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Резвых Т. Н. Проблема времени у Л. П. Карсавина // Вестник ПСТГУ. Серия I: Богословие. Философия. 2013. Вып. 2 (46). С. 70-87.
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This article examines one of the major problems in the ontology of L. P. Karsavin. It is closely related to his conception of the symphonic personality. Karsavin began to deal with the problem of temporality when he turned his attention to solving problems connected with the methodology of history. He worked on these problems throughout his whole life, beginning with his time in Saint Petersburg (1919) and ending with the works which he wrote while held in a prison camp (1949–1952). Throughout this time, he attempted to delineate grounding principles for a methodology of history. The author of this article analyses the problem of time in an ontological context, examining the specific points of Karsavin’s understanding of the Trinity, the creation of the world, his understanding of Styazhennost’ (Contraction?) as a basic ontological principle, as well as his anthropology. The article further discusses Karsavin’s dialectic of consciousness as well as his theory of symphonic personality. The Article highlights several fundamental problems of Karsavin’s philosophy: the concepts of Sverkhvremmenost’ (PreterTime), universal temporality, as well as Ontic and Empirical Time. The author of the article concludes that Karsavin saw the solution of many of these problems in Neo- Platonic philosophy (the idea of temporal, living eternity), in Saint Augustines’s theory of time as an extension of the soul as well as in Schelling’s concept of world epochs. All this induced Karsavin to define time as the extended reflection of eternity, an extension of contracted (svernutoy) divine eternity.
L. P. Karsavin, Universal Time, Ontic and Empirical Time, Consciousness, Symphonic Personality
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6. Mihajlov I. N. Rannij Hajdegger (Early Heidegger). Мoscow, 1999.
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10. Karsavin L. P. 1994. Pis'mo A. Vetteru. 16 aprelja 1940 (The Letter to A. Vetter 6 April 1940). Simvol, no. 31, pp. 97–169.
11. Karsavin L. P. Sochinenija (Writings). Saint Petersburg, 1994
12. Shelling G. V. F. Sistema mirovyh jepoh (System of world epochs). Tomsk, 1999
13. Shelling G. V. F. Filosofija otkrovenija (Philosophy of Revelation). Saint Petersburg, 2000.
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19. Gajdenko P. P., Petrov V. V. (red.) Filosofija prirody v antichnosti i v Srednie veka (Philosophy of Nature in Antiquity and Middle Ages). Мoscow, 2000
20. Ivinskij P. I. (sost.) Arhiv L. P. Karsavina (L. P. Carsavin’s Archive). Vilnius, 2002, no. 1
21. Mesjac S. V. Gajdenko P. P., Petrov V. V. (red.) Kosmos i dusha. Uchenija o vselennoj i cheloveke v Antichnosti i v Srednie veka (issledovanija i perevody) (Gajdenko P. P., Petrov V. V. (eds.) Cosmos and Soul. Teachings on the Universe and Human in Antiquity and Middle Ages (Studies and Translations)). Мoscow, 2005. С. 844.
22. Karsavin L. P. Religiozno-filosofskie sochinenija (Religious-Philosophical Writings). Мoscow, 1992.
23. Solov’ev V. S. Rossija i Vselenskaja Cerkov’ (Russia and Ecumenical Church). Мoscow, 1911
24. Bergson A. Sobranie sochinenij (Collected Works). Мoscow, 1992
25. Dobrohotov A. L. 2009. Bergsonianskie motivy v rabote L. P. Karsavina «O svobode» (Some Bergson’s Motives in L. Karsavin’s Work «On Freedom»). Logos, no. 3. (71), pp. 115–121
26. Losev A. F. 2003. Taho-Godi A. A., Taho-Godi E. A., Troickij V. P. A. (izd.) F. Losev — filosof i pisatel’ (Taho-Godi A. A., Taho-Godi E. A., Troickij V. P. (eds.) A. F. Losev — Philosopher and Writer), pp. 326–345
27. Nikolaj Kuzanskij . Sochinenija (Writings). Мoscow, 1980.
28. Shlejermaher F. Rechi o religii k obrazovannym ljudjam ee prezirajushhim. Monologi (Orations on Religion to Educated People Who didain it). Saint Petersburg, 1994.
29. Florenskij P. A. Sochinenija (Writings). Мoscow, 1994.
30. Brilliantov A. I. 2002. Svetlova R. V., Seliverstova V. L. (sost.) Avgustin: pro et contra Svetlova R. V., Seliverstova V. L. (eds.) Aurelius Augustinus: Pro et contra), pp. 151–192
Резвых Т. Н. Постановка проблемы времени у С. Н. Булгакова: контекст антиномии природы и свободы // Вестник ПСТГУ. Серия I: Богословие. Философия. 2014. Вып. 3 (53). С. 55-68. DOI: 10.15382/sturI201453.55-68
The author discusses a S. N. Bulgakov’s unique approach to the problem of time, consisting of an effort to resolve the problem basing on corollaries from Kant’s antinomy of nature and freedom, as well as on ideas of Schelling. Bulgakov views the time antinomically. It was his reflection on the meaning of Kant’s antinomism which led him to posing the problem of time. For the first time we find him treating this problem in his article Apocalypticism and Socialism, which dealt with antinomy of eschatology and chiliasm. Here also he starts to consider relation of time and eternity through antinomy of nature and freedom. In his Philosophy of Economy the same problem is solved by means of the concept of Sophia as the ontological basis of personality, which unites freedom and nature, the eternal and the temporal. But in his Unfading Light the antinomy of nature and freedom is discussed through differentiation between negative and positive theology. Bulgakov uses as a synthesizing concept Schelling’s idea of «eternal time» as unity of eternity and time. Thus, despite Bulgakov’s repeated statements about their clear distinction, time and eternity are drawn together. Such an attempt to solve the problem of time raises doubts about the very possibility of freedom.
Sergei Bulgakov, Immanuel Kant, Friedrich Schelling, time, freedom, antinomism, eschatology, chiliasm, eternity, Sophia, apothatic and cataphatic theology.

1. Askol'dov S. A. 1913 “Vremja i ego religioznyj smysl” (Time and Its Religious Sense) in: Voprosy Filosofii i Psihologii, 1913, vol. 117, pp. 137–173.
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7. Bulgakov S. 1907 “Na religiozno-obshhestvennye temy. I. Srednevekovyj ideal i novejshaja kul'tura” (On Religious-Social Themes. I. Medieval Ideal and Modern Culture) in: Russkaja Mysl', 1907, no. 1.
8. Bulgakov S. 1905 “Neotlozhnaja zadacha” (Urgent Task) in: Voprosy Zhizni, 1905, no. 9.
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13. Ivanova E. V. 1993 “Florenskij i «Hristianskoe bratstvo bor'by»” (P. Florensky and “Christian Brotherhood of Struggle”) in: Voprosy filosofii, 1993, vol. 6, pp. 153–166.
14. Kant I. Sochinenija: V 3 t. (Writings in 3 vol.), Moscow, 1964.
15. Kolerov M. A. Ne mir, no mech. Russkaja religiozno-filosofskaja pechat' ot «Problem idealizma» do «Veh». 1902–1909 (Not Peace but Sword. Russian Religious-Philosophical Press from “Problems of Idealism” to “Landmarks”. 1902–1909), Saint-Petersbourg, 1996.
16. Maksimov M. V. 2001 “Istoriosofija Vl. Solov'eva v otechestvennoj filosofskoj mysli” (V. Soloviev’s Historiosophy in Russian Philosophical Thought) in: Solov'evskie issledovanija, 2001, vol. 2, pp. 5–39.
17. Nosov A. 1996 “K cenzurnoj istorii religiozno-obshhestvennoj pechati (1905–1906 gg.)” (To Censorial History of Religious-Social Press (1905–1906)) in: Voprosy filosofii, 1996, vol. 3, pp. 35–43.
18. Solov'ev V. S. Polnoe sobranie sochinenij: V 20 t. (Complete Writings: in 20 vol.), Moscow, 2000.
19. Kejdan V. I. (ed.) Hronika chastnoj zhizni russkih religioznyh filosofov v pis'mah i dnevnikah S. A. Askol'dova, N. A. Berdjaeva, S. N. Bulgakova i dr. (Chronicle of the Private Life of Russian Religious Philosophers in S. Askoldov, N. Berdyaev, S, Bulgakov etc.’ Letters and Diaries), Moscow, 1997.
20. Shelling F. V. J. Filosofija otkrovenija (Philosophy of Revelation), Saint-Petersbourg, 2001.
Резвых Т. Н. «Апокалипсис и Россия»: эсхатологическая тема у С. Н. Дурылина // Вестник ПСТГУ. Серия I: Богословие. Философия. 2015. Вып. 3 (59). С. 83-118. DOI: 10.15382/sturI201559.83-118
The published S. Durylin’s text contains his view of eschatological representations in the Russian culture. Durylin considers that in Ancient Russia expectation of the Apocalypse wasn’t obviously expressed. It began to amplify from XVII century when Russia as the state prospered more and more and increased in sizes. The state became stronger, the expectation of a doomsday is stronger. The external progress of Russia was stronger, the more strongly the Russian people waited for the Judgement. The author finds this position not only in national representations, but also and in representatives of the Сhurch point of view, and in the Russian philosophy — at K. Leontyev and V. Solovyov. This point of view has no analogs among philosophers of the beginning of the XX century.
Eschatology, Time, Apocalypse.
Резвых Т. Н. «Апокалипсис и Россия»: эсхатологическая тема у С. Н. Дурылина (окончание) // Вестник ПСТГУ. Серия I: Богословие. Философия. 2015. Вып. 4 (60). С. 113-135. DOI: 10.15382/sturI201560.113-135
Резвых Т. Н. Трактат Ф. Эбнера «Слово и духовные реальности» в контексте философии диалога XX века // Вестник ПСТГУ. Серия I: Богословие. Философия. 2016. Вып. 6 (68). С. 62-77. DOI: 10.15382/sturI201668.62-77
In the article the main ideas of F. Ebner’s work ‘The word and spiritual realities’ are investigated. The article opens with an outlook on the origins of ‘dialogue philosophy’, stating peculiar features of the philosophy of dialogue exemplifi ed by the works ‘The Star of Salvation’ by F. Rosenzweig and ‘I and Thou’ by M. Buber. Such properties are: denial of understanding a person as something abstract, disinclination of the metaphysics focused on immutable life, the relation to the world as that to an object. Further the main ideas of Ebner’s work are analyzed. According to Ebner, I has no absolute existence at all. I covers reality near itself, it is not just I, but ‘I and You’. Further the question of naming is analyzed, which argues primordiality of the ‘I – You’ relation. The article traces his criticism of the idealistic metaphysics based on the concept of selfconsciousness. Activity of consciousness turns a person into an object. The concept of selfconsciousness leads a person to absolute isolation. The author analyzes the concept of ‘solitariness of I’ which is treated by Ebner as a derivative of a false ontologic presupposition. Further the idea of understanding a person as a unity of ‘I and You’ is analyzed. Ebner’s transition from the concept of dialogue to the statement of a problem of language is also considered in the article. In turn, the author passes from the problem of language to Ebner’s key idea – faith in God. The author comes to a conclusion that the peculiarity of Ebner’s philosophy consists in the justifi cation of religious belief. His philosophy of language is aimed at fi nding God.
dialogue philosophy, other one, personalism, self, selfconsciousness, thinking, language, faith, religion

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Rezvykh Tat'iana
Academic Degree: Candidate of Sciences* in Philosophy;
Place of work: St Tikhon’s Orthodox University Ilovayskaya 9, bl. 2 Moscow 109651 Russia;
Email: email: hamster-70@mail.ru. *According to the International Standard Classification of Education (ISCED) 2011, the degree of Candidate of Sciences (Cand.Sc.) belongs to ISCED level 8 — "doctoral or equivalent", together with PhD, DPhil, D.Lit, D.Sc, LL.D, Doctorate or similar.
Статья написана в рамках гранта Фонда развития ПСТГУ «Генеалогия идей богословского персонализма (на материале русской религиозной мысли XIX–начала XX века)», договор No 04-1215/КИП
Аляев Г. Е., Резвых Т. Н. Человек в глубинах смыслов (три конспекта лекций С. Л. Франка) // Вестник ПСТГУ. Серия I: Богословие. Философия. 2017. Вып. 69. С. 107-133. DOI: 10.15382/sturI201769.107-133
The article represents three Simon Frank’s lecture notes, written in the 1920–30s — “The Meaning of Life”, ‘The Meaning of Love” and “The Meaning of Suff ering”, — which shed some more light on Simon Frank’s activity as a lecturer of Russian immigrant societies and organizations in the Western Europe. All these three lecture notes were designed to deal with moral issues, therefore it seems possible to assume that they were youth orientated and intended for the young audience. The topics of the lectures are central for the Frank’s mature period, his main works: the lecture notes refl ect the genesis process of a few ideas, which finally constituted Frank’s woks such as “The Meaning of Life,” “The Unknowable”, “God with Us”, and some others. However, there are also a number of original topics. For instance, “The Meaning of Love” contains a comparative analysis of two conceptions of love — Platonic and Freudian; “The Meaning of Suffering” purposes to solve the announced issue creating a typology of diverse national and cultural approaches to experience and comprehension of the suffering, as well as distinguishing two approaches within the framework of typically Russian attitude to suffering, which Frank calls “the way of Dostoevsky” and “the way of Pushkin”. Moreover, referring to bibliography we see that the texts represent Simon Frank as a reader, reflecting his literary interests for that period of his life. They demonstrate that Russian and German literature — the works of Tutchev, Boratynsky, Pushkin, Dostoevsky, Rilke — were important sources of Simon Frank’s inspiration. These texts reveal the Frank’s views on the topic of interrelations between Russia and Europe, which was one of the central topics of his works. In addition, “The Meaning of Suffering” provides us with a few important features to the portrait of Max Scheler as an intellectual who held the same views as Frank did.
charity, love, Max Scheler, the meaning of life, Russian religious philosophy, Simon Frank, suff ering

Bubbajer F. 2001. S. L. Frank: Zhizn’ i tvorchestvo russkogo fi losofa. 1877–1950 [S. Frank: Life and Writings of the Russian Phulosopher. 1877-1950]. Moscow.
Zak L. V. 1954. Semen Ljudvigovich Frank — moj brat [S. L. Frank – My Brother]. Sbornik pamjati Semjona Ljudvigovicha Franka. Munich.
Aljaev G., Rezvyh T. (eds.) 2016. Perepiska S. L. Franka s V. B. El’jashevichem i F. O. El’jashevich [Correspondence of S. Frank and V. Elyashevich with F. Elyashevich]. Issledovanija po istorii russkoj mysli [12]: Ezhegodnik za 2015 god. Moscow.
Rezvyh T. N. 2015. «Moja sud’ba menja ne bespokoit…»: S. L. Frank v okkupirovannoj Francii [“My Destiny doesn’t bother me”: S. Frank in the occupied France]. Antonov K. M. (ed.) ≪Samyj vydajushhijsja russkij filosof≫: Filosofi ja religiii politiki S. L. Franka. Moscow, pp. 195-240.
Frank S. L. 1988. Duhovnye osnovy obshhestva. Vvedenie v social’nuju fi losofi ju [Spiritual Foundations of the Society. Introduction into the Social Philosophy]. New York.
Frank S. L. 1992. Duhovnye osnovy obshhestva [Spiritual Foundations of the Society]. Moscow.
Frank S. L. 1990. Nepostizhimoe. Ontologicheskoe vvedenie v filosofiju religii [Incomprehensible. Ontological Introduction to the Philosophy of Religion]. Moscow.
Schlogel K., Kucher K., Suchy B., Thum G. (Hrsg.) 1999. Chronik russischen Lebens in Deutschland 1918–1941. Berlin.
Aliaev Gennadii
Academic Degree: Doctor of Sciences* in Philosophy;
Place of work: Poltava National Technical Yuri Kondratyuk University Pervomaiskyi prosp., 24, Poltava 36011 Ukraine;
Email: email: gealyaev@mail.ru. *According to ISCED 2011, a post-doctoral degree called Doctor of Sciences (D.Sc.) is given to reflect second advanced research qualifications or higher doctorates.
Rezvykh Tat'iana
Academic Degree: Candidate of Sciences* in Philosophy;
Place of work: St. Tikhon’s Orthodox University for Humanities 6/1 Likhov pereulok, 127051 Moscow, Russian Federation;
Email: email: hamster-70@mail.ru. *According to the International Standard Classification of Education (ISCED) 2011, the degree of Candidate of Sciences (Cand.Sc.) belongs to ISCED level 8 — "doctoral or equivalent", together with PhD, DPhil, D.Lit, D.Sc, LL.D, Doctorate or similar.
Публикация выполнена в рамках гранта Фонда развития ПСТГУ «Генеалогия идей богословского персонализма (на материале русской религиозной мысли XIX — начала XX века), договор No04-1215/КИП
Резвых Т. Н., Аляев Г. Е. С. Л. Франк о религиозном смысле и нравственной основе демократии // Вестник ПСТГУ. Серия I: Богословие. Философия. 2019. Вып. 82. С. 111-127. DOI: 10.15382/sturI201982.111-127
This publication introduces the archival text by S.L. Frank, which treats democracy from the standpoint of its ontological meaning. The introduction of the publicationanalyses the ideas of the text in context of the evolution of Frank’s ideas on democracy: from the fi rst Russian revolution to the 1930s. The text published here refl ects the stage when the philosopher, infl uenced by the events of 1917, comes to the idea of two sides in democracy, the creating and the destructing, and insists on necessity of its religious and moral substantiation. Textological analysis allows us to date this text to May 1917 and link it with several articles by Frank in the weekly periodical Russian Freedom (Russ. Русская свобода), as well as with his public lecture Moral Grounds of Democracy (Нравственные основы демократии) of May 6, 1917. The archival text, however, is diff erent from the published articles in that it has a more articulated theoretical content, the desire to indentify ontological grounds of the current events and withdraw from current politics. The text is also much more articulate as to the religious ideal of the Russian philosopher. Frank elaborates in his social philosophy the idea of religiously substantiated service as the foundation of social construction already in the 1920s, but for the fi rst time it appears in the article Democracy at Crossroads (Демократия на распутье) and in the text Moral Foundations of Democracy (Нравственные основы демократии) published here. Providing grounds for the religious sense of democracy is combined in Frank’s works with asserting the absolute character of the principle of the freedom of conscience and warning about the danger of theocracy. Frank’s conception of democracy is compared with ideas of Vl. Solovyev, S. Bulgakov, P. Struve, as well as with the image of democracy for the “new Europe” by T. Masarik, a meeting with whom is described in Frank’s memoirs. One should also note the use of imagery and poetic metaphors, typical of Frank. On the whole, this text complements the study of Frank’s socio-philosophical ideas and of the variety of Russian theories of democracy. It also makes topical the religious and ethical understanding of democracy, the lack of which is seen so vividly in the contemporary world.
democracy, freedom, law, liberty, service, revolution, moral, religious and social ideal, socialism, idea of state, Semyon Frank
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Rezvykh Tatiana
Academic Degree: Candidate of Sciences* in Philosophy;
Place of work: St. Tikhon’s Orthodox University for the Humanities; 9/2 Ilovaiskaya Str., 109651, Moscow, Russian Federation;
ORCID: 0000-0003-4429-5405;
Email: hamster-70@mail.ru. *According to the International Standard Classification of Education (ISCED) 2011, the degree of Candidate of Sciences (Cand.Sc.) belongs to ISCED level 8 — "doctoral or equivalent", together with PhD, DPhil, D.Lit, D.Sc, LL.D, Doctorate or similar.
Aliaiev Gennadii
Academic Degree: Doctor of Sciences* in Philosophy;
Academic Rank: Professor;
Place of work: Poltava Yuri Kondratyuk National Technical University; 24 Pervomaisky Prosp., 36011, Poltava, Ukraine;
ORCID: 0000-0001-6713-2014;
Email: gealyaev@gmail.com. *According to ISCED 2011, a post-doctoral degree called Doctor of Sciences (D.Sc.) is given to reflect second advanced research qualifications or higher doctorates.