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St. Tikhon’s University Review. Series II: History. Russian Church History
St. Tikhon’s University Review II :74

RESEARCH STUDIES

Marei Elena
DOI of the paper: 10.15382/sturII201774.11-25
In the 11th–13th centuries after the relics of Isidore of Seville had been moved from Seville, occupied by Muslims, to Christian Leon, Leon diocese began to form a cult of the saint. The development of this cult was due to the writings of Lucas de Tuy, canon of San Isidoro’s Cathedral, later Bishop of Tuy in Galicia. The article analyzes the image of Isidore in his historical work, “Chronicon mundi”, which covers the period from the Creation to the capture of Cordoba by Christians in 1236. The author analyzes what sources were used by Lucas de Tuy to create the image of St. Isidore, and shows its influence on further chronicles. For example, Isidore of Lucas appears as teacher and legislator of Spain, the guardian of the true faith, at contrast to the Prophet Muhammad, with whom, according to Lucas, he was almost met. Moreover, Isidore predicted not only the Arab conquest, but the subsequent Reconquista, and therefore became one of Spanish Christians patron.
Lucas of Tuy, Isidore of Seville, the Reconquista, Latin cronicles

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Kanaeva Elga
DOI of the paper: 10.15382/sturII201774.26-40
The article deals with an episode of the controversy focussed on the Filioque doctrine between the Eastern and Western Churches in the 30s of the 14th century. We put aside the issue of methodological differences between the participants of the debate and consider only its dogmatic content. We present the historical context and the interrelationship of sources. The reconstruction of Catholic argumentation based on the analysis of recently published original versions of the basic texts of their Orthodox opponents, Barlaam the Calabrian and St. Gregory Palamas (preserved only in Serbian-Church-Slavonic translation) is proposed. It is shown that in terms of content the argumentation of Barlaam and Palamas coincides in many aspects. Their main argument is based on the distinction between “natural” and “hypostatic” properties in the Trinity, as well as on the distinction between the eternal procession of the Holy Spirit and his descent to the creature. The only signifi cant difference between their positions is their perception of the Latins’ thesis of procession of the Holy Spirit from the Father and the Son, “as from the one Source”. This very difference caused the continuation of discussions on the Orthodox ground. We note the development in reasoning, proposed by both authors during the second stage of the discussion. It is concluded that Barlaam’s and Palama’s defense of the doctrine of the procession of the Holy Spirit “a solo Patre” starts from common points and that the negative assessment of Barlaam’s work by St. Gregory Palamas should not be associated with it’s dogmatic content, but with different methodological orientations of the authors, as well as with the Gregory’s misunderstanding of the Barlaam’s thesis.
Barlaam the Calabrian, Gregory Palamas, Filioque, East–West opposition, Antilatin polemic, 14th century, triadology, Catholicism

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Kanaeva Elga

Avdeev Aleksandr
DOI of the paper: 10.15382/sturII201774.41-62
The article explores Russian syllabic epitaphs of the Baroque Era, which were very common in the “poetry” of the cemeteries from the last quarter of 17th century till the beginning of 1770s. Comparative analysis of epitaphs to patriarch Nikon, which were written in 1681/82s by Herman, the archimandrite of New Jerusalem Monastery, with epitaphs to provincial preachers, written from the end of 17th century till the beginning of 1770s shows that archimandrite of Novo-Jerusalem monastery Herman developed the structure of epitaph for an ideal preacher, which contained hagiotypes and biographic facts. It was followed in the 18th century by the authors of epitaphs for the Church hierarchs. The created by them basis of the ideal preacher’s image contained the hagiotypes of following the deeds of namesake saints and the image of Good Shepherd, Who herding graciously and humbly.
Epigraphy of Moscow Rus, Russian epigraphy of the 18th century, syllabic po etry, hagiotype, patriarch Nikon, Archimandrite Herman, Eparchy hierarchs of the Russian Or thodox Church

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Avdeev Aleksandr

Suslova Evgeniia
DOI of the paper: 10.15382/sturII201774.63-79
The article “Karelian self-appointed orthodox priest in front of the church administration in the first third of the 18th century” focuses on the church hierarchy activity in the fi eld of regulating of fi lling priest’s vacancies in the Zaonezhskaya tithe of the Novgorod metropolitan in the second half of the 17th – first third of the 18th centhury. The issue is analyzed in the light of the case, which arose around the fact that a person, who assured the community in his ordination, occupied the position of the priest. The research is based on revealing of social and family relations among the parishioners and clergy during a few decades and on examination of the case in a wide context of the Church law and measures that were undertaken in this sphere by metropolitans of Novgorod. The investigation shows that parish communities in Zaonezhie used actively their right to elect candidates for the position of priest. The church authority acknowledged the legitimacy of the parish elections, but, at the same time, took intensive steps for regulation of filling priest's vacancies in order to unify and bring discipline into the spiritual life of Karelian parishes. Metropolitans of Novgorod successfully carried the requirements of the Church hierarchy by introduction of the position of priests’ elders, who served their archbishop, but in comparison with the other agents had authority among local clergy and parishioners.
traditions of community self-government, peasant community, parish clergy elections, churchman, ordination, Orthodox Church parish, Novgorod metropolitan, Zaonezh skaya tithe, Olonetsky Uyezd, Russian Orthodox church, Early Modern Time

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Suslova Evgeniia

Matison Andrei
DOI of the paper: 10.15382/sturII201774.80-85
The article deals with an unexplored problem of calottes as conferments of orthodox priests in 18th century. Many researchers previously believed that calottes, as a special form of conferment, appeared only in late 18th century during the reign of Emperor Paul I. However, in 1860s in one regional edition (“Vologda diocesan journal”) polemics broke out about use of calottes by orthodox priests in Russia, and different views on this issue were discussed, though the authors were unable to agree on time when calotte had become a conferment for Orthodox clergy. This article presents results of a study of dossiers preserved among the materials of the Tver diocese consistory about conferring priests of the diocese of Tver using calottes. All these dossiers belong to 1780s, when the diocese was ruled by Archbishop Joasaph (Zabolotsky). Generally we managed to fi nd evidence of eight cases when this type of conferring took place. Unlike black calotte, used daily, calotte used as a conferment was crimson or green, and sometimes it was given together with nabedrennik (epigonation). The article analyzes the peculiarities of these conferrings and it is suggested that donation of calottes to priests in 18th century was not a common practice and depended on will of concrete ruling Bishop. The situation changed only in 1797, when purple calottes acquired the status of imperial conferments, and donation of them was put in order and regulated.
clergy, awards, calottes, Russia, Tver diocese, 18th century

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Sulockij A. I., protoierej. Svjashhennicheskie i diakonskie skuf'i v starinu // Pribavlenija k Vologodskim eparhial'nym vedomostjam. 1869. № 2. S. 61–69.
Sulockij A. I., protoierej. Eshhe neskol'ko slov o svjashhennicheskih i diakonskih skuf'jah v starinu // Pribavlenija k Vologodskim eparhial'nym vedomostjam. 1869. № 19. P. 743–753.

Matison Andrei

Gracheva Iuliia
DOI of the paper: 10.15382/sturII201774.86-93
The article analyzes the process of discussing the basic principles of the structure of parochial schools in the beginning of the 19th century. The author sets itself the task to reveal possible variants of reforms of the lower schools in the Baltic states, to determine the Main Board schools members’ attitude towards the proposed projects and to emphasize the uniqueness of educational reforms in the region of the Baltics. The main documents defined the structure of the educational institutions in the district of Dorpat initially took into account the local characteristics. The Baltic nobility was interested in spreading the education in their provinces and wanted to infl uence the realization of the educational reforms. It came into conflict with the charters of schools and universities and caused professors’ displeasure. Serious disagreements were caused by the issue about the need to allocate the established sum for the maintenance of the primary schools and teachers seminaries. The article shows in detail the work of one of the most active members of the School's Dorpat Commission, the author of the initial project of the parish schools, Professor G. F. Parrot. The archival materials were researched, showing, how the main ideas about the structure of the lower schools in the Baltic provinces discussed by the members of the National Education Ministry have changed. The author also marks duality of the Emperor Alexander’s I educational policy who presumed the possibility of existence of a network of parochial schools in the nobility keeping without any support of the government.
parochial schools, Dorpat school district, Professor G. F. Parrot, charter of schools, the Baltic nobility

Andreev A. Ju. Imperator Aleksandr I i professor G. F. Parrot: k istorii vozniknovenija «universitetskoj avtonomii» v Rossii // Otechestvennaja istorija. 2006. № 6. P. 19–30.
Gracheva Ju. E. Razrabotka obrazovatel'nyh reform v Glavnom Pravlenii uchilishh v 1803– 1804 gg. // Vestnik Sankt-Peterburgskogo universiteta. Ser. 2: Istorija. 2016. Vol. 3. P. 17–30.
Petuhov E. V. Imperatorskij Jur'evskij, byvshij Derptskij universitet za sto let ego sushhestvovanija. T. 1. Jur'ev, 1902.
Rozhdestvenskij S. V. Istoricheskij obzor dejatel'nosti Ministerstva narodnogo prosveshhenija. Saint-Petersburg, 1902.
Bienemann F. Der Dorpater Professor G. F. Parrot und Kaiser Alexander I. Reval, 1902.

Gracheva Iuliia

Khondzinskii Pavel, archpriest
DOI of the paper: 10.15382/sturII201774.94-102
Among Russian ecclesiastical academies in the 19th century the Kievan one was especially centered on the German classical philosophy. Thus, we can feel this interest in the works of St. Innocent (Borisov), whose Christology and Ecclesiology appears as an evident of explicit and covert polemics with Kant. However, St. Innocent was the first who troubled himself with the deep reflection about the possible conjunction of the Christian dogma and modern philosophy. By putting the question of the moral motivation of action in the Christological dimension, Western philosophy has questioned either divine nature of Christ or the very possibility of the moral imitation of Christ and unity with Him. Reflecting on this challenge, St. Innocent asserts the gradual realization in Christ’s mind His own divinity and talks about a special providential act, which let Him overcome the fear of death only through the power of the human nature. This conception is offering more or less acceptable answer for the inquirer from the “outside”. Meanwhile it was productive for questioning from “within” the Church because of the gap between the person and nature in the terminology of St. Innocent. Nevertheless, he denounced all the objections of this sort by the statement that the person of Christ is an exclusive “Divine mystery”. However, exactly in the works of St. Innocent we can see the sprouts of the theological personalism, which would become so fruitful in the 19th century’s Russian theological tradition.
personalism, christology, anthropology, personality, Kant, St.Innokentii (Borisov), Gethsemane prayer, moral motivation, Kiev academy, Russian theology

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Innokentij (Borisov), svt. Lekcii po oblichitel'nomu bogosloviju (NIOR. RGB. F. 173.1. № 564).
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Kant. I. Traktaty i pis'ma. Moscow, 1980.
Kruglov A. N. Filosofija Kanta v Rossii v konce XVIII — pervoj polovine XIX veka. Moscow, 2009.
Polnoe sobranie zakonov Rossijskoj imperii. Sobranie pervoe. T. XXXII. Saint-Petersburg, 1830.
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Khondzinskii Pavel, archpriest

Sukhova Nataliia
DOI of the paper: 10.15382/sturII201774.103-119
The article is devoted to the research of Russian theologians dedicated to one of the most famous historical figures in the history of the Christian Church of the fi rst millennium – the Patriarch of Constantinople Photios (IX). Personality and acts of patriarch Photios are evaluated extremely ambiguous and assessed not only Western but also Eastern theologians of both Church history and theological viewpoints. For the Russian Christianity patriarch Photius has a special significance: it is enough to recall the “Photios baptism”, Photios homily “on the invasion of Russia” (860), “Encyclical Letter” to the East the patriarchal throne (1867), first teachers Cyril and Methodius. The article covers 30 years (1885–1915) and has two time “assemblies”: 1885–1900s and 1900–1915s. On the basis of published and unpublished documents, the author considers the range of estimates of the Most Holy Patriarch Photios, given by the Russian theologians and Church leaders, highlighting three areas: Slavic, who valued the role the Patriarch Photios played in the Christian education of the Slavs; “grekofilos”, who demanded the incorporation of Patriarch Photios’ name in Russian calendars; fighters against “east Popery”, who recognized the historical and theological merits of the Patriarch Photios, but stand firm on non-recognition of his canonization. However, all of these items together were largely due to the views of the late 19th – early 20th century: the relationship of the Orthodox Churches of the era, the specifi cs of church-state relations in Russia, which were often relocated on “Byzantine symphony”. Thus, “the matter of the Patriarch Photios” became certain litmus test for identifying the “hot spots” and the internal discussions in the Russian academic theology.
Patriarch Photios, Russian theology, Orthodox Theological Academy, “east Popery”, Slavic studies, Byzantine studies

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Sukhova Nataliia

Petrova Ekaterina
DOI of the paper: 10.15382/sturII201774.120-128
The article is devoted to study the Catholic communities of Sisters of Mercy in the Western region of the Russian Empire. Based on the analysis of sources the author has identified the individual characteristics of Catholic and other local communities appeared on the territory of the Empire in that period. After the accession of the Catholic communities in Poland to the Russian Empire, the state office reached out to Catholic monasteries and Orders, including “Congregation of the Daughters of Charity of Saint Vincent de Paul”. Within the Empire the Catholic communities engaged in public charity and did missionary work. However, after the Polish uprising in 1830–1831, the Russian government began to consider communities as a political threat. In this regard, the problem of the existence of Catholic communities demanded a solution. In 1842, their activities were signifi cantly curtailed. There were a number of projects for the reconstruction of the “Congregation of the Daughters of Charity of Saint Vincent de Paul” by Governors of the Western region V. Nazimov and J. Vasilchikov. Polish uprising in 1863 didn’t let to embody their ideas, and all projects according to the Catholic communities of Sisters of Mercy were cancelled. In 1870 the Russian government opened the legal community of Sisters of Mercy in Warsaw at the Church of St. Casimir. The sisters of this community worked in the hospitals of the Order of public charity. The community was deprived of its right to dispose of the capital, to manage hospitals. The community obeyed the local diocesan authorities in spiritual matters.
Sisters of Mercy, communities, Congregation of the Daughters of Charity, Congregation of the Mission, Lazarists, Saint Vincent de Paul, Russian Empire, Kingdom of Poland, Ministry of National Education, Order of public charity

Vishlenkova E. Zabotias' o dushah poddannyh: religioznaia politika v Rossii pervoi chetverti XIX veka. Saratov, 2002.
Istoricheskii ocherk Sviato-Troickoi obshhiny sester miloserdiia v Sankt-Peterburge za piatidesiatiletie (1844–1894). Saint-Petersburg, 1894.
Karpycheva L. A. Obshhiny sester miloserdiia i pravoslavnaia cerkov' // Ona zhe. «Na nebesah ugotovitsia istina Tvoia»: Neravnodushnye mysli verujushhego cheloveka. Saint-Petersburg, 2009. P. 259–278.
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Posternak A. V. Ocherki po istorii obshhin sester miloserdiia. Moscow, 2001.

Petrova Ekaterina

Posternak Andrei, priest
DOI of the paper: 10.15382/sturII201774.129-143
The article considers a brief history of the Deaconesses’ Communities of the Evangelical Lutheran Church in the Russian Empire. The communities depended on the General Consistory of the Lutheran Church, which had its own statute (1832), according to which the Church was controlled by the Ministry of Interior. Deaconesses’ Communities were located in six of the Baltic, St. Petersburg and Moscow provinces of the Lutheran Church and had local Consistories. From the mid-nineteenth century the Communities were located in major centers: St. Petersburg (1858), Riga (1862), Mitau (1866), Reval (1872) and some others settlements and towns. Deaconesses worked in the places of compact residence of the Germans-Lutherans in the Baltic region and in the South of Ukraine (Kherson’ province). The number of deaconesses was very small, they were obliged to live under the regulations of the Evangelical Church, to execute the functions of professional sisters of mercy at hospitals, orphanages and at home. This form of deaconesses’ activity was similar to the status and functions of the Sisters of Mercy of the Russian red cross society, according to the Normal statute (1903). The discussions about the status of the Marfo-Mariinsky Convent, founded by Grand Duchess Elizabeth Feodorovna in 1911–1914s, point out that the religious orientation of the deaconesses’ community unites them with the similar activity of the Convent’s sisters, based, however, on the Orthodox tradition.
deaconesses, «mother houses» of deaconesses, Evangelical Lutheran Church, charitable workin the Russian Empire, Baltic provinces, Sisters of Mercy, Marfo-Mariinsky Convent, Germans of Russia

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Posternak Andrei, priest

Kozlovtseva Elena
DOI of the paper: 10.15382/sturII201774.144-152
While exploring the history of Sisters of Mercy communities, researchers hardly pay attention to graphical sources, which can provide the valuable information for the study. Mostly, researchers tend to use the visuals only for illustration without considering images as separate valuable historical units. Graphical sources provide historians with a range of opportunities for interpretation, revealing new aspects for study and adding new knowledge to written sources. Besides, it is necessary to utilize extra sources to discover all the layers of information. The graphical sources are considered to be newsreel, photos, painting, icons, pictures, posters, postcards and other types of images. The main attention is paid to the photos, which are the most widespread and available sources for the researchers. Many photos of the sisters are found in the archival files, as well as many of them were published at anniversary reports, theme albums, monographs and other electronic resources. There is a classification of graphical images: separate photos of Sisters of Mercy, portraits of the whole community or the group, communities’ buildings, hospitals, other Sisters of Mercy work places, hospital-cars and the means of transporting the injured, medical staff at work, everyday scenes. The special feature of the photos is that they were aimed to be personal. The article explores various methodological techniques of photo-analysis in relation to historical research of the history of Sisters of Mercy communities.
Graphical sources, Sisters of Mercy, communities, the Russian Red Cross Community, Florence Farmborough, The First World War, charity

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Kozlovtseva Elena

PUBLICATIONS

Antoshchenko Aleksandr
DOI of the paper: 10.15382/sturII201774.155-167
In the introduction to published letters there are characteristics of major activities of the well-known emigre historian George Fedotov on on the eve of the 7th All-American Council of the Russian Orthodox Church in North America (ecclesiastical province), which took place in Cleveland (Ohio) in November 1946. He elaborated the project of transforming St. Vladimir’s Seminary in the academy, and participated in the drafting of “Memorandum of five professors,” which defined the relationship of the ecclesiastical province with the Moscow Patriarchate as well as with the Synod of the Russian Orthodox Church Abroad. In the first of published letters the historian described the essence of the “Memorandum” that required only a spiritual or sacramental bond of the ecclesiastical province with the Moscow Patriarchate, but denied any administrative dependence on it. He analyzed social composition of the Council delegates, who adopted a decision, similar to the proposal of “five professors”. In the letter written a year later, George Fedotov determined the future development of relations with the Moscow Patriarchate as steps to autocephaly of the ecclesiastical province. Published sources provide readers with valuable information about the situation of the Russian Orthodox Church in North America in 1946–1947s, as well as with significant events in the historian biography during the so-called “American period” of his life.
George Fedotov, Feodosy Spassky, 7th All-American Council (Sobor) of the Russian Orthodox Church in North America (ecclesiastical province) at Cleveland (Ohio), Metropolitan Theophilus (Pashkovsky), Archbishop Vitaly (Maximenko), Archbishop Leonty (Turke

Antoshchenko Aleksandr