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Филиппов Б. А. Госбезопасность против кардинала Кароля Войтылы // Вестник ПСТГУ. Серия II: История. История Русской Православной Церкви. 2012. Вып. 4 (47). С. 111-126.
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On the example of the history of persecution of Cardinal Karol Wojtyla the auther discusses the forms and methods of the Polish security service’s struggle against the Catholic Church.
Karol Wojtyla, Catholic Church, Polish security service
Филиппов Б. А. О волнах и циклах духовного (религиозного) напряжения в истории // Вестник ПСТГУ. Серия I: Богословие. Философия. 2015. Вып. 1 (57). С. 98-114. DOI: 10.15382/sturI201557.98-114
The notions of «religious awakening» and «religious revival» refer to processes which took place in the history of European civilization. These notions are widely used in academic language and literature. During the last third of the twentieth and the beginning of the twenty-first century, a global phenomenon emerged which can be described as «de-secularization», «religious revival» or «spiritual awakening». This was characteristic of all religions. Sociologists, researchers of religions and political scientists have begun to discuss its nature and character. The author attempts to place it in the broader context of Western European and Russian history of the last five hundred years. He wishes to examine it with reference to the cyclic-wave theory of social development. He introduces the concept of «religious tension» defined as the idea that mankind and the individual cannot be in a state of constant religious tension. Following the wave of spiritual tension or religious revival a «return wave» of spiritual indifference or tranquility succeeds. The two periods taken together constitute a single cycle. As a criterion for assessing the presence or absence of tension, the author highlights popular piety and the religious atmosphere just before the Protestant Reformation. These models are later employed as part of a pattern underlining similar characteristics of religious life at other times. The first section of the article presents the theory behind the problem and the characteristics of the return wave lasting from 1930 to 1960. This was the wave that served as the basis for the theory of secularization. The second section of the article highlights the religious tension characteristic of the second half of the twentieth and the start of the twenty-fi rst century.
waves, cycles, tension, renewal, the conditions fro salvation, types of piety, sects, secularization/de-secularization, Reformation, anti-clericalism, Jaspers, Eisenstadt, Schlesinger, Buné, S. Lebedev, Uzlaner, Filatov, Furman, Kääriä

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Филиппов Б. А. О волне духовного напряжения конца 60-х гг. XX в. — начала XXI в // Вестник ПСТГУ. Серия I: Богословие. Философия. 2015. Вып. 5 (61). С. 112-130. DOI: 10.15382/sturI201561.112-130
Here the author continues to consider the cyclic-wave character of religious (spiritual) life. During the last third of the twentieth and the beginning of the twenty-first century, a global phenomenon emerged which can be described (by sociologists, researchers of religions and political scientists) as «de-secularization», «religious revival» or «spiritual awakening». The author made an attempt to structure this phenomenon, to show stages of its development (the rise, the highest point and the recession) as well as its main features and characteristics. As the beginning of the wave the author considers the mass exodus of hippies into sects in the late 60’s — early 70’s and the formation of the Catholic «base communities» in Latin America. The first signs of change in the attitudes of the young toward religion were perceived by Soviet sociologists in 1969. At an individual level, a new religious wave in the European countries (including the USSR) began when people started to study and practice Eastern spiritual practices and ardently search for ways of spiritual perfection. This new religious revival was largely «interdenominational and non-institutional». This is evidenced by the rapid growth of new religious movements (NRM), especially the charismatic movement. The new religion was not connected with any religious education or with elementary theological literacy. This wave chronologically coincided with the emergence of the new worldwide information and communication medium — the Internet, which has become «the most organic medium channel for religious organizations». By the beginning of the second decade of the XXI century the religious tension has exhausted itself.
Waves, Cycles, Tension, Renewal, Types of Piety, Sects, Secularization / De-secularization, Anti-clericalism, Religious Education, Ultra-orthodox, Charismatic Movement, Internet, D. Bel, P. Berger, W. Buné, L. Vorontsova, S. Filatov, Furman, Ioannes

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Филиппов Б. А. Папа Франциск, II Ватиканский собор и новая модель Католической Церкви // Вестник ПСТГУ. Серия II: История. История Русской Православной Церкви. 2016. Вып. 1 (68). С. 102-119. DOI: 10.15382/sturII201668.102-119
While the Earth’s population grows exponentially and with it grows the number of baptized Catholics, there is no corresponding growth among the Catholic clergy. On the other hand the number of “believers outside of the Church” and nonbelievers grows each year and the center of the world Christianity moves to the South. At the same time Christianity has become the religion of megalopolises. Finally, the growth of the “Charismatic communities” has become one of the most important challenges to the Catholic Church in the world. But the Catholic Church in its current state is unable to satisfyingly answer to any of these challenges. The image of the Church is tarnished by continuous sex scandals. It is then that an Argentine cardinal Jorge Mario Bergoglio is elected to be the head of the Catholic Church as the new pope. He chooses to be named Francis both acknowledging deeply problematic state of the Church in the world and symbolizing its readiness to restoration. The new Pope begins his work by reminding that the goal of the Church is evangelism, that is spreading the Gospel in the modern world. To be succeed in this the Catholic Church needs to change its image in the public’s eye. The Church needs to be seen merciful and poor, to get rid of the clericalism. Another goal set by Pope Francis is realization of the decisions of the Second Vatican Council on forming post-Constantine model of the Catholic Church, that is on collegiality in governing the Church and increasing the role of lay Catholics, including women, in the Church affairs. By these changes the Pope wants to shape a new model of the Catholic Church. This article describes this process and its implications.
Pope Francis, II Vatican Council, clericalism, celibate, “Allience of Throne and Altar”, clergy, laity, сollegiality, women, bishops, primate, “Lumen gentium”, Early Church, believers without church, Post-Constantine era, Roman curia, bishops conference,

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Филиппов Б. А. Ф. Рузвельт, Пий XII, И. Сталин и проблема репутации СССР в годы Второй мировой войны // Вестник ПСТГУ. Серия II: История. История Русской Православной Церкви. 2016. Вып. 4 (71). С. 84-102. DOI: 10.15382/sturII201671.84-102
The aggression of Hitler’s Germany against the USSR made our country an ally of the United States and Great Britain. But the decision to help USSR with weapons and hardware (the lend-lease act) faced opposition not only from the American isolationists but also from religious groups. Both Catholics and Protestants were against the very idea of helping the country in which churches were destroyed and the faithful were persecuted. They have considered such an idea to be immoral. To overcome the opposition in Congress, president F. D. Roosevelt and the US diplomats tried to convince Stalin to reject his policies of religious oppression. Roosevelt also asked pope Plus XII for help. At the same time German and Italian ambassadors were trying to convince the Pope to support their “crusade against the godless Bolshevik Russia”. The question of USSR’s image was an important issue throughout the course of war. The article tells the history of the most signifi cant efforts undertaken by the Western allies and Stalin to improve the international reputation of the USSR. First of all, it tells the story of the mysterious letter from Stalin to Plus XII (1942) and about even more mysterious visit of the American priest Stanislav Orlemansky to Moscow and his meeting with Stalin in 1944.
F. D. Roosevelt, Pius XII, J. Stalin, Vaticano, St. Orlemansky, A.Cicognani. freedom of conscience and religion, persecution of religion, «Stalin’s letter to Pius XII», the Lend-Lease Act, the US Congress, American Catholics, USSR foreign policy.

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