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Смирнова В. В. Цистерцианские exempla на закате Средневековья: от истории к риторике // Вестник ПСТГУ. Серия III: Филология. 2013. Вып. 3 (33). С. 98-112.
This paper proposes a new approach to late medieval Cistercian exempla collections, which have long been neglected by scholars due to the presumed lack of ‘originality’. Indeed, in contrast to earlier collections that draw inspiration from the rich and flourishing oral tradition, those of the 14th century mainly reuse well-known written sources of non-Cistercian origin, in apparent imitation of more popular mendicant exempla handbooks. However, it would be misleading to regard them simply as evidence of the genre’s or the Order’s decline. Having examined this view from the perspective of both historical and literary criticism, the author rejects it. The remarkable diversity of late medieval Cistercian exempla collections suggests, on the one hand, the potential of the regional (micro)historical approach, and, on the other hand, the necessity of integrating them into new literary contexts. To illustrate the opportunities of such a perspective shift, the paper proposes a brief cross-disciplinary study of Sertum fl orum moralium, compiled by Simon de Vauluisant, the student of the Cistercian College Saint-Bernard in Paris, around 1346. The product of the university milieu, the Sertum was probably intended to be a florilegium, an authoritative compendium of useful maxims and extracts from learned sources, a genre highly appreciated by Cistercian intellectuals. Its lack of originality therefore contributes to the author’s intent to provide his readers with an effective learning tool, and should not be seen as a failure.
Exempla, Cistercian, Decline, Late Middle Ages, Fourteenth Century, Regional Approach
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Смирнова В. В., Поло де Болье Цистерцианское искусство убеждения (XIII–XVI вв.). «Диалог о чудесах» Цезария Гейстербахского и его рецепция // Вестник ПСТГУ. Серия III: Филология. 2013. Вып. 4 (34). С. 152-160.
The article contains detailed summaries of two presentations made at a Paris conference on the Dialogus miraculorum by Caesarius of Heisterbach. The fi rst presentation, «Dialogus miraculorum as an initial source of Scala coeli by Jean Gobi the Younger (1323–1330)» puts forward a thesis that by the 1320s Caesarius had become an auctoritas for the mendicant orders, to which Jean Gobi, the author of Scala coeli belonged. The main problem discussed in the presentation is the contradiction between Jean Gobi’s statement that he borrows his examples from Caesarius and clear stylistic difference between Caesariuss and Jean Gobi’s rendering of the same exempla. M. A. Polo de Beaulieu compares cases of Jean Gobi uninterrupted quoting of the Alphabetum by Arnold of Liege and points out that the rubrication in Scala coeli is the same as in Alphabetum. This leads to the conclusion that Jean Gobi takes his material not directly from Caesarius but through the agency of his Dominican brother, Arnold. In doing this, Jean Gobi prefers to cite the original source and not to mention Arnold, which shows the trustworthiness of a Cistercian author for a Dominican friar. The second presentation, «Accessit abbatis mei imperium... Belief and theology in Caesarius’ of Heisterbach stories», demonstrates (within the framework of the «narrative theology») that in the 9th Section of the Dialogus by Caesarius the narrative structure reinforced by the dialogue epitomises distinctive features of the Cistercian «aff ective theology»: the emphasis on the idea that the cause of the incarnation of God and of the entire divine activity in the world is love; the idea of the personal union of the Christian and God in the Communion when the heart of the faithful, in which Christ is born anew, is likened to Virgin Mary; the attention to the representation of Christ as an infant and to the human nature of Christ. The significance of personal activity in Cistercian theology is expressed on the level of narration in the fact that Caesar’s characters are not passive bearers of faith but actively aspire to the efficient participation in the Sacrament. The narration helps embody the Cistercian creed, nonetheless the Dialogue contain the doctrine of the scholastic Peter of Poitier.
«Scala coeli», Арнольд Льежский, «Alphabetum narrationum»
Smirnova Viktoriia
Polo de Beaulieu