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Лявданский А. К. [Review] // Вестник ПСТГУ. Серия I: Богословие. Философия. 2012. Вып. 6 (44). С. 105-110. — Rev. op.: Weigl M. Die aramäischen Achikar-Sprüche aus Elephantine und die alttestamentliche Weisheitsliteratur. B.: De Gruyter, 2010 (Beihefte zur Zeitschrift für die alttestamentliche Wissenschaft; 399). XVI, 880 S.
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Евдокимова Л. В. Предисловие // Вестник ПСТГУ. Серия III: Филология. 2013. Вып. 3 (33). С. 7-13.
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1. Becker K. Aspects de la vie quotidienne. Eustache Deschamps en son temps, Paris, 1997, pp. 286-291.
2. Becker K. La corporalite du «povre Eustace»: le moi physique revisite. Eustache Deschamps, temoin et modele. Litterature et societepolitique (XlVe—XVe siecles), Paris, 2008, pp. 89-102.
3. Bettinzoli A. Eloges des disciplines et divisions de la philosophie au Quattrocento. Poetiques de la Renaissance. Le monde franco-bourgignon et leur heritage en France au XVIe siècle, Geneve, 2001, pp. 3-23.
4. Bordier J.-P., Marqufere F., Martin M. 1973 “Disposition de la lettrine et l'interpretation des reuvres: l'exemple de la Chatelaine de Vergi”, in Le Moyen Age, vol. 79, pp. 231-250.
5. Bouhai'k-Gironfes M. 2008 “L'historien face a la litterature: a qui appartiennent les sources litteraires medievales”, in Etre historien du Moyen age au XXIe siècle, Paris, 2008, pp. 151-161.
6. Cerquiglini B. La parole medievale: discours, syntaxe, texte, Paris, 1981.
7. Cerquiglini B. Eloge de la variante: histoire critique de la philologie, Paris, 1989.
8. Curtius E. Europaische Literatur und lateinisches Mittelalter, Bern, 1948.
9. Dragonetti R. La technique poetique des trouveres dans la chanson courtoise (contribution a l'etude de la rhetorique medievale), Bruges, 1960.
10. Evdokimova L. 1996 “La disposition des lettrines dans les manuscrits du «Bestiaire d'amour» de Richard de Fournival et sa composition: des lectures possibles de l'reuvre”, in Le Moyen Age, vol. 102, pp. 465-478; no. 103, pp. 79-111.
11. Evdokimova L. 2005 “La disposition des lettrines dans le «Bestiaire» de Pierre de Beauvais et dans le «Bestiaire» de Guillaume le Clerc. La signification de la lettrine et la perception d'une reuvre”, in Le Moyen frangais, le bestiaire, le lapidaire et la flore. Actes du Xle Colloque International sur le Moyen frangais, Montreal, 2005, vol. 55—56, pp. 85-105.
12. Faral E. Les arts poetiques du XIIe et du XIIIe siecle. Recherches et documents sur la technique litteraire du Moyen Age, Paris, 1924.
13. Gasparri F., Hasenohr G., Ruby C. 1993 “De l'ecriture a la lettre: reflexion sur les manuscrits d'Erec et Enide”, in Les manuscrits de Chretien de Troyes, Amsterdam, 1993, pp. 92-102.
14. Hemelryck Van T., Stefania Marzano S. (eds.) Le recueil au Moyen Age. La fin du Moyen Age, Turnhout, 2010.
15. Ingenschay D. Alltagswelt und Selbsterfahrung: Ballade und Testament bei Deschamps und Villon, Munchen, 1986.
16. Kahn R. (trad.) Le haut langage: langage litteraire et public dans l'Antiquite latine tardive et au Moyen Age, Paris, 2004.
17. Le Goff J. Saint Louis, Paris, 1996.
18. Manjot D. (ed.) Manger et boire au Moyen Age. Actes du colloque de Nice (octobre 1982), Paris, 1984.
19. Manion M. M., Bernard J. (eds.) Medieval texts and images. Studies of manuscripts from the middle ages, Chur, Paris, Sydney, 1992.
20. Martin H.-J., Vezin J. (eds.) Mise en page et mise en texte du livre manuscript, Paris, 1990.
21. Muhlethaler J.-C. 1996 “De la frugalite de l'ermite au faste du prince: les codes alimentaires dans la litterature medievales”, in Manger, Lausanne, 1996, pp. 7-35.
22. Poirion D. 1978 “Les paragraphes et le pre-texte de Ville hardouin”, in Langue francaise, vol. 40, pp. 45-59.
23. Stanislaw-Kemenah A.-K. 1999 “Sur quelques ballades historiographiques d'Eustache Deschamps”, in Autour d'Eustache Deschamp, Amiens, 1999, pp. 245-255.
24. Toubert H. 1983 “Formes et fonctions de l'enluminure”, in Histoire de l'edition francaise, Paris, 1983, vol. 1. pp. 109-146.
25. Zumthor P. 1970 “De la circularite du chant”, in Poetique, vol. 1, pp. 129-140.
Евдокимова Л. В. «Sensus historicus» и исторический смысл аллегорического текста в эпоху позднего Средневековья: Дешан, «Баллада о ласточке-клеветнице» // Вестник ПСТГУ. Серия III: Филология. 2013. Вып. 3 (33). С. 52-65.
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He ballad No. CLVI of Complete Works of Eustache Deschamps is devoted to a swallow that stings with its treacherous tongue or lingua dolosa, i.e., by words. We analyze this text with respect to the common semantic structure of allegorical works at the end of the Middle Ages — especially in relation to the meaning that the term sensus historicus had received by that time. Already in the thirteenth century, some authors understood this term to mean the historical context in which a given text was created; in addition, unlike in previous eras, the terms of sensus litteralis and sensus historicus now diverge: while the former is conditioned by the litteral meaning of words in the text, the second is hidden and has to be discovered. A peculiarity of allegorical texts created in the fourteenth century is that they require multiple readings at the same time. The possibility of historical interpretation is part of their original design. Built into the semantic structure, the sensus historicus coexists with other readings, so that one does not cancel the other. In the late Middle Ages, the art of exegesis was heavily regulated, not to say standardised, and always dealt with multiple autonomous interpretations, i.e interpretations that could easily contradict each other. Relationships of this kind are established between semantic plans of ballad in question — a rather obscure poem, which has not yet attracted the attention of researchers. In this ballad, a swallow attacks its opponents with neither sling nor stone, but with its tongue. Moreover, according to the poet, the swallow was born in Limousin. The place of origin of the bird acts as gloss, by means of which Deschamps uncovered the historical sense of the ballad, i.e., the political context in which it was written. As we will show, the swallow refers to Pope Gregory XI, born in Limousin, who in the early 1370s attacked the Visconti, dukes of Milan, with its bulls. It is known that the poet was linked to this family. Apart from the historical significance, the ballad has a moral meaning: the swallow is a slanderer, wicked and envious, which will be sent to hell. Characterizing the swallow, symbol of the slanderer, Deschamps draws on the De proprietatibus rerum of Bartholomeus Anglicus and the allegorical commentary that accompanies the story of Procne and Philomena in the Ovide moralise. Finally, looking at the literal sense of the ballad, which is a macaronic poem, we can see that the latin words signifi cantly contribute to its meaning. They refer the reader to the archetype of the text: the Psalms that condemn backbiting and impiety (e.g. Ps.52 / 51).
End of the Middle Ages, Eustache Deschamps, allegorical poetry, biblical exegesis, sensus historicus, political context, bulls of Gregory XI, Visconti family, moral meaning
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3. Eckard G. 2005 “Principes et pratique de la translation des reuvres classiques en langue vulgaire: le cas de la Philomena attribuee a Chretien de Troyes (d'apres Ovide, Metamorphoses VI)”, in La transmission des savoirs au Moyen Age et a la Renaissance, Besangon, 2005, pp. 143-153.
4. Evdokimova L. Francuzskaja pojezija pozdnego Srednevekov'ja (French Poetry of the Late Middle Age), Moscow, 1990.
5. Gros G. Ave Vierge Marie: etude sur les prieres en vers francais, XII-XVe siecle, Lyon, 2004.
6. Gros G. Le poete, la Vierge et le Prince: etude sur la poesie mariale en milieu de cour aux XIVe et XVe siecles, Saint-Etienne, 1994.
7. Lassabatere T. La Cite des hommes: Eustache Deschamps, expression poetique et vision politique, Paris, 2011.
8. Martin G. Histoires de l'Espagne medievale: historiographie, geste, romancero, Paris, 1997.
9. Muhlethaler J.-C. 2002 “Entre amour et politique: metamorphoses ovidiennes a la fin du Moyen Age. La fable de Ceyx et Alcione, de «l'Ovide moralise» a Christine de Pizan et Alain Chartier”, in Cahiers de Recherche Medievale et Humanistes, vol. 9, pp. 1-41.
10. Pelissier A. Gregoire XI ramene la papaute a Rome, Tulle, 1962.
11. Reynolds W. 1977 “De formis figurisque deorum. From On the images and figures of the gods”, in Allegorica, vol. 2, pp. 62—89.
12. Smalley B. Studies in Medieval Thought and Learning from Abelard to Wiclif, London, 1981.
13. Thiry C. 1977 “Allegorie et histoire dans la «Prison Amoureuse» de Froissart”, in Studi francesi, vol. 71-72, pp. 15-29.
14. Zhurbina A. V. (trad.) 2008 “Pierre Bersuire. O vneshnem oblike i znachenii bogov” (On the appearance and meaning of gods), in Centaurus. Studia classica et mediaevalia, vol. 12, pp. 252-288.
Евдокимова Л. В. Искусство слова и градация стилей в лирических стихотворениях Эсташа Дешана . // Вестник ПСТГУ. Серия III: Филология. 2014. Вып. 2 (37). С. 7-35. DOI: 10.15382/sturIII201437.7-35
Examining various poetic works by Eustache Deschamps (D’un beau dit de ceuls qui contreuvent nouvelles bourdes et mensonges, as well as some ballads), we come to a conclusion that he was aware of ternary and binary oppostions of styles. His familiarity with a system of the first type is evidenced by the term “restrained voice” (voix moyenne) which is used in poem D’un beau dit de ceuls qui contreuvent nouvelles bourdes et mensonges. The paper shows that this term goes back to one of liturgical books, Pontifi cale romanum by Guillaume Durand. In this case Deschamps apparently mixes up diff erent notions and applies the term used in this books to the gradation of types of declamation and styles developed in the Middle Ages within one of rhetorical traditions. In the second half of the 14th century the term the term “restrained voice” begins to be associated with the neutral style and didactic content. In other cases, Deschamps’s conception of the neutral style goes back to those medieval versions of rhetoric (artes dictaminis, artes praedicandi) where style was dependent on the situation in which communication takes place, namely the social status of speakers and their education level. Deschamps suggests that one should address people of the middle class in a “mixed manner” (maniere entremelee). This term implies the combination of higher and lower elocutionary means and topoï. Apart from the ternary gradations of style, poetic works by Deschamps refl ect the binary opposition of the high and the low styles, traditional for the literature of the 13th and the first half of the 14th century.
binary and ternary oppositions of styles, medieval poetics in its connection to classical traditions, vox media, vox mediocris in Pontificale romanum by Guillaume Durand and Deschamps’s voix moyenne, neutral style, declamation and style, loudness o
1. Evdokimova L. V. 2005 “Ritorika i pojezija v «Iskusstve sochinjat'» Jestasha Deshana” (Rhetoric and Poesy in “Art of Creation” of Eustache Deschamps), in Kentavr. Studia classica et mediaevalia, 2005, vol. 2, pp. 178–190.
2. Kentavr. Studia classica et mediaevalia (Centaur. Studia classica et mediaevalia), 2010, vol. 7.
3. Andrieu M. Le Pontifical romain au Moyen Age, Citta di Vaticano, 1938.
4. Becker K. Le Lyrisme d’Eustache Deschamps. Entre poésie et pragmatism, Paris, 2012.
5. Cerquiglini-Toulet J. 2010 “Conscience de style, conscience de soi chez Christine de Pizan”, in Centaur. Studia classica et mediaevalia, 2010, vol. 7, pp. 139–150.
6. Lacassagne M. et Lassabatère T. (eds.) «Dictiez vertueulx» (Les) d’Eustache Deschamps. Forme poétique et discours engagé à la fin du Moyen Age, Paris, 2005.
7. Dragonetti R. 1961 “La poésie ... cette musique naturelle. Essai d’exégèse d’un passage de l’ Art de dictier d’Eustache Deschamps”, in Fin du Moyen Age et la Renaissance. Mélanges off erts à Robert Guiette, Anvers, 1961, pp. 49–64.
8. Connochie-Bourgne Ch. et Douchet S. Effets de style au Moyen Age, Aix-en-Provence, 2012.
9. Lacassagne M., Lassabatère T. Eustache Deschamps, témoin et modèle: littérature et société politique (XIVe–XVe siècles), Paris, 2008.
10. Sinnreich Levy D.M. (ed.) Eustache Deschamps. French Courtier-Poet: His Work and His World, New York, 1998.
11. Evdokimova L. 2005 “Ethique, économique, rhétorique. La classifi cation aristotélicienne des sciences et la poésie didactique de Deschamps”, in Lacassagne M., Lassabatère T. (eds.) Les «Dictiez vertueulx» d’Eustache Deschamps. Forme poétique et discours engagé à la fi n du Moyen Age, Paris, 2005, pp. 57–72.
12. Faral E. Les arts poétiques du XIIe et du XIIIe siècle: recherches et documents sur la technique littéraire du Moyen Age, Paris, 1924 (Genève, Paris, 1982).
13. Dietz L. Gallyn-Hallyn P., 2001 “Le style au Quattrocento et au XVIe siècle”, in Poétique de la Renaissance. Le modèle italien, le monde franco-bourguignon et leur héritage en France au XVIe siècle, Genève, 2001, pp. 532–565.
14. Documentum de arte versifi Geoff roi de Vinsauf. candi // Faral E. Les arts poétiques du XIIe et du XIIIe siècle : recherches et documents sur la technique littéraire du Moyen Age. Paris, 1924 (Genève-Paris, 1982).
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17. Lacassagne M. 2010 “Eustache Deschamps, praticien du style moyen”, in Centaur. Studia classica et mediаevalia, 2010, vol. 7, pp. 151–165.
18. Lassabatère T. La Cité des Hommes: Eustache Deschamps, expression poétique et vision politique, Paris, 2011.
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Ким С. С. [Review] // Вестник ПСТГУ. Серия I: Богословие. Философия. 2014. Вып. 6 (56). С. 124-126. — Rev. op.: Thomson R. W. Saint Basil of Caesarea and Armenian Cosmology. A Study of the Armenian Version of Saint Basil’s Hexaemeron and its Influence on Medieval Armenian Views about the Cosmos. In aedibus Peeters, 2012
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Евдокимова Л. В. «Морализованный Овидий» Берсюира: целевая аудитория, экзегетический и идеологический контекст // Вестник ПСТГУ. Серия III: Филология. 2018. Вып. 54. С. 27-69. DOI: 10.15382/sturIII201854.27-69
Ovidius moralizatus has often attracted the attention of researchers. However, the initial ideological and religious context in which this work was created remains insuffi ciently studied. It is interesting to see whether there is a link between this text and currents of religious thought of its time. In our opinion, Bersuire is indeed aff ected by it, and it is possible to prove this by comparing allegories in his text with those in Ovidian exegesis, as well as with some religious and political treatises of his predecessors and contemporaries. This comparison allows us to defi ne the originality of the comments of the Ovidius moralizatus; we shall see, moreover, that Bersuire sometimes uses political concepts of his time. We can thus characterise the readers whom he addresses; in fact, only the reader familiar with the atmosphere in which the work was created would be able to understand the meaning of the concepts and allegories it uses. Borrowing Erwin Wolf’s term, one could speak in this case of the “intended readers” (intendierte Leser). In my opinion, this term is appropriate in the analysis of various medieval texts including those that have evident pragmatic and communicative functions. It points to the link between the author’s intentions and the initial circle of readers; thus, it allows us to contrast the primary reception of the work with its later interpretations. I find, fi rst of all, that Bersuire indirectly opposes his book to the academic and philological comments of Ovid studied in numerous works by F. Coulson. Unlike these commentators, Bersuire does not dwell on the meaning of certain diffi cult passages of the poem, nor does he indicate the links between the episodes or the peculiarities of its composition. When he borrows certain comments from his predecessors (e.g., Arnoulf d’Orleans), he develops them by proceeding from the comparisons between the action of the fable and the relationships in society. In many cases, he replaces Arnoulf’s commentary with a social explanation. Thus, Bersuire creates a large number of social portraits presenting people from diverse backgrounds, e.g. commoners, the noble and the rich, judges, usurers, soldiers, tyrants and princes. The portraits of monks, nuns and preachers occupy a large place in the picture of society that he is drawing. This inclination of Bersuire to employ social allegory was formed by the infl uence of the moral works of his time written by the Friars Minor, the order to which he once belonged Among the works that infl uenced him and served as his sources are De proprietatibus rerum by Bartolomaeus Anglicus, the Liber de moralitatibus by Marcus Urbevetanus and the Speculum morale totius sacrae Scripturae by Cardinal Johannes Vitalis de Furno († 1327), provincial of Aquitaine. The allegories created by Bersuire sometimes include political terms of his time, and in particular those of Ockham. Thus, he uses the term jurisdictio temporalis (“temporal power”) or prelatio temporalis (“temporal supremacy”). Like Ockham, albeit in an allegorical form, Bersuire points out the excessive character of the lay power which high-ranking men possess and suggests that this power should be restricted. He further suggests, in allegorical form, that the Pope should not have full power over his subjects, and that only those worthy (in accordance with the law of the Gospels) have the right to power in this world. Some allegories of Bersuire, as I attempt to show, aim to criticise Pope John XXII and his entourage. Thus, the intended readers of Bersuire belonged to several social strata. In the first place it is the entourage of Pope John XXII to whom he addresses his sermons and his criticisms, infl uenced by Franciscan morality and by the political and social doctrine of Ockham. They are also the Friars Minor, to whom he expresses his solidarity and implies in a veiled form that he, to a certain extent, shares their position. Finally, they are clerics and scholars, enthusiasts of Antiquity, to whom he teaches that the essence of the ancient tales is neither style nor poetic art but their moral content. These various meanings soon ceased to be understandable. Since then, it became possible to locate Ovidius moralizatus in more remote contexts: poetic and metaphorical, or related to the interest in Antiquity.
target audience and initial context of literary monument, philological school commentary on Metamorphoses, allegorical commentary on Metamorphoses, moralised encyclopaediae of 13th and 14th centuries, parallels between mythological characters and activities and social relations in medieval society, influence of Franciscan theologians of the fi rst third of 14th century, influence of Ockham’s political and social doctrine, Pope John XXII and his entourage, controversy about poverty of Christ and Apostles, controversy about ''blissful contemplation''
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Evdokimova Ludmilla
Academic Degree: Doctor of sciences* in Philology;
Place of work: A.M. Gorky Institute of World Literature, Russian Academy of Sciences; 25A Povarskaia Str., Moscow 121069, Russian Federation; St. Tikhon’s University for the Humanities; 6/1 Likhov Pereulok, Moscow 127051, Russian Federation;
Post: leading researcher, professor;
Email: ludmila.evdokimova@gmail.com. *According to the International Standard Classification of Education (ISCED) 2011, the degree of Candidate of Sciences (Cand.Sc.) belongs to ISCED level 8 — "doctoral or equivalent", together with PhD, DPhil, D.Lit, D.Sc, LL.D, Doctorate or similar.
Ким Е. С. «Инструкции» Карло Борромео как приложение к декретам Тридентского собора // Вестник ПСТГУ. Серия V: Вопросы истории и теории христианского искусства. 2018. Вып. 29. С. 27-37. DOI: 10.15382/sturV201829.27-37
This article is devoted to some aspects of Charles Borromeo’s Instructiones fabricae et supellectilis ecclesiasticae published in 1577. It deals with the Instructions in connection with their relationship to the decrees of Trent Council (1545‒1563) and changes in the arrangement of churches that were introduced by Reformation. The article demonstrates the actual bases on which the architecture of European Catholic churches emerged in the latter half of the 16th century. They are dealt with in a historical perspective, because a number of important changes in the arrangement of churches (for example, the position of the tabernacle) had become visible prior to the Council. As is known, it did not accept any normative documents as to church architecture. The manual by Charles Borromeo made it possible to distinguish the main principles of church construction that were in accord with the spirit of the Council and determined the system of construction and arrangement of European Catholic churches for several centuries to come.
Charles Borromeo, Trent Council, Baroque architecture, Baroque art, history of European architecture, Italian architecture, tabernacle, liturgy space, european church architecture, Reformation
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Kim Ekaterina
Place of work: Likhachov Russian Heritage Institute; 20 Bersenevskaia Naberezhnaia, Moscow 119072, Russian Federation;
Post: Junior Research Fellow;
ORCID: 0000-0001-7538-7631;
Email: katyakim@gmail.com.