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Феофанов А. М. Ученые степени в Московском университете во второй половине XVIII в. // Вестник ПСТГУ. Серия II: История. История Русской Православной Церкви. 2011. Вып. 4 (41). С. 7-14.
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degrees, University, research and teaching certification, teachers
Феофанов А. М. Уровень образованности высшей российской бюрократии второй половины XVIII — первой половины XIX в. // Вестник ПСТГУ. Серия II: История. История Русской Православной Церкви. 2012. Вып. 1 (44). С. 17-27.
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In the article an attempt to generalize and analyse all known data on the educational level of Russian officials of 2 nd half of XVIII th — 1 st quarter of XIX th century (especially of the political elite) is made. The author considers that the higher bureaucracy of that time in the majority of cases had no regular education. The educational level of Russian top officials (political elite) — senators, ministers, members of the State council and governors — is analysed. Comparison of the data on education of the elite and of the whole Russian bureaucracy allows to draw a conclusion that up to the middle of 19 th century representatives of the higher bureaucracy had no regular education, and the professional specialization of the Russian elite was poorly developed.
political elite, bureaucracy, educational level, universities
Феофанов А. М. Профессура Московского университета второй половины XVIII — первой четверти XIX // Вестник ПСТГУ. Серия II: История. История Русской Православной Церкви. 2013. Вып. 1 (50). С. 7-28.
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In the present article the professorate of Moscow university (second half of XVIII th — first quarter of XIX th centuries) is to be analysed. The data from service records of teachers and from periodicals is involved. The field of study include researches in career advancement, extensive inquiry according to size and social strata of the Moscow professors, their age characteristics, marital and social status (rank and tenure, inclusion in the nobility). Keywords: professorate, university, nobles, social lifting, social dignity.
professorate, university, nobles, social lifting, social dignity
1. Andreev A. Ju. Moskovskij universitet v obshhestvennoj i kul'turnoj zhizni Rossii nachala XIX v. (Moscow University in the Public and Cultural Life of Russia in the Begin of XIX Cent.), M., 2000.
2. Andreev A. Ju. (1997) “Professora” (Professors), in Universitet dlja Rossii. Vzgljad na istoriju kul'tury XVIII stoletija, M., 1997, vol. 1, pp. 174–219.
3. Petrov F. A. Formirovanie sistemy universitetskogo obrazovanija v Rossii (Forming of the System of the University Education in Russia), M., 2002, vol. 1–2.
4. Andreev A. Ju. (2001) “Professora” (Professors), in // Universitet dlja Rossii. Moskovskij universitet v Aleksandrovskuju jepohu, M., 2001, vol. 2, pp. 190–232.
5. Volkov V. A., Kulikova M. V. Moskovskie professora XVIII — nachala XX v.: Estestvennye i tehnicheskie nauki (Moscow Professors of XVIII — Begin of XX Cent.: Natural and Technical Sciences), M., 2003.
6. Volkov V. A., Kulikova M. V., Loginov V. S. Moskovskie professora XVIII — nachala XX v. Gumanitarnye i obshhestvennye nauki (Moscow Professors of XVIII — Begin of XX Cent.: Humanitarian and Social Sciences), M., 2006.
7. Andreev A. Ju., Cygankov D. A. (eds). Imperatorskij Moskovskij universitet. 1755–1917: Jenciklopedicheskij slovar' (Emperor’s Moscow University. 1755–1917: Encyclopedia Dictionary), M., 2010.
8. Petrov F. A. Nemeckie professora v Moskovskom universitete (German Professors in the Moscow University), M., 1997.
9. Andreev A. Ju., A. M. Feofanov (eds.). Inostrannye professora rossijskih universitetov (vtoraja polovina XVIII — pervaja tret' XIX v.): Biograficheskij slovar' (Foreign Professors of Russian Universities (2nd Hapf of XVIII — 1st Third of XIX Cent.)), M., 2011.
10. Niks N. N. Moskovskaja professura vo vtoroj polovine XIX — nachale XX veka. Socio- kul'turnyj aspect (Moscow Professors in the 2nd Half of XIX — Begin of XX Cent. Socio-Cultural Aspect), M., 2008.
11. Serdjuckaja O. V. Moskovskij universitet vtoroj poloviny XVIII v. kak gosudarstvennoe uchrezhdenie. Prepodavatel'skaja sluzhba (Moscow University of the 2nd Half of XVIII Cent. as a State Institution. Teacher’s Service), M., 2011.
12. Fundaminskij M. I. (1984) “Social'noe polozhenie uchenyh v Rossii XVIII stoletija” (Social Status of Scientists in Russia in XVIII Cent.), in Nauka i kul'tura Rossii XVIII veka, L., 1984, pp. 52–70.
13. Maurer Trude. (2003) “Novyj podhod k social'noj istorii universiteta: Kollektivnaja biografija professorov” (New Approach to the Social History of University: Collective Biography of Professors), in Iz istorii russkoj intelligencii: Sb. st. k 100-letiju so dnja rozhde- nija V. R. Lejkinoj-Svirskoj, SPb., 2003, p. 287.
14. Feofanov A. M. (2011) “Inostrannye professora rossijskih universitetov vtoroj poloviny XVIII — pervoj treti XIX v.: Opyt kollektivnogo opisanija” (Foreign Professors of Russian Universities (2nd Hapf of XVIII — 1st Third of XIX Cent.)), in Inostrannye professora rossijskih universitetov (vtoraja polovina XVIII — pervaja tret' XIX v.), 2011, pp. 11–24.
15. Popova I. P. (2011) “«Povorotnye punkty» v biografijah i professional'nye kar'ery specialistov“ (“Turning Point” in Biographies and Professional Careers of Specialists), in SOCIS, 2011, vol. 4, pp. 83–84.
16. Kostina T. V. (2007) “Kar'era v universitete, ili Skol'ko let dolzhno byt' professoru: Na materialah Kazanskogo universiteta 1804–1863 godov“ (Careers in University, or How Old a Professor Must Be: by Example of the University of Kazan’ in 1804–1863), in Dialog so vremenem. Al'manah intellektual'noj istorii, M., 2007, vol. 20, pp. 262–269.
17. Volkov V. A., Kulikova M. V. Rossijskaja professura XVIII — nachala XX v. Biologicheskie i mediko-biologicheskie nauki: Biograficheskij slovar' (Russian Professors of XVIII — Begin of XX Cent. Biological and Medic-Biological Sciences: Biographical Dictionary), SPb.: Izd-vo RHGI, 2003.
18. Savelov L. M. (ed.). Moskovskoe dvorjanstvo. Rodoslovnaja kniga dvorjanstva Moskovskoj gubernii. Dvorjanstvo zhalovannoe i vysluzhennoe. A–I. (Moscow Nobility. Genealogy Book of the Nobility of the Moscow Province. Inherited and Served Nobility), M., [1914], vol. 1.
19. F. A. Petrov (ed.) (1997) “«Ne velika chest' byt' v uchenom soslovii» (Iz pis'ma A. A. Prokopovicha-Antonskogo A. I. Turgenevu)” (“It is not Such an Honor to be a Scientist” (from the Letter of A. A. Prokopovich-Antonskiy to A. I. Turgenev)), in Vestnik Moskovskogo universiteta. Ser. 8. Istorija, 1997, vol. 2, pp. 108–109.
20. Sushkov N. V. Moskovskij Universitetskij Blagorodnyj pansion i vospitanniki Moskovskogo Universiteta, Gimnazij Ego, Universitetskogo Blagorodnogo Pansiona i Druzheskogo Obshhestva (Noble Boarding School of the Moscow University and Alumni of the Moscow University, Its Noble Boarding School, Its Gymnasium and Friends’ Society), M., 1858.
21. Naumov O. N. (2008) “Geral'dika dvorjanstva Moskovskoj gubernii: novye istochniki” (Armory of the Nobility of the Moscow Province), in Istorija Moskovskogo kraja, M., 2008, vol. 2.
22. Modzalevskij V. L. Malorossijskij rodoslovnik (Book of Genealogy of Malorossia), Kiev, 1914, vol. 4.
23. Russkie pisateli. 1800–1917: Biograficheskij slovar' (Russian Writers. 1800–1917: Biographical Dictionary), M., 1992, vol. 2.
24. Cygankov D. A. (2009) “Tradicii T. N. Granovskogo i formirovanie «moskovskoj shkoly istorikov»: skladyvanie professional'noj nauchnoj sredy v Moskovskom universitete kak problema transfera kul'tur” (Traditions of T. N. Granovskiy and Forming of the “Moscow Historian School”: Developing of the Professional Scientific Sphere in the Moscow University as a Problam of Cultures’ Transfere), in «Byt' russkim po duhu i evropejcem po obrazovaniju». Universitety Rossijskoj imperii v obrazovatel'nom prostranstve Central'noj i Vostochnoj Evropy XVIII–XX v, M., 2009.











Феофанов А. М. Образовательный уровень российского генералитета 1812 года // Вестник ПСТГУ. Серия II: История. История Русской Православной Церкви. 2013. Вып. 4 (53). С. 23-30.
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In the article an attempt is made to generalize and analyse all known data on the educational level of the Russian generals of 1812. The author considers that the Russian generals of that time in the majority of cases had no regular education. Comparison of the data on education of the elite and of the whole Russian generals allows to draw a conclusion that up to the middle of 19th century representatives of the higher bureaucracy had no regular education.
generals, University, nobility, educational level, elite
1. Andrejev A. Yu. Russkie studenty v nemetskih universitetah XVIII — pervoi poloviny XIX veka (Russian students at German universities in in XVIII and first half of XIX centuries). Moscow, 2005.
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3. Besotnosnyj V. M. 1995. Bombardir, no. 1, pp. 27-29.
4. Chichagov P. V. Zapiski («Notes»). Moscow, 2002.
5. Eroshkin N. E. Rossijskoe samoderzhavie (The Russian autocracy). Moscow, 2006. Faizova I. V. «Manifest o volnosty» («Manifesto on the Freedom»). М., 1999.
6. Feofanov A. M. 2011. Vestnik PSTGU II, no. 1 (44), 17-27.
7. Krylov V. M. Kadetskie korpusa i rossjskie kadety (The Cadet Corps and the Russian cadets). Saint Petersburg, 1998.
8. Mironenko S. V. Samoderzhavie i reformy (The autocracy and the reforms). Moscow, 1989.
9. Pintner W. M. 1970. Slavic Review: American Quarterly of Soviet and East European Studies. Vol. 29, no. 29, pp. 429-443.
10. Pisarkova L. F. Gosudarstvennoje upravlenie Rossii (The Russian Government). Moscow, 2007.
11. Shilov D. N. Gosudarstvennye dejateli Rossjskoj imperii (The statesmen of the Russian Empire). Saint Petersburg, 2002.
12. Shilov D. N., Kuzmin Yu. A. Chleny Gosudarstvennogo soveta Rossjskoj imperii, 1801—1906 (The Members of the Council of State of the Russian Empire, 1801-1906). Saint Petersburg, 2007.
13. Troitskij S. M. Russkij absoljutizm i dvorjanstvo v XVIII veke (The Russian autocracy and nobility in the XVIIIth century). Moscow, 1974.
14. Wortman R. Vlastiteli i sudii (The rulers and the judges). Moscow, 2004.
15. Zajonchkovskiy P. A. Pravitelstvennyj apparatsamoderzhavnojRossii v XIX veke (Governmental community of the autocratic Russia in the XIX century). Moscow, 1978.
Феофанов А. М. Военный и статский генералитет Российской империи XVIII века: социальная динамика поколений // Вестник ПСТГУ. Серия II: История. История Русской Православной Церкви. 2014. Вып. 4 (59). С. 40-57. DOI: 10.15382/sturII201459.40-57
In the present article the quantity and social structure of Russian generalship of the XVIIIth century is to be analysed. The main task is to consider the generational evolution, social origin and levels of education of generals of Russian Empire. Increase in the total number of generals is connected with reduction of the proportion of foreigners and with increase of the percentage of non-highborn nobility. Non-nobility for the entire studied period occurs here only as an exception. Proportion of people with «regular» education was low, but gradually increased. The groups combined on the basis of proximity of two main criteria: the time of birth and time of entry into service constitute generations. Generation means the community of people united in the sociocultural context, in this research we will concentrate on the initial conditions of socialization (social origin, education). The fi rst generation began service in the XVIIth century and at the beginning of the reign of Peter I, and received general’s offices in the same reign. Generals of the second generation got position of generals only at the beginning of the next period of Russian history - the era of palace revolutions. The third generation came into service in the era of palace revolutions, and reached general’s rank in the same period, or during the reign of Catherine II. Small amount entered into service after 1762, and received grades 1-2 class at the time of Paul I. In the first generation one can consider the greatest number of representatives of the higher ranks of the Moscow state serving nobility. In the second generation there are some children of Peter’s generals (more than half of the composition) also closely associated with the old Moscow aristocracy. In the third generation the proportion of those whose fathers had the rank of general, is also slightly more than half. Since the reign of Catherine II, representatives of small and medium service nobility began to receive the generals’ position of first two higher ranks in mass. Elite that was established during the modernization of Peter the Great, was based on meritocratic principles, and it was genetically related to the old Moscow nobility. For those who did not belong by birth to the serving elite a military education was a jumping-off place for a career.
general officers, nobility, career advancement, social status.

1. Andreev A. Ju. Russkie studenty v nemeckih universitetah XVIII — pervoj poloviny XIX veka (Russian Students in German Universities of XVIII — First Half of XIX Centuries), Moscow, 2005.
2. Anisimov M. Ju. (2005) “Rossijskij diplomat A. P. Bestuzhev-Rjumin (1693–1766)“ (Russian Diplomat A. P. Bestuzhev-Rjumin (1693–1766)), in Novaja i novejshaja istorija, 2005, vol. 6, pp. 175–192.
3. Bezotosnyj V. M. Donskoj generalitet i ataman Plahov v 1812 godu (Donskoj Generals and Ataman Plahov in 1812), Moscow, 1999.
4. Vodarskij Ja. E. Naselenie Rossii v konce XVII – nachale XVIII veka (Population of Russia in End of XVII — Begin of XVIII Centuries), Moscow, 1977.
5. Volkov S. V. Generalitet Rossijskoj imperii: Jenciklopedicheskij slovar' generalov i admiralov ot Petra I do Nikolaja II (Generals of Russian Empire: Encyclopaedical Dictionary of Generals and Admirals from Petr I to Nikolaj II), vol. 1–2. Moscow 2009.
6. (1880) “Imennoj spisok Eja Imperatorskogo Velichestva Lejb-Kampanii chinam 1741–1759 godov” (Names List of Her Majesty Leib-Campain Ranks of 1741–1759), in Russkij arhiv, 1880, vol 2, pp. 3–143.
7. Mangejm K. (1998) “Problema pokolenij” (Problem of Generations), in Novoe literaturnoe obozrenie, 1998, vol 2/30, pp. 7–47.
8. Miloradovich G. A. Materialy dlja istorii Pazheskogo E.I.V. korpusa 1711–1875 (Materials for History of Her Majesty Pages Corps in 1711–1875), Kiev, 1876.
9. Pol'skoj S. V. (2013) “Dvor i «pridvornoe obshhestvo» v poslepetrovskoj Rossii” (Court and “Court Society” in Russia after Petr I), in Pravjashhie jelity i dvorjanstvo Rossii vo vremja i posle petrovskih reform (1682– 1750), Moscow, 2013, pp. 320–368.
10. Feofanov A. M. (2013) „Rossijskij generalitet XVIII veka: social'naja dinamika pokolenij” (Russian Generals of XVIII Century: Social Dynamics of Generations), in Vestnik Volzhskogo universiteta im. V. N. Tatishheva, 2013, vol. 4/14, pp. 221–229.
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15. Shanin T. (2005) “Istorija pokolenij i pokolencheskaja istorija” (History of Generations and Generational History), in Otcy i deti: Pokolencheskij analiz sovremennoj Rossii, Moscow, 2005, pp. 17–38.




Феофанов А. М. Духовное сословие и социальная мобильность: феномен «разночинцев» как предмет социальных исследований // Вестник ПСТГУ. Серия II: История. История Русской Православной Церкви. 2014. Вып. 5 (60). С. 139-145. DOI: 10.15382/sturII201460.139-145
In the present article the concept of “raznochintsy” is to be analysed. The author concludes that the “raznochintsy” cannot be considered as a kind of specific social layer. This name is assigned to a variety of categories of the population, and only one thing combines these categories in common - the opposition to other groups, whether nobles, merchants and clergy, depending on the situation, time and place. “raznochintsy” represent the phenomenon of language and social consciousness. Understanding “raznochintsy” as educated simpletons («radical intellectuals of not-noble origin») comes from Herzen and was canonized in Soviet historiography by authority of Lenin. In this definition the emphasis was placed on the opposition to the government, no gentry origin, revolutionary democracy. In modern historiography “raznochintsy” considered as a social group, located at the junction of the main classes (nobility, clergy, townspeople and peasants). “Raznochintsy” were first of all outsiders, marginals. The very first legal mention of “raznochintsy” (1701) determined them by the method of exclusion, as those who were not under the authority of the church offi ce. In the confessional statements “raznochintsy” could refer to nobles (!) and domestic peasants, farmers (not included in other categories of the rural population), craft students and merchants. “Raznochintsy” in educational system were determined by opposition to other groups of students. For secular (Moscow University), this group were the nobles. In the religious schools (Kyiv-Mohyla, Slavic-Greek-Latin Academy) it was usual to determine “raznochintsy“ by contrast to natives of the clergy, so in the same number of “raznochintsy” nobles may be included.
the clergy, raznochintsy, social class, social mobility

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9. Sidorova I. B. Polozhenie raznochincev v russkom obshhestve. Kand. dis. (Position of Commons in Russian Society. Dissertation), Kazan', 1982.
10. Feofanov A. M. 2007 “Uchashhiesja iz duhovnogo soslovija v Moskovskom universitete. 1755–1825 gody”, in Vestnik PSTGU. Serija II: Istorija. Istorija Russkoj Pravoslavnoj Cerkvi, 2007, vol. 3/24, pp. 42–53.
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Феофанов А. М. Выходцы из духовного сословия в элите Российской империи (XVIII - первая четверть XIX в.) // Вестник ПСТГУ. Серия II: История. История Русской Православной Церкви. 2015. Вып. 1 (62). С. 52-61. DOI: 10.15382/sturII201562.52-61
In the present article mechanisms of penetration of persons of clergy origin into the elite of Russian Empire in XVIII - fi rst quarter of XIX century is to be analysed. The term «elite» means the military and state «generals», which achieved 1-5 ranks under the Table of Ranks. We found an extremely small number of people of clergy origin among the elite of Russian Empire. What hindered the advancement of clergy? The author proposes that the significance of the Table of Ranks and of the system of promotion in rank as a social elevator for persons of not-noble origin was overpriced, and also highlights the inertia of pre-Petrine localism. The system of matrimonial ties and of patronage to relatives backed by the economic power based on large land ownership allowed boyar aristocracy get a strong position and high ranks among the new elite during the reforms of Peter the Great. Therefore it was quite difficult for people of clergy and else not-noble origin to achieve high ranks. In addition the Church administration cared about its own personnel and resisted moving of talented seminarists to the civil service. The analysis of the data shows that patronage was one of the decisive factors of vertical social mobility for persons of clergy origin. Many former seminarists entered the civil service, but three cases of seven mentioned in the article are connected with military service. Everyone was under patronage of a powerful authority, often serving as an aide-decamp or a secretary. There were two barriers: the rejection of aristocracy to the priests’ sons and the corporatism of Church administration and education and in general the closedness of clergy of the Synodal period
the clergy, elite, generals, social mobility

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17. Smirnov S. K. Istorija Moskovskoj Slavjano-greko-latinskoj akademii (History of Moscoe Slavic-Greek-Latin Academy), Moscow, 1885.
18. Tomsinov V. A. Speranskij, Moscow, 2006.
19. Troickij S. M. Russkij absoljutizm i dvorjanstvo v XVIII veke. Formirovanie bjurokratii (Russian Absolutism and Nobility in XVIII Century. Forming of Bureaucracy), Moscow, 1974.
20. Travnikov S. N. 1988 “Annenskij Nikolaj Il'ich” (Annenskij Nikolaj Il'ich), in Slovar' russkih pisatelej XVIII veka, 1988, vol. 1, p. 43.
21. Uortman R. S. Vlastiteli i sudii: Razvitie pravovogo soznanija v imperatorskoj Rossii (Rulers and Judges: Development of Law Consciousness in Empire Russia), Moscow, 2004.
22. Feofanov A. M. 2014 “Voennyj i statskij generalitet Rossijskoj imperii XVIII veka: social'naja dinamika pokolenij” (Military and State Generals in Russian Empire of XVIII Century: Social Dynamics of Generations), in Vestnik PSTGU. Serija 2, 2014, vol. 4/59, pp. 40–57.
23. Frolov E. V., Frolova Je. V. Kovrovskij kraj pushkinskoj pory (Kovrovskij District of Time of Pushkin), Kovrov, 1999.
24. Horunzhenko O.I. Dvorjanskie diplomy XVIII veka v Rossii (Noble Diplomas of XVIII Century in Russia), Moscow, 1999.
25. Shabanov L. V., Malinnikov M. V. 2012 “Favoritizm kak faktor formirovanija tradicii rossijskogo gosudarstvennogo upravlenija (na primere sanovnikov XVIII — nachala XIX v.)” (Favoritism as Factor of Forming of Tradition of Russian State Gouvernment (on Example of Dignitaries of XVIII — Begin of XIX Cent.)), in Vestnik Tomskogo gosudarstvennogo universiteta. Istorija, 2012, vol. 3, p. 10.
26. Shilov D. N. Gosudarstvennye dejateli Rossijskoj imperii. Glavy vysshih i central'nyh uchrezhdenij. 1802–1917: Biobibliograficheskij spravochnik (State Figures of Russian Empire. Heads of High and Central Institutions. 1802–1917; Biobibliographical Reference Book), Saint-Petersburg, 2002.
27. Shilov D. N., Kuz'min Ju. A. Chleny Gosudarstvennogo soveta Rossijskoj imperii, 1801–1906: Biobibliograficheskij spravochnik (Members of Government Board of Russian Empire, 1801–1806: Biobibliographical Reference Book), Saint-Petersburg, 2007.
28. Jerren L. 2012 “Rossijskoe dvorjanstvo XVIII veka na sluzhbe i v pomest'e” (Russian Nobility of XVIII Century in Service and in Patrimony), in Dvorjanstvo, vlast' i obshhestvo v provincial'noj Rossii XVIII veka, Moscow, 2012, p. 5
Феофанов А. М. Социальная мобильность дворянства Российской империи XVIII в.: на примере послепетровского поколения // Вестник ПСТГУ. Серия II: История. История Русской Православной Церкви. 2015. Вып. 4 (65). С. 50-57. DOI: 10.15382/sturII201565.50-57
In the present article important channels of recruiting political elite in the XVIII century is to be analysed on the basis of published sources and archives. The special attention is paid to such social elevator as education and mechanisms of the social mobility are to be researched. Proportion of people with «regular» education was low, but gradually increased. The groups were combined on the basis of proximity of two main criteria: the time of birth and time of entry into service. Those factors are to constitute generations. Generation means the community of people united in the sociocultural context, in this research we will concentrate on the initial conditions of socialization (social origin, education). A higher percentage of illiterate among greenhorns compared with literacy of the offi cer case is explained by the fact that not all from them became offi cers. Part of noblemen due to various diseases, being unfit for military service were to surrender office. Many who entered the service because of illiteracy and poverty could not get even the fi rst officer’s rank. For those who did not belong by birth to the serving elite a military education was a jumping-off place for a career. The literacy rate of nobles, despite the efforts of the regular state remained extremely low. Education was not to value for a significant part of the nobility, and the government had the power to force the representatives of the nobility to teach their offspring the minimum literacy and numeracy skills, as well as forcibly send greenhorns in the state educational institutions. More than a half of generals were children of a high-ranking top, the aristocracy, and were connected by related bonds with the reigning house, or received ranks due to «case». Representatives of the «noble proletariat», devoid of additional career opportunities in addition to immaculate service, were not always able to even hope to get chief offi cer ranks.
general officers, nobility, career advancement, social status.

1. Kalashnikov G. V. Oficerskij korpus russkoj armii v 1725–1745 gg.: Dis. ... kand. ist. nauk (Officer Corpus of Russian Army in 1725–1745: Dissertation), Saint-Petersburg, 1999.
2. Materialy dlja istorii Imperatorskoj Akademii nauk (Materials for History of Emperor Academy of Science), Saint-Petersburg, 1886, vol. 2.
3. Miloradovich G. A. Materialy dlja istorii Pazheskogo Ego Imperatorskogo Velichestva korpusa. 1711–1875 gg. (Materials for History of His Magesty Pages Corpus. 1711–1875), Kiev, 1876.
4. Obshhij morskoj spisok (Common Sea List), Saint-Petersburg, 1885, vol. 2.
5. Petruhincev N. N. Vnutrennjaja politika Anny Ioannovny (1730–1740) (Domestic Politics of Anna Ioannovna (1730–1740)), Moscow, 2014.
6. Semevskij V. I. Krest'jane v carstvovanie imperatricy Ekateriny II (Peasants in Time of Empress Ekaterina II), Saint-Petersburg, 1903, vol. 2.
7. Faizova I. V. «Manifest o vol'nosti» i sluzhba dvorjanstva v XVIII stoletii (“Manifesto about Liberty of Nobles” and Noble Service in XVIII Century), Moscow, 1999.
8. Frejman O. R. Pazhi za 185 let: Biografii i portrety byvshih pazhej (1711–1896) (Pages for 185 Years: Biographies and Portraits of Former Pages (1711–1896)), Fridrihsgamn, 1897

Феофанов А. М. Воспитанники Благородного пансиона в 1792 году // Вестник ПСТГУ. Серия II: История. История Русской Православной Церкви. 2016. Вып. 4 (71). С. 53-57. DOI: 10.15382/sturII201671.53-57
In the present article the number, social status and career achievements of pupils of the Noble Boarding School at the Moscow University is to be reconstructed on the basis of 1792 list. Despite the fact of the “noble” name of the Boarding School that had been indeed intended for the nobility, from the general list is not all that clear that every student was a member of high aristocracy. Although some certain percent of pure aristocrats had been involved without a doubt. The new source could also clarify information on education of the generals of 1812 year. The author concludes that the heuristic capabilities of this document require the use of new sources, including archival, with the task of creation of synthetic knowledge.
Noble Boarding School at the Moscow University, nobles, generals, career mechanisms, social mobility.

1. Bezotosnyj V. M. Zakalennye jepohoj: Rossijskij generalitet Aleksandra I (Tempered by the Epoch: Russian Generals of Alexander I), Moscow, 2015.
2. Longinov M. N. Vospominanija o Moskovskom universitetskom pansione N. V. Sushkova (Memories about Moscow University Boarding School), Moscow, 1858.
3. Otechestvennaja vojna 1812 goda: Jenciklopedija (Patriotic War of 1812: Encyclopedia), Moscow, 2004.
4. Otechestvennaja vojna 1812 goda: Biograficheskij slovar' (Patriotic War of 1812: Biographical Dictionary), Moscow, 2011.
5. Ponomareva V. V., Horoshilova L. B. Universitetskij Blagorodnyj pansion. 1779–1830 (University Noble Boarding School. 1779-1830), Moscow, 2006.
6. Feofanov A. M. 2013 “Obrazovatel'nyj uroven' rossijskogo generaliteta 1812 goda” (Educational Level of Russian Generals of 1812), in Vestnik PSTGU. Ser. II: Istorija. Istorija Russkoj Pravoslavnoj Cerkvi, 2013, vol. 4/53, pp. 23–30.
Феофанов А. М. Предпочтения в получении образования российского дворянства: на примере генералитета второй половины XVIII – первой четверти XIX века // Вестник ПСТГУ. Серия II: История. История Русской Православной Церкви. 2017. Вып. 77. С. 66-77. DOI: 10.15382/sturII201777.66-77
In the present article educational preferences of the Russian nobility, especially generals, in the second half of XVIII first quarter of XIX century are analysed. The author comes to the conclusion that the interest in Western education grew among the Russian gentry, including ordinary gentry. However, the high cost and lack of direct advantages for the service, unlike in the case of cadet corps, made foreign studies less attractive for the service nobility, while the opportunity to receive education in cadet corps was stably popular. The children of the ordinary gentry were much more likely to receive education in Russian educational institutions, primarily in the Land noble corps, than abroad. For the elite children on the contrary the European education was on the first place, and among Russian institutions, the Corps of Pages and artillery institutions were preferred. Peter the Great forced the nobility to acquire knowledge, considering training as a public service, and during the period of palace revolutions there was a kind of "relaxation" of the noble class, which received the opportunity not to serve and didn’t want to develop itself in state educational institutions, but prefered home education. The age of Enlightenment made the European culture and study abroad popular, but not all, even the nobles, were able to afford it. Nevertheless, the number of people who received higher education abroad or in Russia, were growing gradually. This way the cultural and spiritual reproduction of the upper stratum of society took place
education, elite, general officers, nobility, career advancement, social status, cadet corps
  1. Fedyukin I., Gabdrakhmanov S. 2016. Cultural capital in an early modern elite school: The Noble Cadet Corps in St Petersburg, 1732–1762. Journal of Interdisciplinary History, vol. 46, no. 4, pp. 485–516.
  2. Kusber, Jan. 2012. Kakie znanija nuzhny dvorjaninu dlja zhizni? [What kind of education is necessary for a nobleman]. Dvorjanstvo, vlast' i obshhestvo v provincial'noj Rossii XVIII veka (Nobility, power and society in provincial Russia of the 18th century), Moscow, 2007, pp. 269–291.
  3. Shilov D. N. Gosudarstvennye dejateli Rossijskoj imperii. Glavy vysshih i central'nyh uchrezhdenij. 1802–1917. Biobibliograficheskij spravochnik (Statesmen of the Russian Empire: Heads of higher and central institutions. 1802–1917. Biobibliographical reference book). St. Petersburg, 2002.
  4. Shilov D. N., Kuz'min Ju. A. Chleny Gosudarstvennogo soveta Rossijskoj imperii, 1801–1906: Biobibliograficheskij spravochnik (Members of State Council of Russian Empire, 1801–1906: Biobibliographical reference book). St. Petersburg, 2007.
Feofanov Aleksandr
Academic Degree: Candidate of Sciences* in History;
Place of work: St. Tikhon’s Orthodox University; 23b Novokuznetskaya st., Moscow 115184, Russian Federation; Associate Professor of the department of History of Russia;
ORCID: 0000-0001-7180-0927;
Email: aleksandr-feofanov@yandex.ru. *According to the International Standard Classification of Education (ISCED) 2011, the degree of Candidate of Sciences (Cand.Sc.) belongs to ISCED level 8 — "doctoral or equivalent", together with PhD, DPhil, D.Lit, D.Sc, LL.D, Doctorate or similar.
The article is written in 2017 within the framework of the project "Education as a social Elevator in Russia XVIII century: intergenerational social mobility of students of the Academy of Sciences" supported by RFBR Foundation
Феофанов А. М. Воспроизводство элиты и Академическая гимназия 1724-1765 гг. // Вестник ПСТГУ. Серия II: История. История Русской Православной Церкви. 2018. Вып. 83. С. 59-67. DOI: 10.15382/sturII201883.59-67
This article studies education as a social lift with career and educational paths of alumni of the Academic Gymnasium as an example; the aim of the study is to clarify to what extent they enriched the educated elite of the Russian Empire. The question of the reproduction of the elite of the Russian Empire of the 18th century is closely connected with the study of intergenerational social mobility. This problem is dealt with in the article on the example of changes in the social composition and career strategies of students of the Academic Gymnasium. In all, ca. 2000 people are known who entered the Gymnasium of the Academy of Sciences from 1726 to 1765. 424 of them were of noble origin, which is 21% of the total number of the students. The number children of generals (1‒5 grades in the Table of Ranks) and the highest nobility in the total number of noblemen was 72 people (17% of the established number of students of noble origin). The probability of joining the elite of the Russian Empire from the ordinary gentry was six times smaller than that of the children of members of the elite when it concerns the first five classes of the Table of Ranks, and seven times smaller in the fi rst three ranks. The chances of non-noble people to get into the elite were no more than a fraction of the percentage, and sometimes it was the activities in the fi eld of science and arts that opened up opportunities for career growth. The author of the article comes to the conclusion that for the poor and not particularly noble representatives of the gentry the Academic Gymnasium was the fi rst step in the way to obtain the highest ranks in the Russian Empire. The education obtained in the Gymnasium, the knowledge of languages and the acquisition of general culture undoubtedly served as an important if not the key factor in socialisation and came to be a prerequisite for a successful career.
education, elite, generals, nobility, career advancement, social status, Gymnasium of the Imperial Academy of Sciences
  1. Fedyukin, Igor, Gabdrakhmanov, Salavat (2016) “Cultural Capital in an Early Modern Elite School: The Noble Cadet Corps in St Petersburg, 1732–1762”. Journal of Interdisciplinary History, 2016, vol. 46, no. 4, pp. 485–516.
  2. Kostina, Tatyana (2016) “Podgotovka elit Rossiiskoi Imperii v uchebnykh zavedeniiakh Akademii nauk (1726–1805)” [«Education of the Elites of the Russian Empire in the Educational Institutions of the Academy of Sciences”], in I. Tunkina (ed.) Aktual’noe proshloe: vzaimodeistvie i balans interesov Akademii nauk i rossiiskogo gosudarstva v XVIII — nachale XX v. [Topical Past: Interaction and Balance of Interests of the Academy of Sciences and the Russian State in the 18th — Early 20th Centuries], St Petersburg, vol. 1, pp. 207–302 (in Russian).
  3. Kusber, Jan (2012) “Kakie znaniia nuzhny dvorianinu dlia zhizni? Provintsial’nye i stolichnye vospitatel’nye diskursy vtoroi poloviny XVIII i nachala XIX veka” [“What Kind of Education is Necessary for a Nobleman? Provincial and Metropolitan Educational Discourse of the Latter Half of the 18th — Early 19th Centuries], in Dvorianstvo, vlast’ i obshchestvo v provintsial’noi Rossii XVIII veka [Nobility, Authorities and Society in Provincial Russia of the 18th Century]. Moscow, pp. 269–291 (in Russian).
  4. «Skaski» elizavetinskoi Rossii: Opros sanovnikov, sotrudnikov gosuchrezhdenii, pridvornykh pri dvore Elizavety Petrovny, 1754–1756 gg. [“Skaski” of Elizabethan Russia: Interrogating High Officials, Civil Officers, Courtiers in the Court of Elizaveta Petrovna, 1754‒1756], in Rossiiskii arkhiv: Istoriia Otechestva v svidetel’stvakh i dokumentakh XVIII—XX vv.: Al’manakh [Russian Archive: History of Motherland in Testimonies and Documents of the 18th — 20th Centuries: An Almanac], 2007, vol. 15, pp. 64‒168 (in Russian).
  5. Stepanov, Vladimir P. (1999) “Koz’min”, in Slovar’ russkikh pisatelei XVIII veka [Lexicon of Russian Writers of the 18th Century], St Petersburg, vol. 2, p. 102 (in Russian).
Feofanov Alexander
Academic Degree: Candidate of Sciences* in History;
Place of work: St. Tikhon’s Orthodox University; 23b Novokuznetskaya st., Moscow 115184, Russian Federation; Associate Professor of the department of History of Russia;
ORCID: 0000-0001-7180-0927;
Email: aleksandr-feofanov@yandex.ru. *According to the International Standard Classification of Education (ISCED) 2011, the degree of Candidate of Sciences (Cand.Sc.) belongs to ISCED level 8 — "doctoral or equivalent", together with PhD, DPhil, D.Lit, D.Sc, LL.D, Doctorate or similar.
Феофанов А. М. Флотские линейные офицеры – воспитанники российских военно-морских учебных заведений второй трети XVIII в. // Вестник ПСТГУ. Серия II: История. История Русской Православной Церкви. 2019. Вып. 86. С. 81-96. DOI: 10.15382/sturII201986.81-96
This article deals with a collective portrait of graduates of naval military and educational institutions of Russia in the 18th century. It is based on the analysis of biographical data collected during preparation of a dictionary devoted to naval offi cers that contains the dates of birth and death, places of birth and death, time of study in military and educational institutions, number of people in possession, brief data on the service as well as indications of sources. In order to compile this reference book, a large layer of documents has been used, i.e. service records and offi cial lists, offi ce materials, lists of offi cers, information from periodicals and reference books on the genealogy of the nobility. Unpublished documents on this topic have been preserved in St Peterburg’s Russian Naval Archive and Russian State Historical Archive, as well as in Moscow’s Russian State Archive of Ancient Acts and Russian State Military Historical Archive. The object of the analysis is prosopographic data on naval offi cers of Russia who were in the navy in the 18th century, though not on everybody. Primarily, these are persons who obtained education in Russian military naval educational institutions (Moscow Navigation School, St Petersburg Naval Academy, Naval Cadet Corps) and continued service in the navy, excluding military artillerists. Small number of wealthy landowners and prevalence of petty servicemen demonstrate that naval service was not prestigious with Russian nobility. Quite a high proportion of those who obtained the rank of the general demonstrates the same, however strange it may seem.
naval officers, elite, general officers, nobility, career advancement, social status, Naval Cadet Corps
  1. Faizova I. (1999). «Manifest o vol’nosti» i sluzhba dvorianstva v XVIII stoletii [“Manifesto of Liberty” and Service of Nobility in the 18th Century]. Moscow (in Russian).
  2. Fediukin I. (2015). “Graf A. I. Osterman i proekt reformirovaniia Morskoi akademii” [Count A. I. Osterman and the Proejct of Reforms in the Naval Academy], in “Reguliarnaia akademiia uchrezhdena budet…”: Obrazovatel’nye proekty v Rossii pervoi polovine XVIII veka [“The Regular Academy is to Be Founded...” Educational Projects in Russia in the First Half of the 18th Century]. Moscow, pp. 176–218 (in Russian).
  3. Shepukova N. (1964). “Ob izmenenii dushevladeniia pomeshchikov Evropeiskoi Rossii v pervoi chetverti XVIII — pervoi polovine XIX v.” [On Changes in the Number of People in Possession of Landowners of European Russia in the First Quarter of the 18th — First Half of the 19th Centuries”]. Ezhegodnik po agrarnoi istorii Vostochnoi Evropy, 1963, Vilnius, pp. 402–419 (in Russian).
  4. «Skaski» elizavetinskoi Rossii (Opros sanovnikov, sotrudnikov gosuchrezhdenii, pridvornykh pri dvore Elizavety Petrovny, 1754–1756 gg.) [“Skaski” of Elizabethan Russia: Interrogating High Officials, Civil Officers, Courtiers in the Court of Elizaveta Petrovna, 1754‒1756]. Rossiiskii arkhiv: Istoriia Otechestva v svidetel’stvakh i dokumentakh XVIII—XX vv., vol. 15, Moscow, pp. 64–168 (in Russian).
Feofanov Alexander
Academic Degree: Candidate of Sciences* in History;
Place of work: St. Tikhon’s Orthodox University; 23b Novokuznetskaya st., Moscow 115184, Russian Federation; Associate Professor of the department of History of Russia;
Post: Associate Professor, Department of Russian History;
ORCID: 0000-0001-7180-0927;
Email: aleksandr-feofanov@yandex.ru. *According to the International Standard Classification of Education (ISCED) 2011, the degree of Candidate of Sciences (Cand.Sc.) belongs to ISCED level 8 — "doctoral or equivalent", together with PhD, DPhil, D.Lit, D.Sc, LL.D, Doctorate or similar.
Феофанов А. М. Корпоративная идентичность православного духовенства Российской империи: историография вопроса // Вестник ПСТГУ. Серия II: История. История Русской Православной Церкви. 2019. Вып. 90. С. 9-21. DOI: 10.15382/sturII201990.9-21
This article examines current historiography of studies of the Orthodox clergy of the Russian Empire with the aim of raising a question about self-identifi cation of pre-revolutionary priests. The article discusses descriptions of the clergy in present-day social and historical studies and identifi es the eff orts to raise a question about corporate identity applied to the clergy. In relevant studies, there is still no clear answer to the questions about how the clergy of the imperial period perceived themselves, what their system of values and their mental agenda were, despite the fact that there has been accumulated considerable data presented in theses, monographs, and articles dealing with the clergy of various dioceses of Synodal period and describing their numbers, incomes, ways of life, education, and other social characteristics. Still, the problem of mentality and corporate identity has only been formulated. It is necessary to broaden the specifi c empirical knowledge based on the analysis of the whole range of sources of personal character dating from the Synodal period (memoirs, notes, diaries of the clergy) in which one can fi nd examples of manisfestation of the corporate identity (related to the social stratum or professional), even if these concepts were not clearly pronounced and are only implicit. The application of interdisciplinary methods, employment of concepts of sociology, social phenomenology and cultural anthropology will help to expose the potential of the sources and give a more in-depth analysis of the data.
corporate identity, Orthodox clergy, historiography, social stratum, history of concepts
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  22. Rozov A. (2003) Sel’skii sviashchennik v dukhovnoj zhizni russkogo krest’ianstva vtoroi poloviny XIX — nachala XX vv. [The Rural Priest in Spiritual Life of Russian Peasantry of the Second Half of the 19th — Beginning of the 20th Centuries]. St. Petersburg (in Russian).
  23. Skutnev A. (2009). Pravoslavnoe dukhovenstvo na zakate imperii [Orthodox Clergy in the Twilight of the Empire]. Kirov (in Russian).
  24. Shiuts A. (2003) Smyslovaia struktura povsednevnosti mira: ocherki po fenomenologicheskoi sotsiologii [Semantic Structure of Everyday World: Essays in Phenomenological Sociology]. Moscow (in Russian).
  25. Vasil’eva A. (2015) Sotsiokul’turnyi oblik pravoslavnogo dukhovenstva v Zapadnoi Sibiri v kontse XIX — nachale XX vv. [Sociocultural Features of Orthodox Clergy in Western Siberia at the End of the 19th — Beginning of the 20th Centuries]. Moscow (in Russian).
  26. Vsevolodov A. (2014) Pravoslavnoe prikhodskoe dukhovenstvo v 1840–1880-e gg.: material’noe obespechenie, korporativnaia organizatsiya, samosoznanie (na materialakh Vologodskoi eparkhii) [Orthodox Parish Clergy in the 1840‒1880s: Financial Situation, Corporate Organisation, Consciousness (on materials of Vologda diocese)]. Cherepovets (in Russian).
Feofanov Alexander
Academic Degree: Candidate of Sciences* in History;
Place of work: St. Tikhon’s Orthodox University; 23b Novokuznetskaya st., Moscow 115184, Russian Federation; Associate Professor of the department of History of Russia;
Post: Associate Professor, Department of Russian History;
ORCID: 0000-0001-7180-0927;
Email: aleksandr-feofanov@yandex.ru. *According to the International Standard Classification of Education (ISCED) 2011, the degree of Candidate of Sciences (Cand.Sc.) belongs to ISCED level 8 — "doctoral or equivalent", together with PhD, DPhil, D.Lit, D.Sc, LL.D, Doctorate or similar.