus von Stackelberg, Lutheran by creed, occupied this post, the church in Madrid was closed down. The golden age of the embassy church in Madrid is associated with Revd. Konstantin Kustodiyev, its Father Superior in 1865‒1870. Kustodiyev learned Spanish, was elected a member of the Spanish Scientifi c Society Ateneo and since the mid-1860s published in the Russian periodical Pravoslavnoye obozrenie (“Orhtodox Review”) reports on contemporary religious and church life in the West: in Spain, France, Italy, Austria, Germany, Britain and the US. However, the congregation of Madrid church was never numerous and made up 15 persons at the most. Probably, this was the reason for the closure of the church in the early 1870s in the context of government spending cuts.
Russian Orthodox Church, Spain, Russian-Spanish relations, parish clergy in Spain, Russian embassy in Spain, Orthodox church in Madrid
*According to the International Standard Classification of Education (ISCED) 2011, the degree of Candidate of Sciences (Cand.Sc.) belongs to ISCED level 8 — "doctoral or equivalent", together with PhD, DPhil, D.Lit, D.Sc, LL.D, Doctorate or similar.
*According to ISCED 2011, a post-doctoral degree called Doctor of Sciences (D.Sc.) is given to reflect second advanced research qualifications or higher doctorates.