/
Search results


Тулякова Н. А. Легенда и предание в русской литературе первой половины XIX в.: жанровые рефлексивы и жанровые стратегии // Вестник ПСТГУ. Серия III: Филология. 2019. Вып. 58. С. 24-42. DOI: 10.15382/sturIII201958.24-42
In the early 19th century, in the Russian literature appear texts with the genre indications “legend” (Russ. легенда) and “folktale” (предание) included in the title. The full-fl edged character of the canon of the genres by the end of the 19th century allows one to suppose that these indications signal the emergence of the genre. This article compares literary texts labeled by V. Odoevsky, N. Polevoi, N. Kukol’nik as legends and folktales. The aim of the study is to fi nd if there are decisive diff erences in genre strategies chosen by the authors in making legends and folktales. Attention is paid to the modality of the narrative, narrative instances chronotope, storyline. In Odoevsky’s creative works, legends play a role of intext, whereas folktales are completed texts. This opposes the two genres with regard to their modality, i.e. legends represent a more or less plausible narrative, the folktale is truthful. The choice of the narrator personifi ed in the legend and omniscient in the folktale, enforces the eff ect. The chronotope of the legend is historical and close to the reader, in that the legend represents a mythopoetic interpretation of historical events. The chronotope of the folktale is exotic and conditional, and the text itself is designed as a myth. Polevoi builds legends and folktales around historical events, but his aims vary. In the legends, he constructs certain episodes from Russian and Byzantine history, the information on which originates from written sources and is supplemented by the author’s fi ction. Polevoi tries to comprehend history and pin down its logic. The legends lack dramatism because their content and fi nals are known. The aim of the folktale is to amuse the reader telling him a story of adventures based on oral narratives. This is underlined by a personal attitude to the space and time of the narrative as well as by the look into the past from the present. Legends and folktale by Kukol’nik also belong to historical prose. Legends draw on real sources and bring some forgotten or lost text to the reader. The foktale off ers the reader an alternative version of the history not coinciding with offi cial records. Unlike the legend, which despite the element of mysticism is presented as the truth, the folktale does not pretend to be veracious because the author does not provide any testimony and does not use any sources. Odoevsky, Polevoi, and Kukol’nik interpret the notions of the legend and folktale diff erently. However, it is obvious that in literary works of each of them, the texts called legends and folktales show the employment of different genre strategies.
genre, literary legend, tradition, V. Odoevskii, N. Polevoi, N. Kukol’nik, genre indication, genre strategy
  1. Averintsev S., Andreev M., Gasparov M., Grintser P., Mikhailov A. “Kategorii poetiki v smene literaturnykh epokh” [Categories of Poetics in the Change of Periods in Literature] in P. Grintser (ed.) Istoricheskaia poetika. Literaturnye epokhi i tipy khudozhestvennogo soznaniia [Historical Poetics. Periods in Literature and Types of Literary Consciousness]. Moscow, pp. 3‒38 (in Russian).
  2. Bugaeva I. (2007) “«Torkvato Tasso» N. V. Kukol’nika: tvorcheskaia istoriia, sootnoshenie fakta i vymysla” [“Torquato Tasso” by N. Kukol’nik: Literary History, Correlation of Fact and Fiction]. Vestnik Tambovskogo gosudarstvennogo universiteta, vol. 7 (51), pp. 135‒139 (in Russian).
  3. Chernyi I. (2013) “Mestnyi kolorit v rasskaze N.V. Kukol’nika «Avrora Galigai»” [Local Paraphernalia in N. Kukol’nik’s Short Story “Avrora Galigai”]. Naukovі zapiski Kharkіvs’kogo natsіonal’nogo pedagogіchnogo unіversitetu. Lіteraturoznavstvo, vol. 4 (1), pp. 198‒201 (in Russian).
  4. Chistov K. (1967) “Legenda” [Legend], in Kratkaia literaturnaia entsiklopediia [Concise Encyclopaedia of Literature]. Moscow, vol. 4, pp. 90‒91 (in Russian).
  5. Iezuitova R. (1976) “Literatura vtoroi poloviny 1820‒1830 godov i fol’klor” [Literature of the Latter Half of the 1829s — 1830s and Folklore], in Russkaia literatura i fol’klor (pervaia polovina XIX v.) [Russian Literature and Folklore (First Half of the 19th Century)]. Leningrad, pp. 85‒142 (in Russian).
  6. Kiselev V. (2008) “Teleologiia «Sochinenii kniazia V. F. Odoevskogo» (1844): printsipy sostavleniia, kompozitsiia, zhanrovoe tseloe” [Teleology of “Prince V. Odoevsky’s Works” (1844): Principles of Compiling, Composition, Integrity of Genre]. Vestnik Tomskogo gosudarstvennogo universiteta. Filologiia, vol. 2, pp. 45‒62 (in Russian).
  7. Klimen’teva M. (2014) “«V russkom vkuse povest’ drevniaia»: mifolegendarnye siuzhety v russkoi literature pervoi treti XIX veka” [“Ancient Tale in Russian Taste”: Mytholegendary Storylines in Russian Literature of the First Third of the 19th Century]. Siuzhetologiia i siuzhetografiia, vol. 2, pp. 44‒51 (in Russian).
  8. Krylova I., Tuliakova N. (2017) “Slovo «legenda» v rechevom upotreblenii i v slovarnom otrazhenii: zaimstvovanie, funktsionirovanie, ideologiia” [The Word “Legend” in Speech Usage and in Dictionary Refl ection: Borrowing, Function, Ideology]. Vestnik Tomskogo gosudarstvennogo universiteta. Filologiia, vol. 45, pp. 100‒115 (in Russian).
  9. Kviatkovskii A. (1966) Poeticheskii slovar’ [Poetic Dictionary]. Moscow (in Russian).
  10. Levinton G. (1997) “Legendy i mify” [Legends and Myths], in Mify narodov mira [Myths of Peoples of the World]. Moscow, vol. 2, pp. 45‒47 (in Russian).
  11. Lotman Iu. (2005) “Tekst v tekste” [Text within the Text], in Iu. Lotman. Ob iskusstve [On the Art]. St. Petersburg, pp. 423‒436 (in Russian).
  12. Petrunina N. (1981) “Proza vtoroi poloviny 1820 –1830 gg.” [Prose of the Latter Half of the 1820s — 1830s], in Istoriia russkoi literatury [History of Russian Literature]. Leningrad, vol. 2, pp. 501‒529.
  13. Poliakova K. (2011) “Zhanr dramaticheskoi fantazii v russkoi literature XIX veka” [Genre of Dramatic Fantasy in Russian Literature of the 19th Century]. Uchenye zapiski Orlovskogo gosudarstvennogo universiteta. Seriia: Gumanitarnye i sotsial’nye nauki, № 1, pp. 197‒205 (in Russian).
  14. Shtern M. (1979) “Apologi V. F. Odoevskogo i sud’ba didaktiko-allegoricheskikh zhanrov v russkoi literature pervykh desiatiletii XIX veka” [V. Odoevsky’s Apologists and Fate of Didactic-Allegorical Genres in Russian Literature of the First Decades of the 19th Century], in Problemy metoda i zhanra [Problems of Method and Genre]. Tomsk, pp. 108‒122 (in Russian).
  15. Zelianskaia N. (2008) “Proizvedeniia F. M. Dostoevskogo 40‒50kh gg. XIX veka v aspekte problemy avtorskoi nominatsii zhanra” [Dostoevsky’s Works of the 1840‒50s in the Aspect of the Author’s Genre Label]. Vestnik Orenburgskogo gosudarstvennogo universiteta, vol. 11 (93), pp. 16‒21 (in Russian).
  16. Zueva T. (2001) “Legenda” [Legend], in Literaturnaia entsiklopediia terminov i poniatii [Literary Encyclopaedia of Terms and Notions]. Moscow (in Russian).
  17. Zyrianov O. (2009) “Zhanrovye refl eksivy v svete istoricheskoi poetiki” [Genre Indications in the Light of Historical Poetics], in Dergachevskie chteniia, vol. 1. Ekaterinburg, pp. 80‒91 (in Russian).
  18. Zyrianov O. (2011) “Logika zhanrovykh nominatsii v poezii novogo vremeni” [Logic of Genre Indication in Poetry of the New Time]. Novyi filologicheskii vestnik, vol. 1 (16), pp. 76‒86 (in Russian).
Tuliakova Natalia
Academic Degree: Candidate of Sciences* in Philology;
Academic Rank: Associate Professor;
Place of work: National Research University Higher School of Economics; 16 Soyuza Pechatnikov Str., Saint-Petersbur g, 190121, Russian Federation;
Post: associate professor at the Department of foreign languages;
ORCID: 0000-0002-0685-4993;
Email: n_tuljakova@mail.ru. *According to the International Standard Classification of Education (ISCED) 2011, the degree of Candidate of Sciences (Cand.Sc.) belongs to ISCED level 8 — "doctoral or equivalent", together with PhD, DPhil, D.Lit, D.Sc, LL.D, Doctorate or similar.
The article was prepared within the framework of the Academic Fund Program at the National Research University Higher School of Economics (HSE) in 2017- 2018 (grant № 17-01-0012) and by the Russian Academic Excellence Project “5-100”.