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Урбанович Л. Н. М. М. Манасеина о цели и назначении воспитания // Вестник ПСТГУ. Серия IV: Педагогика. Психология. 2013. Вып. 4 (31). С. 89-101.
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This article analyzes one ofthe most important and difficult educational problems — the problem of defining the goals of education in the composition by M. M. Manaseina «Fundamentals of education from the early years of life and until the end of university education». The scientist examines various opinions and views on the purpose of education provided in philosophical and pedagogical literature , and concludes on the need to revise the approach to goal setting. Manaseina points out and substantiates failure of «ideological» and «individualistic» definitions from the position of scientific data in the fields of medicine, psychology, sociology and pedagogics; she offers as the goal of education the preparation of the child for his upcoming fight with himself and with the world around him. A look at the nature of the child, which is due to the original fall, subjects to sin and has bad, evil selfish inclinations, and the status of a person «among the people» led to the formulation of the scientific objectives of education. Of particular interest and value is the assertion of M. M. Manaseina that mental health needs struggle with sin, with its own self-interest through the introduction to the high ideals of the Christian religion and ethics. Faith and religion are defined as essential and indispensable conditions for the development and improvement of every person and of all humanity. And as a result, quite categorical requirements for professional skills of a teacher are put forward. Today, when setting the goals of education it is important to be consistent with the national spiritual values, Manaseina's concept of religious education is of interest for the theory and teaching practice.
M. M Manaseina's pedagogical concept, religious education, basic education, the nature of the child, altruistic and selfish aims of education, preparation for the fight, christian's ideals, faith, religion
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4. Stoljarov A. A. 1991 “Avgustin. Zhizn'. Uchenie” (Augustine. Life. Teaching), in Avrelij Avgustin. Ispoved', Moscow, 1991.
5. Trubeckoj E. N. Smysl zhizni (Sense of Life), Moscow, 1994.
6. Ushinskij K. D. 1948–1952 “Pedagogicheskie sochinenija Pirogova” (Pedagogical Works of Pirogov), in Sobr. soch., Moscow, Leningrad, 1948–1952, vol. 3.
7. Shhurkova N. E. Obraz zhizni, dostojnoj Cheloveka, i ego formirovanie u shkol'nika (Metodicheskoe posobie dlja pedagogov shkoly) (Mode of Life, Worth for Human, and Its Forming by a School Pupile), Smolensk, 1995.
Урбанович Л. Н. Научение детей молитве в концепции религиозного воспитания М. М. Манасеиной // Вестник ПСТГУ. Серия IV: Педагогика. Психология. 2014. Вып. 1 (32). С. 81-94. DOI: 10.15382/sturIV201432.81-94
This paper represents the views of the teacher and figure of the Orthodox (end of the XIX — beginning of the XX centuries) Maria Mikhailovna Manaseina on teaching children to pray. Of particular interest is Manaseina's concept of religious education, based on Christian teaching and scientific data in the field of age, social psychology and physiology of childhood. The appeal to the topic of religious education during the specified period of history was dictated by the general crisis of faith and spirituality of Russian people. Fairly noting that Orthodoxy is a basis and a stronghold of Russian statehood and morals of the people, the teacher justifies the importance of raising children in the spirit of national religion since the earliest childhood. Special attention is paid to the issue of children's prayer in religious education, which is capable to develop and strengthen in a child's mind the concept of God, love and trust in Him. The author in this article analyzes essentially important conditions of teaching children to pray in Manaseina's concept of religious education: to accustom a child to an independent prayer; to prefer thankful prayers for a family, people and Fatherland; to avoid a hasty, mechanical, formal prayer; to teach a sincere personal prayer; to be conformed with age psychophysiological features of children. As an educator, psychologist, physiologist and physician Manaseina substantiated the importance of a prayer, not only for the spiritual life, but also mental, moral health and personal development of a child. Manaseina's pedagogical thoughts are relevant and meaningful today; especially valuable is guidance and advice in matters of religious education of children: when to start teaching children to pray, what one should pay special attention to, and what to be avoided so that the prayer and faith were genuine and live in children's hearts.
M. M. Manaseina's concept of religious education, Christian ideals , religious beliefs , altruistic feelings, teaching to pray, child's prayer, blessed infl uence of a prayer, requirements to the prayer, strengthening in belief.

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3. Zen'kovskij V. V., prot. O religioznom vospitanii v sem'e (About Religious Education in Family), in http://www.pravmir.ru/o-religioznom-vospitanii-v-seme.
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10. Pestov N. E. Pravoslavnoe vospitanie detej (Orthodox Education of Children), Saint-Petersburg, 1999.
11. Iz istorii russkogo idealizma: Knjaz' V. F. Odoevskij (From History of Russian Idealism: Prince V. F. Odoevskij), Moscow, 1913, vol. 1.
Урбанович Л. Н. Конфессиональное сопровождение преподавания православно-ориентированных дисциплин в школе (региональный аспект) // Вестник ПСТГУ. Серия IV: Педагогика. Психология. 2015. Вып. 2 (37). С. 106-116. DOI: 10.15382/sturIV201537.106-116
The necessity of confessional maintenance of moral and spiritual disciplines and Orthodox orientated disciplines at secondary school is justified in the article. The author notes that the confessional maintenance of disciplines with religious content is due historically and provided by modern legal documents and other acts in the fi eld of Russian education. Certain possible directions of denominational maintenance conducted by Orthodox religious organization are shown by the example of Smolensk region. The experience of Smolensk Theological Seminary, rendering Orthodox confessional maintenance of teaching subjects with a religious content in the region, is presented as well. The article also identifies concerns and possible risks that require, in the author’s opinion, a professional approach to their solution.
confessional maintenance, Orthodox oriented disciplines, professional teacher training, scientific and methodological maintenance, expert advice, Smolensk Orthodox Theological Seminary

1. Zybina T. M. Ot slova k Slovu: integrirovannoe obuchenie religioznoj leksike (From Word to Word: Integrated Teaching of Religious Vocabulary), Smolensk, 2014.
2. Urbanovich L. N. (ed.) Pravoslavnaja kul'tura v obshheobrazovatel'noj shkole. Metodicheskie razrabotki i rekomendacii k kursu (Orthodox Culture in General School. Methodic Workings and Recommendations for the Course), Smolensk, 2010.
3. Urbanovich L. N. (ed.) Pravoslavnoe prosveshhenie i duhovno-nravstvennoe vospitanie v shkole: teoreticheskie aspekty i prakticheskij opyt: nauch.-metodicheskoe posobie v pomoshh' uchitelju (Orthodox Enlightenment and Spiritual-Moral Education in School: Theoretical Aspects and Practical Experience: Scientific-Methodological Handbook for Teacher), Smolensk, 2014.
4. Rozina O. V. 2014 “Professional'nye kompetencii i konfessional'noe samoopredelenie pedagoga duhovno-nravstvennyh disciplin v obshheobrazovatel'noj shkole” (Professional Competences and Confessional Self-Definition of Pedagogue of Spiritual-Moral Subjects in General School), in Urbanovich L. N. (ed.) Pravoslavnoe prosveshhenie i duhovno-nravstvennoe vospitanie v shkole: teoreticheskie aspekty i prakticheskij opyt: nauch.-metod. posobie v pomoshh' uchitelju, Smolensk, 2014.
5. Lukashenkova Zh. V. (ed.) Formirovanie duhovno-nravstvennyh cennostej u shkol'nikov na uroke i vo vneurochnoj dejatel'nosti (Forming of Spiritual-Moral Values by School Pupils in Lesson and in Out-Lesson Activity), Smolensk, 2013.
Урбанович Ю. Я. Особенности становления североафриканской раннехристианской архитектуры (IV±V вв.) в связи с традицией поминания и почитания мучеников // Вестник ПСТГУ. Серия V: Вопросы истории и теории христианского искусства. 2015. Вып. 3 (19). С. 7-26. DOI: 10.15382/sturV201519.7-26
The article analyzes the peculiarities of the development of the North African Church in connection with the local tradition of the veneration of martyrs and confessors, which goes back to pre-Christian traditions of commemoration. Archaeological and literary studies allow us to conclude that the Church in North Africa in the 4–5 centuries experienced a serious influence of the pagan attitude towards death and the dead ancestors, which was partly manifested in architecture, theology (donatism), and everyday religious practice. Only by the 6th century, when the vandal North Africa was conquered by Byzantine troops, this local practice of honoring the dead was brought into accordance with the Byzantine liturgical and architectural tradition.
martyr, tomb, martirium, North Africa, st. Augustine, donatism, funerary meal, the altar, mensa, the Basilica, the apse

1. Golubcov A. P. Iz chtenij po Cerkovnoj Arheologii i Liturgike (From Readings for Church Archaeology and Liturgics), Saint-Petersburg, 1995.
2. Sergeeva E. V. 2007 “Pervye hristianskie obshhiny v Severnoj Afrike” (First Christian Communities in Northern Africa), in Frolov Je. D. (ed.) Mnemon. Issledovanija i publikacii po istorii antichnogo mira, Saint-Petersburg, 2007, vol. 6, pp. 421–432.
3. Sh.-Andre Zhjul'en. Istorija Severnoj Afriki. Tunis. Alzhir (History of Northern Africa. Tunis. Algeria), Moscow, 1961.
4. Cintas J., Duval N. 1976 “Le martyrium de Cincari et les martyria triconques et tétraconques en Afrique”, in Mélanges de l'Ecole française de Rome. Antiquité, 1976, vol. 88/2, pp. 853–927.
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6. Delehaye H. Les origines du culte des martyrs, Bruxelles, 1912.
7. Duval Y. 1984 “Densité et répartition des évêchés dans les provinces africaines au temps de Cyprien”, in Mélanges de l'Ecole française de Rome. Antiquité, 1984, vol. 96/1, pp. 493–521.
8. Duval N. 1987 “Une basilique chrétienne à deux absides à Sabratha (Tripolitaine)? La basilique I: une révision récente. Études d'Archéologie chrétienne nord-africaine. XVI”, in Revue des Etudes Augustinniennes, 1987, vol. 33, pp. 269–301.
9. Duval N. 1968 “L'église de l'évêque Melleus à Haïdra (Tunisie): la campagne franco-tunisienne de 1967”, in Comptes-rendus des séances de l'Académie des inscriptions et belles-lettres, 1968, vol. 112/2, pp. 221–244.
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11. Jensen R. M. 2008 “Dining with the Dead: From the Mensa to the Altar in Christian Late Antiquity”, in Brink L., Green D. (eds.) Commemorating the Dead. Texts and Artifacts in Context. Studies of Roman, Jewish, and Christian Burials, Berlin, New York, 2008, pp. 107–143.
12. Krautheimer R. Mensa-Coemeterium-Martyrium in Studies in Early Christian, Medieval and Renaissance Art, New York, 1969.
13. Monceaux P. Histoire litteraire de 1'Afrique chretienne, Paris, 1901.
14. Quasten J. 1940 ““Vetus Superstitio et Nova Religio” the Problem of Refrigerium in the Ancient Church of North Africa”, in The Harvard Theological Review, 1940, vol. 33/4, pp. 253–266.
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17. Romanelli P. 1940 “La basilica cristiana nell'Africa settentrionale italiana”, in Atti IV Congresso int. di Arch. Crist. 1938, Vatican, 1940, vol. 1: Description de la basilique I, pp. 247–253.
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19. Toutain J. 1891 “Fouilles de M. Gsell à Tipasa: Basilique de Sainte Salsa”, in Mélanges d'archéologie et d'histoire, 1891, vol. 11/1, pp. 179–185.
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Урбанович Ю. Я. Внешние формы североафриканской храмовой архитектуры (V–VI вв.) в связи с традицией поминания и почитания мучеников // Вестник ПСТГУ. Серия V: Вопросы истории и теории христианского искусства. 2015. Вып. 4 (20). С. 7-20. DOI: 10.15382/sturV201520.7-20
The article analyzes peculiarities of the development of the North African Church in connection with the local tradition of veneration of martyrs and confessors. Archaeological and literary studies allow us to conclude that in North Africa the pagan attitude towards death and the dead ancestors continued in Christian times as well, reflected most in ideology and architectural features of donatist churches. The controversy and the struggle against paganism and donatism waged by known bishops Augustine of Gippon and Aurelius of Carthage created a theological basis to overcome these negative trends, as reflected in monuments of the North African Christian architecture 5th–6th centuries.
martyr; tomb; North Africa; st. Augustine; st. Cyprian Of Carthage; donatism; funerary meal; the altar; mensa; the Basilica; the apse

1. Zhjul'en Sh.-Andre. Istorija Severnoj Afriki. Tunis. Alzhir (History of Northern Africa. Tunis. Algeria), Moscow, 1961.
2. Elbern V. H. 1979 “Altar Implements and Liturgical Objects”, in Weitzmann K. (ed.) Age of Spirituality: Late Antique and Early Christian Art, Third to Seventh Century, New York, 1979, pp. 592–640.
3. Frend W. H. C. The Donatist Church, Oxford, 1952.
4. Jensen R. M. 2008 “Dining with the Dead: From the Mensa to the Altar in Christian Late Antiquity”, in Brink L., Green D. (eds.) Commemorating the Dead. Texts and Artifacts in Context. Studies of Roman, Jewish, and Christian Burials, Berlin, New York, 2008, pp. 107–143.
5. Krautheimer R. Mensa-Coemeterium-Martyrium in Studies in Early Christian, Medieval and Renaissance Art, New York, 1969.
6. Markus R. A. 1983 “Donatism: the Last Phase”, in From Augustine to Gregory the Great. History and Christianity in Late Antiquity, London, 1983, pp. 118–126.
7. Metzger C. 1991 “Le mobilier liturgique”, in Naissance des arts chrеtiens, Paris, 1991.
8. Quasten J. “«Vetus Superstitio et Nova Religio» the Problem of Refrigerium in the Ancient Church of North Africa“, in The Harvard Theological Review, 1940, vol. 33/4, pp. 253–266.

Урбанович Л. Н. К вопросу об актуальности педагогической подготовки студентов духовных школ // Вестник ПСТГУ. Серия IV: Педагогика. Психология. 2016. Вып. 1 (40). С. 17-26. DOI: 10.15382/sturIV201640.17-26
The problem of pedagogical training of the students of theological schools — seminaries is raised in the article. The author focuses on the importance of primary teacher education for future priests, refers to historical experience and analyzes the current situation, requiring the participation of the Church in the educational space. The following article introduces a model of teacher training that has developed in the Smolensk Orthodox Theological Seminary, reveals the purpose and objectives, the content and features of teaching of pedagogical disciplines.
pedagogical training of the students of the Seminary, religious education, orthodox focused disciplines, professional competence, standard «Theology», theological school.

1. Divnogorceva S. Ju. 2014 “K voprosu o formirovanii pedagogicheskoj kompetentnosti uchashhihsja duhovnyh shkol Russkoj Pravoslavnoj Cerkvi” (To Question of Forming of Pedagogical Competence of Student of Spiritual Schols of Russian Orthodox Church), in Urbanovich L. N. (ed.) Integracija svetskogo i religioznogo obrazovanija v rossijskoj i mezhdunarodnoj praktike v uslovijah razvitija kul'turno-obrazovatel'noj sredy: Materialy nauchno-prakticheskoj konferencii (15–16 maja 2014 g.), Smolensk, 2014, pp. 40–48.
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3. Rozina O. V. Pravoslavnaja kul'tura v shkole: formirovanie i razvitie professional'nyh kompetencij pedagoga (Orthodox Culture in School: Forming and Development of Professional Competences of Pedagogues), Moscow, 2015.
4. Sinel'nikov S. P. Zakonouchitel' dorevoljucionnoj shkoly: lichnost' i ispolnenie objazannostej (Religion Teacher of School before Revolution: Person and Discharge of Duties), vol. 1, in http://www.orthedu.ru/news/3208-zakonouchiteldorevolyucionnoj-shkoly-lichnost-i-ispolnenie-obyazannostej.html.
5. Urbanovich L. N. 2015 “Konfessional'noe soprovozhdenie prepodavanija pravoslavno orientirovannyh disciplin v shkole (regional'nyj aspekt)” (Confessional Conduct of Teaching of Orthodox Orientated Subjects in School (Regional Aspect)), in Vestnik PSTGU. Ser. IV: Pedagogika. Psihologija, 2015, vol. 2/37, pp. 106–116.
Урбанович Ю. Я. Христианская архитектура Северной Африки (IV–VI вв.). Карфаген // Вестник ПСТГУ. Серия V: Вопросы истории и теории христианского искусства. 2016. Вып. 2 (22). С. 7-24. DOI: 10.15382/sturV201622.7-24
The article considers the peculiarities of development of the North African Church architecture of the capital of the region of Carthage in connection with the local tradition of the veneration of martyrs, as well as to the fact that in the period from the 4th to the 6th century ecclesiastical art of North Africa was under the influence of four diff erent directions — the Orthodox Latin, Donatists, Arian and Orthodox Byzantine. To explain and classify the stages of the development of Christian architecture, establishing the original appearance and the interior of the temple, is possible only on the basis of a comprehensive approach based on the study of the literary heritage (Augustine, Quodvultdeus, Victor Vitensis, Procopius) and the archaeological analysis of North African basilicas. Among the Christian monuments of Carthage, the most studied and interesting from the point of view of the device inner space is the Episcopal Basilica of Dermech I, St. Cyprian and Damous el Karita, and are offered for consideration.
North Africa, Cartage, st. Augustine, st. Cyprian, martyr, tomb, martirium, the Basilica, the apse, the altar, Dermech I, Damous el Karita, Ennabli, Duval.

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3. Urbanovich G., prot. 2015 “Vneshnie formy severoafrikanskoj hramovoj arhitektury (V–VI vv.) v svjazi s tradiciej pominanija i pochitanija muchenikov” (External Forms of North African Church Architecture (V–VI Cent.) in Connection with Tradition of Memory and Devotion of Martyrs), in Vestnik PSTGU, 2015, vol. V/4/20, pp. 7–21.
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Урбанович Л. Н. Система работы с религиозными понятиями на уроках духовно-нравственной направленности // Вестник ПСТГУ. Серия IV: Педагогика. Психология. 2017. Вып. 44. С. 11-19. DOI: 10.15382/sturIV201744.11-19
The paper deals with notions and concepts of religious subject range in the context of religious and cultural education at school. The integration of religious knowledge in school education is a topical pedagogical problem nowadays. The inclusion of religious knowledge in school education involves creating moral standards and values for students, increasing their general intellectual level as well the enrichment of their vocabulary. The paper pays special attention to the educational potential of studying religious concepts in school classes of religious subjects. It considers pedagogical prerequisites, methods and techniques of terminological and conceptual work, and focuses on methodological features of work with religious concepts and notions. The paper also emphasises the importance and relevance of identifying not only the lexical meaning but also the spiritual content of words of religious sphere. It is known that educational material of religious content today causes some confusion among teachers. The author proposes a system of work with key concepts of the lesson and describes the algorithm of implementation of this system. Special attention is addressed to the concept of word, which allows us to reveal its content in specifi c denominational, national and cultural spheres.
Orthodox culture, religious term, religious and cultural education, integration of religious knowledge in school education, concept, conceptual analysis

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Урбанович Ю. Я. Христианская архитектура IV–VI вв. в североафриканских городах области Бизацен (Byzacena) // Вестник ПСТГУ. Серия V: Вопросы истории и теории христианского искусства. 2017. Вып. 25. С. 11-31. DOI: 10.15382/sturV201725.11-31
North African history shows that Byzacena region has always had a strong cultural infl uence of the indigenous population, the Berbers, alongside relative economic independence from the metropolitan power — Carthaginian, Roman, Vandal, Byzantine. In ecclesiastic terms, this situation in the region of the 4th–5th centuries contributed to the development of a specifi c view on the Christian mission (the Donatist movement) and supported traditions based on customs of the local population. Byzacena region included cities which today are of great interest to Christian history and archaeology, namely Sbeitla (six churches), Haidra (fi ve churches), Telepta (eight churches), Maktar (three churches), Junca (two churches). It is just here that archaeologists with a greater or lesser degree of certainty identify Latin Orthodox, Donatist, Arian, and Byzantine Orthodox trends in Church architecture. Unlike churches of Carthage, those of Byzacena do not impress the observer with their size and magnifi cence, but they are extremely important in terms of Church history, as they witnessed the development of early Christian architecture in the 4th–5th centuries. Many churches of this region have preserved their initial design, and nowadays can serve as a subject of in-depth studies for archaeologists and historians. The paper pays particular attention to basilicas in Sbeitla (Pretre Servus, Bellator, Vitalis), Maktar (Schola Juvenum), and Haidra (Melleus). They refl ect all the characteristic features of North African architecture. In cities of Byzacena region, like in Carthage, it is diffi cult to determine the chronological framework and the affi liation of churches to a specifi c Christian denomination, which is due to the fact that many of them could successively be canonical, i.e. Orthodox in the Latin tradition, Donatist, Vandal, and again canonical, i.e. Orthodox in the Byzantine tradition. There is very little evidence for distinguishing between Orthodox and Donatist churches. In architectural terms, the subsequent Arian enslavement as well as the victory of Byzantines is refl ected more clearly. All this has made its impact on the Christian architecture of the region.
North Africa, Byzacena, martyr, tomb, Basilica, apse, altar, Sbeitla, Pretre Servus, Bellator, Vitalis, Maktar, Haidra, Duval

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Урбанович Л. Н. Интеграция агиографической литературы в содержание образования как ресурс духовно-нравственного воспитания школьников // Вестник ПСТГУ. Серия IV: Педагогика. Психология. 2018. Вып. 48. С. 9-18. DOI: 10.15382/sturIV201848.9-18
This article deals with the problem of integrating hagiographic literature into the content of school education. It gives reasons for the topicality and relevance of addressing hagiographic literature in teaching the humanities and spiritual and religious disciplines in the secondary school. The article reveals the aspect of moral education of a saint’s life in the context of culturological education and spiritual upbringing in accordance with the requirements of the Federal State Educational Standard. It pays attention to specifi c features of hagiographic material, namely its genrerelated, eventrange, biographical, historical and cultural, moral and axiological parameters. The article gives criteria for selecting hagiographic literature that can be used in classes of Orthodox culture, suggests the algorithm of the teacher’s activity in preparing for a teaching session that involves hagiographic material, emphasises the solution of general tasks of pedagogy on the basis of religion-oriented study material. The article also sets out methods and techniques of work with hagiographic literature which support the achievement of subject-related, interdisciplinary and personality-related results. Specifi c methodological recommendations are off ered as well.
hagiography, life of saint, spiritual values, historical and cultural standard, Orthodox culture, religion-oriented disciplines, spiritual and moral education
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Urbanovich Liubov'
Academic Degree: Candidate of Sciences* in Education;
Place of work: Smolensk Orthodox Seminary; 5 Timiriazeva Str., Smolensk 214000, Russian Federation;
Post: Associate Professor;
ORCID: 0000-0001-7776-8745;
Email: urbanus-l@yandex.ru. *According to the International Standard Classification of Education (ISCED) 2011, the degree of Candidate of Sciences (Cand.Sc.) belongs to ISCED level 8 — "doctoral or equivalent", together with PhD, DPhil, D.Lit, D.Sc, LL.D, Doctorate or similar.