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Гусейнова З. М. Нотированные каноны в Стихираре конца XVI века // Вестник ПСТГУ. Серия V: Вопросы истории и теории христианского искусства. 2013. Вып. 2 (11). С. 37-49.
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Canon as a genre of ancient gimnography which occupied a significant place in Orthodox worship. It was created in honor of each Saint or festive event, and in these cases was used to sample one of the already existing canons. Text of canons were included in the liturgical books, but they are very rarely issued in znamenny form, as their chants were based on well-known irmosy-samples that are included in the book the Irmologion. The manuscript Holy Trinity-St. Sergius Laura No. 427 (Russian State Library), dating from the late of the 16th century, contain, however, three znamenny canons (metropolitan Jonah, Vasily Blissful, great-martyr George). The article discusses the principles of musical interpretation of texts which reveal the creative techniques of old masters.
canon, saint, heirmos, troparion, chant, text, notation, manuscript
1. Gerasimova-Persidskaya N. A. 2003, in Hymnology, vol. 4, pp. 237-251.
2. Golubinskij E. E. Istoriya russkoj tserkvi (History of Russian Church), Moscow, 1900.
3. Kiprian (Kern), archimandrite. Liturgika. Gimnografiya i heortologiya (Liturgics. Hymnography and Heortology), Moscow, 1999.
4. Klyuchevskij V. O. Drevnerusskie zhitiya svyatych kak istoricheskij istochnik (Ancient Lives of the Saints as a Historical Source), Moscow, 1989.
5. Kuznetsov I. I. Svyatye blazhennye Vasilij i Ioann, Christa radi moskovskie chudotvortsy (Saints Basil the Blessed, and John, for Christ's Sake, the Moscow Miracle Workers), Moscow, 1910.
6. Lozovaya I. E. Drevnerusskij notirovannyj Paraklit XII veka (Old Russian Parakletike of the 12th Century), Moscow, 2009.
7. Lurie Y. S. 1988, in Slovar' knizhnikov i knizhnosti Drevnej Rusi, vol. 2/1, pp. 270-273.
8. Metallov V. M. Ocherk istorii pravoslavnogo tserkovnogo peniya v Rossii (History of the Orthodox Church Music in Russia), Moscow, 1915.
9. Ramazanova N. V. 1999, in Rukopisnye pamyatniki, vol. 5, pp. 82-96.
10. Skaballanovich M. N. Tolkovyj Tipikon (The Typikon Interpreted), Moscow, 2004.
11. Spasskij F. G. Russkoe liturgicheskoe tvorchestvo (Russian Liturgical Works), Moscow, 2008.
12. Vilinbakhov G. V., Vilinbakhova T. B. Sv. Georgij Pobedonosets (St. George The Victorious), St.-Petersburg, 1995.
Гусейнова З. М. "Светильны на царьския праздники" как певческий цикл // Вестник ПСТГУ. Серия V: Вопросы истории и теории христианского искусства. 2014. Вып. 3 (15). С. 115-124. DOI: 10.15382/sturV201415.115-124
The article describes one of the types of Old Russian melismatic chant - Svetilens (Eksapostilaria or Fotagogica) on diff erent holidays. They were rarely included in the Church books and were singing in style of “bolshoj raspev” (great chant). Svetilens are executed after the 9th songs of canons, the main theme is “light”, which is revealed in all the hymns. The author explores the cycles of Svetilens in two manuscripts of the 17th century Kirillo-Belozersky collection in the National Library of Russia (no. 642/899 and no. 638/895). They have an unique shaped and structured contents of poetic texts, diff erent techniques of melodic organization, as well as the link between the melody of svetilens, which should be recognized as a special song cycle.
Svetilen, manuscript, cycle, great chant, text, National Library of Russia, Kirillo-Belozersky collection

1. Brazhnikov M. V. Lica i fity znamennogo raspeva (Faces and Fitas of Znamennyj Chant), Leningrad, 1984.
2. Ramazanova N. V. Moskovskoe carstvo v cerkovno-pevcheskom iskusstve XVI–XVII vekov. SPb., 2004.
3. Skaballanovich M. N. Tolkovyj Tipikon (Explanatory Typikon), Moscow, 1995.
4. Tjurina O. V. 2009 “Formirovanie graficheskogo oblika melizmaticheskih pesnopenij: cikl Svetil'nov voskresnyh po spiskam XII — konca XV vv.” (Forming of Graphical Appearance of Melizmatic Songs: Cycle of Sunday Exapostilaria according to Copies of XII — End of XV Cent.), in XIX Ezhegodnaja Bogoslovskaja konferencija PSTGU, Moscow, 2009, vol. 2, pp. 202–213.
5. Tjurina O. V. 2008 “Ob odnom obrazce drevnerusskoj melizmatiki: cikl Svetil'nov voskresnyh” (About One Specimen of Old Russian Melizmatics: Cycle of Sunday Exapostilaria), in Vestnik PSTGU. Serija V, 2008, vol. 2/3, pp. 7–22.
Гусейнова З. М. Фрагментарное невменное нотирование в рукописях XV века // Вестник ПСТГУ. Серия V: Вопросы истории и теории христианского искусства. 2015. Вып. 4 (20). С. 145-157. DOI: 10.15382/sturV201520.145-157
“Hook manuscript” with omissions notation is sustainable, it is to some extent in all extant manuscripts. This phenomenon depends on many factors, including changes in the system of singing in the 15th century («epoch of style change»). In the collection of the Holy Trinity-St. Sergius Lavra at the Russian State Library hook manuscript no. 407, 439, 440 belong the first half of 15 century, no. 408, 409 belong the second half of the century. They demonstrate the patterns of «epoch of style change». The manuscripts of the first half of the 15th century retain the traits of the ancient tradition. Here predominantly “istinnorečnyj” (“right”) text, ancient signs (“hooked arrow”, “double apostroph” etc.). The manuscripts of the second half of the 15th century, no. 409 represents the final look of a text and revision of the singing, and no. 408 represents the main fracture and shows the fragmentary notation. Certain chants or microcycles, individual textlines or syllables have the fragmentary notation in no. 408. It is due to the a different nature and depends on the specifi c problems arising from the transition to Jerusalem Charter, formation of new znamenny books (Octoechos), the need to create a new melodies for Oktoihe, Stihirare mineiny. Text in no. 408 shows that singing was a poetical editing, structural modification of the text and of the necessity of prosodic changes. This is reflected to the changes in notation, creating new neumes.
manuscript, Jerusalem Charter, Holy Trinity-St. Sergius Lavra, epoch of style change, znamenny book, fragmentary notation

1. Aleksandrina A. V. Pevcheskie rukopisnye knigi XV–XIX vv. iz biblioteki Troice-Sergievoj Lavry: Istoriko-knigovedcheskij analiz. T. II: Katalog pevcheskih rukopisej XV–XIX vv. Troice-Sergievoj Lavry iz sobranija NIOR RGB F. 304.I. Special'nost' 05.25.03 — bibliotekovedenie, bibliografovedenie i knigovedenie. Dis. … kand. ist. nauk (Song Manuscript Books of XV–XIX Cent. from Library of Troice-Sergieva Lavra: Historical-Book Study Analysis. Vol. 2: Catalogye of Song Manuscripts of XV–XIX Cent. of Troice-Sergieva Lavra from Collection NIOR RGB F. 304.I. Dissertation), Moscow, 2014.
2. Gusejnova Z. M. 2008 “Stihirari minejnye v Kirillo-Belozerskih rukopisjah XV v.” (Minaion Sticheraria in Kirillo-Belozerskije Monasteries of XV Cent.), in Vestnik PSTGU. Serija V, Moscow, 2008, pp. 7–14.
3. Zabolotnaja N. V. Cerkovno-pevcheskie rukopisi Drevnej Rusi XI–XIV vekov: Osnovnye tipy knig v istoriko-funkcional'nom aspekte (Church-Singing Manuscripts of Old Rus’ of XI–XIV Centuries: Main Types of Books in Historical-Functional Aspect), Moscow, 2001.
4. Zahar'ina N. B. Russkie pevcheskie knigi. Tipologija, puti jevoljucii. Avtoref. … dis. … d-ra iskusstvovedenija. Special'nost' 17.00.02 — muzykal'noe iskusstvo (Russian Song Books. Typology, Evolution Ways. Dissertation Abstract), Moscow, 2006. S. 12–13.
5. Pletneva E. V. 2003 “Notacija v pesnopenijah drevnerusskih Oktoihov Izbornyh i Shestodnevov Sluzhebnyh (XIII–XV vv.)” (Notation in Songs of Old Russian Octoichos and Service Hexamerons (XIII–XV Cent.)), in XIII Ezhegodnaja Bogoslovskaja konferencija PSTGU: Materialy, Moscow, 2003, pp. 443–451.
6. Turilov A. A. 2012 “Posle Klimenta i Nauma (slavjanskaja pis'mennost' na territorii Ohridskoj episkopii v X — pervoj polovine XIII v.)” (After Clement and Nahum (Slavic Literature in Territory of Ochrid Archdiocese in X — First Half of XIII Cent.)), in Mezhslavjanskie kul'turnye svjazi jepohi Srednevekov'ja i istochnikovedenie istorii i kul'tury juzhnyh slavjan i Drevnej Rusi: Jetjudy i harakteristiki, Moscow, 2012.
7. Tjurina O. V. 2013 “Vidy zakljuchitel'nyh formul v pesnopenijah bol'shogo rospeva” (Kinds of End Formulae in Songs of Great Chant), in Vestnik PSTGU. Serija V. 2013, vol. 3/12, pp. 7–24.
8. Filippova E. 2006 “K voprosu ob izmenenii pevcheskoj praktiki v Russkoj Cerkvi v period bogosluzhebnoj reformy XIV–XV vv.” (To Question of Change of Song Practice in Russian Church in Period of Service Reform of XIV–XV Cent.), in Lozovaja I. E. (ed.) «Idu v nevedomyj mne put'»: Pamjati Eleny Filippovoj, Moscow, 2006, pp. 75–85.
Гусейнова З. М. Списки Стихов покаянных в рукописях Троице-Сергиевой Лавры // Вестник ПСТГУ. Серия V: Вопросы истории и теории христианского искусства. 2016. Вып. 3 (23). С. 36-47. DOI: 10.15382/sturV201623.36-47
А steady cycle of the repentance poems begins to be fixed in the old russian singing manuscript books in the middle of the 16th century. There are five manuscripts in Library of Troitse-Sergiyeva Lavra (Russian State Library) from the mid-16th century until the first quarter of the 17 century with the cycles of the repentance poems. Their repertoire includes almost 60 hymns: some of them are in all singing manuscript books, and another are one or two times only. Repentance poems divided unevenly into 8 “glases”: the largest number belong to 6 and 8, the smallest number belong to 3 and 7 “glas”. Some of the poems have a few music interpretations; and manuscript book TSL 432 are present early red “pomety” (remarks). The repentance poem texts are not liturgical, they specially created poems based on those stories, figurative circle of traditional gimnograf texts and chants, so art of the anonymous masters is very important. Master copies already known verses, but making changes to them, sometimes very large, includes disclose secret (“tajnozamknennyh”) formulas. Especially interesting cycle is in manuscript TSL 427. Author introduces melismatic chants, melodic variations, and he had transformed the slavnick (doxastikon) “O koliko blago” from the Lenten Triodion into one of repentance poem. This slavnick is known in many musical versions since the 12th century. Its content and organization are similar in the repentance poems. Here are constantly used exclamations “O” and “Uvi mone”, as well as the phrase on the penitential theme: “okaiannyj se lishiho”, “okaiannyi dushe”. This tradition will expand, cycles of repentance poem will be enriched by new songs, including from the Repertoire of liturgical texts.
manuscript, Troitse-Sergiyeva Lavra, repentance poem, text, znamenny chant, himn, genre, doxastikon, cycle

1. Aleksandrina A. V. Pevcheskie rukopisnye knigi XV–XIX vv. iz biblioteki Troice-Sergievoj Lavry: Istoriko-knigovedcheskij analiz. Dis. … kand. ist. nauk (Song Manuscript Books of XV–XIX Cent. from Library of Troice-Sergijeva Lavra: Historical-Book Study Analysis. Dissertation), Moscow, 2014, vol. 2: Katalog pevcheskih rukopisej XV–XIX vv. Troice-Sergievoj Lavry iz sobranija NIOR RGB. F. 304.I (Catalogue of Chant Manuscripts of XV–XIX Cent. of Troice-Sergijeva Lavra from Collection of NIOR RGB. F. 304.I).
2. Vasil'eva E. E. 2008 “O pokajannyh i duhovnyh stihah v russkoj kul'ture” (About Penitential and Spiritual Poems in Russian Culture), in Hristianstvo v regionah mira, Saint-Petersburg, 2008, pp. 246–280.
3. Gusejnova Z. M. 2013 “Notirovannye kanony v Stihirare konca XVI veka” (Notated Canons in Stiharar of End of XVI Century), in Vestnik PSTGU. Serija V: Voprosy istorii i teorii hristianskogo iskusstva, 2013, vol. 2/11, pp. 37–49.
4. Mosjagina N. V. 2001 “Stihi pokajannye v rukopisi inoka Eliseja” (Penitential Poems of Manuscript of Monk Elisej), in Opyty po istochnikovedeniju. Drevnerusskaja knizhnost', Saint-Petersburg, 2001, vol. 4, pp. 189–200.
5. Panchenko A. M. 1989 “Stihi pokajannye” (Penitential Poems), in Slovar' knizhnikov i knizhnosti Drevnej Rusi, Leningrad, 1989, vol. 2 (2-ja pol. XIV — XVI v.), pp. 421–423.
6. Parfent'ev N. P., Parfent'eva N. V. Usol'skaja (Stroganovskaja) shkola v russkoj muzyke XVI–XVII vekov (Usol'skaja (Stroganovskaja) School in Russian Music of XVI–XVII Centuries), Cheljabinsk, 1993.
7. Petrova L. A., Seregina N. S. Rannjaja russkaja lirika. Repertuarnyj spravochnik muzykal'no-pojeticheskih tekstov XV–XVII vekov (Early Russian Lyrics. Repertoire Reference of Musical-Poetic Texts of XV–XVII Centuries), Leningrad, 1988.
8. Frolov S. V. 1993 “«Stih-starina» za monastyrskim «pivom»” (“Old Poem” by Monastery “Drink”), in Trudy Otdela drevnerusskoj literatury IRLI AN SSSR, 1993, vol. 48, pp. 196–204.
Гусейнова З. М. Сведения по теории церковного пения в рукописи протопопа Мефодия (1647) // Вестник ПСТГУ. Серия V: Вопросы истории и теории христианского искусства. 2017. Вып. 26. С. 96-108. DOI: 10.15382/sturV201726.96-108
The aim of this article is to present the theoretical codex included in hooked notation manuscript written by Archpriest Methodius in 1647 in Kashira. In the history of Russian musical theory, manuscripts of the mid-17th century manifest the wish of masters of singing to validate traditional phenomena in singing, to systematise existing techniques and to integrate purely theoretical information into the context of historical and pedagogical precepts. The note manuscript Ф. 229 № 154 (collection of N.S. Tihonravov) of the Russian State Library contains a theoretical codex that sets out both established and non-traditional fragments supplemented by literary and philosophical statements using cryptography (Russ. простая литорея). The bulk of materials on musical theory is related to the form of dvoznamenniki (“double sign”), where lines are written in putnaya and znamennaya notations (putnaya in vermilion, znamennaya in black ink). The codex also contains a fragment of the famous “Preface” to the collection of note sticherons (Russ. нотный Стихирарь) and the ABC-enumeration Имена столповому знамени. The fact that Archpriest Methodius included such changes into traditional manuals serves as a sign of his own creative work. As a result, the author of the manuscript acts as an experiences connoisseur of church singing rather than a mere copyist.
Archpriest Methodius, manuscript, codex of musical theory, putny and znamenny notations

Bogomolova M. V., Znamennaja monodij a i bezlinejnoe mnogogolosie na primere velikoj panihidy, Moscow, 2006.
Brazhnikov M. V., Drevnerusskaja teorij a muzyki, Leningrad,1972.
Kondrashkova L. V., “Troestrochnye popevki (na materiale pevcheskoi knigi ‘Prazdniki’)”, in: Vestnik PSTGU, 2013, V, 11, 50–95.
Lukashevich A. A., “Printzipy izlozhenij a materiala v putevykh (kazanskikh) Soglasnikakh”, in: Vestnik PSTGU, 2014, V, 14, 83–104.
Nasonov A. N., Istoriya russkogo letopisaniya XI–XVIII vv, Moscow, 1969.
Protopopov V. V., Russkaja mysl' o muzyke v XVII veke, Moscow, 1989.
Spasskij F. G.,Russkoe liturgicheskoe tvorchestvo, Moscow, 2008.
Гусейнова З. М. Самогласны Стихираря минейного 2-й половины XVI века // Вестник ПСТГУ. Серия V: Вопросы истории и теории христианского искусства. 2018. Вып. 31. С. 70-82. DOI: 10.15382/sturV201831.70-82
The term samoglasen (Russ. самогласен, α¥τόμελον) has steadily been inscribed in Russian singing manuscript books since the 11th century as a margin comment accompanying certain chants. In scientifi c literature has developed a stable look at samoglasen as an indication of melodic autonomy of the chant, the opposite of which is the term podoben (подобен, ²διόμελον), when the chant is sung according to a melodic pattern (i.e. podoben). Meanwhile, in the copies of Stikhirar' Mineinyi, starting from the oldest MSs until the end of the 16th century, it is seen that, fi rstly, only few number of stichera are accompanied by the remark “samoglasen”; secondly, there is a discrepancy identifi ed when comparing the repertoire of stichera with this remark; thirdly, the melodically individual chant is lacking in samoglasen-shichera in all cases. The author of the articles comes to the conclusion that the term samoglasen entered the singing books from the Canon (Устав), where the term самогласен дня (“samoglasen of the day”) indicates the function of the stichera to refl ect main events of the holiday.
stichera, manuscript, Stikhirar' Mineinyi, samoglasen, manuscript copy
  1. Gardner I. A. (2004) “Zabytoe bogatstvo (o penii na «podoben»)” [“Forgotten Wealth (On Singing according to “Podoben”)”], in L. V. Vovchuk (ed.) Podobny. Kiev, pp. 4‒14 (in Russian).
  2. Kiprian (Kern), archimandrite (1999) Liturgika. Gimnografi ia i eortologiia [Liturgics. Hymnography and Heortology]. Moscow (in Russian).
  3. Potemkina N. A. “A. V. Nikol'skii i ego rabota «Formy russkogo tserkovnogo peniia»: metody analiza, terminologiia” [“A. V. Nikol'skii and his Work “Forms of Russian Church Singing”: Methods of Analysis and Terminology], available at http://docs.google.com/a/gnesinacademy.ru/viewer?url=http://vestnikram.ru (15.01.2017).
  4. Seregina N. S. (1985) “Stikhiry Sergiiu Radonezhskomu kak pamiatnik otechestvennogo pesnotvorchestva” [“Stichera to Sergy Radonezhsky as a Monument of Russian Art of Chants”]. Trudy Otdela drevnerusskoi literatury. 1985, vol. XXXVIII, pp. 338-355 (in Russian).
  5. Skaballanovich M. (2004) Tolkovyi Tipikon [Explanatory Typikon], pt. 2. Moscow (in Russian).
  6. Uspenskii N. D. (1971) Obraztsy drevnerusskogo pevcheskogo iskusstva [Examples of Old Russian Art of Singing]. Leningrad (in Russian).
  7. Vladyshevskaia T. F. (2006) “Tipografskii Ustav i muzykal'naia kul'tura Drevnei Rusi XI– XII vekov” [“Typographic Canon and Music Culture of Ancient Rus’ in the 11th — 12th Centuries”], in B. A. Uspensky (ed.) Tipografskii Ustav: Ustav s kondakarem kontsa XI — nachala XII veka [Typographic Canon: Canon with Kontakia of the Late 11th — Early 12th Centuries], vol. 3. Moscow (in Russian).
Guseinova Zivar
Academic Degree: Doctor of Sciences* in Art Criticism;
Academic Rank: Professor;
Place of work: St Petersburg State Conservatory; 3 Teatral’naya Sq., St Petersburg, 190000, Russian Federation;
Post: professor;
ORCID: 0000-0001-8940-6485;
Email: zivar-g@mail.ru. *According to ISCED 2011, a post-doctoral degree called Doctor of Sciences (D.Sc.) is given to reflect second advanced research qualifications or higher doctorates.