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Бурмистров К. Ю., Эндель М. И. О божественных именах в еврейском мистицизме // Вестник ПСТГУ. Серия I: Богословие. Философия. 2014. Вып. 6 (56). С. 55-71. DOI: 10.15382/sturI201456.55-71
The concept of the names of God and their role in the creation and existence of the world, as well as the practice of their veneration constitute an essential part of Judaism in general, and are elaborated in detail in Jewish mysticism. In Kabbalah, an idea of the creative power of the Tetragrammaton (the ineff able four-letter Name) and other names occupies an especially prominent place. It is based on the idea of linguistic mysticism conveyed in the Jewish mystical treatise Sefer Yetzirah (“Book of Creation”, 3–6 centuries AD.). According to this ancient text, the creation of the world is seen as a linguistic process in which the Hebrew letters are thought of as both the creative forces and the material of which the world is created. The article analyses the main features of the symbolism of the divine names in medieval Kabbalah. We have identifi ed two main areas in the understanding of the divine names, peculiar to the two main schools of classical medieval Kabbalah — theosophical (theurgic) and ecstatic (prophetic). The ideas of these schools are considered according to the works of two prominent kabbalists of the 13th c. — Joseph Gikatilla and Abraham Abulafi a. In the fi rst of these schools, knowing the names of God leads to the actualization of the latent mystical forces and results in a transformation and reintegration of our world and the world of the divine. This process, in turn, is understood as having an eschatological and messianic signifi cance. Abraham Abulafi a elaborated sophisticated practices of combining the divine names aimed at transforming the adept’s consciousness, its purifi cation and development of special mental abilities. At the end of the mystical path the practitioner achieves the state of prophecy and eventually merges with the Divine.
Kabbalah, Jewish Mysticism, Jews, Names of God, divine Names, Judaism, Torah, Tetragrammaton, Abulafia

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Burmistrov Konstantin
Endel' Mariia
Эндель М. И. «Спиноза без малейшаго сумнения каббалиствует»: о ранее неизвестном переводе на русский язык книги Иоганна Вахтера «Elucidarius cabbalisticus» («Объяснение каббалы») XIX в. // Вестник ПСТГУ. Серия I: Богословие. Философия. 2018. Вып. 77. С. 100-117. DOI: 10.15382/sturI201877.100-117
This article is devoted to the previously unknown translation of the book of the German philosopher Johann Wachter Elucidarius cabbalisticus. This book deals with philosophy of Benedict Spinoza, which the author understands in connection with Jewish mysticism, Kabbalah. The translation into Russian was made by Semen Novikov in 1820 but remained unpublished. The article expounds on the content of the manuscript; the manuscript itself is being examined in the broad context of Masonic literature of the 18th — 19th centuries related to Kabbalah. The main idea of Wahter’s book is that Kabbalah is an ancient doctrine, a certain form of primordial philosophy or wisdom that is transmitted by the Jews. It is transmitted secretly, in order to avoid profanisation. Spinoza’s philosophy is a form of the elite Kabbalah, the origin of which he was concealing, avoiding Hebrew and unnecessary references to Kabbalistic texts. The main match of Spinoza and Kabbalah is in the formula: “Nature is God, but God is not nature”. The translation made by Semen Novikov is a clear evidence of interest in Jewish mysticism among Russian thinkers of the early 19th century. It demonstrates the fact that Russian Freemasons not only were the agents of western values and western philosophy but were also the fi rst to have conceptualised in Russian a signifi cant amount of European humanities, part of which is Kabbalah.
Spinoza, Kabbalah, Jewish mysticism, Johann Wachter, Freemasonry, history of Freemasonry in Russia, philosophy of Spinoza, Theophan Prokopovich, Jewish philosophy, esotericism, tradition
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Endel Maria
Post: Imdependent Researcher;
ORCID: 0000-0003-3953-650X;
Email: mariaendel@gmail.com.
Materials for the article are collected thanks to the program of the Center "Sefer" (The project is supported by the Genesis Philanthropy Group). The author is grateful to the staff member of the National Library of Russia Pavel Andreevich Medvedev for their help in the work.