Маслинский К. А. Правила поведения в советской школе. Часть 1: Слово государства в устах учителя // Вестник ПСТГУ. Серия IV: Педагогика. Психология. 2015. Вып. 1 (36). С. 56-72. DOI: 10.15382/sturIV201536.56-72
Soviet school rules are treated in this article as a part of the pre-revolutionary school tradition and simultaneously as a representation of the image of Soviet schoolchild. The article consists of two parts. First part is a short historical outline of the rules of conduct in Soviet school policy and practice. Mentions of school rules in oﬃ cial documents and texts of school rules from 1930s to 1980s are analyzed. The story of rules in Soviet school can be told as a sequence of phases: starting from the period of ignoring rules (1917–1922), followed by gradual legitimizing them in the state and party resolutions (1927–1935), then the period of waiting for the rules approved by the state (1935– 1943), a deсade of concentration on «Rules for pupils» (1943–1954), and then a gradual transferral of disciplinary functions to the genre of «uniﬁed requirements for pupils» (1954–1972). «Rules for pupils» published in 1943, in contrast to the similar rules published in 1874, have a distinct aim of constructing ideal image of the Soviet school and Soviet schoolchild. The weight of the symbolic function of the Rules predetermined the loss of disciplinary regulation function in the later editions.
history of education, Soviet history, secondary school, rules of conduct, «Rules for pupils», school discipline
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Маслинский К. А. Правила поведения в советской школе. Часть 2: Слово учителя в устах государства // Вестник ПСТГУ. Серия IV: Педагогика. Психология. 2015. Вып. 2 (37). С. 41-58. DOI: 10.15382/sturIV201537.41-58
Soviet school rules are treated in this article as a part of the pre-revolutionary school tradition and simultaneously as a representation of the image of Soviet schoolchild. In this second part of the article the content of a corpus of 21 rules printed in the USSR (1937—1941) on behalf of particular schools is discussed. Rules of conduct cannot be used as a direct evidence for the disciplinary practice. But within corpus of similar rules variability in content and wording allows to observe patterns of choice made by rule compilers which let us reconstruct their logic of disciplinary thinking. Choice made by rule compilers on a several distinct levels is analyzed. At the level of choice of domain for rule application (a set of everyday situations where school rules apply) less expansion onto the child's out-of-school activities was found than may be expected of Soviet school. Choice at the level of details emphasized in the rules — interpreted as a more or less attention paid to the form of social conduct — was found to be an instrument providing Soviet school disciplinary practice with some ﬂexibility. Finally, analysis of choice at the level of rule wording reveals repercussions of everyday conﬂ icts preserved in the form of prohibitions and threats.
history of education, Soviet history, secondary school, rules of conduct, «Rules for pupils», school discipline.
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