Губарева О. В. Иерусалимский крест в восточно-христианской традиции // Вестник ПСТГУ. Серия V: Вопросы истории и теории христианского искусства. 2015. Вып. 4 (20). С. 65-85. DOI: 10.15382/sturV201520.65-85
Jerusalem Cross in the Orthodox Church is often called «pilgrim cross». It is widely believed that this cross has no Orthodox roots and came after the capture of Jerusalem, Knights of the First Crusade. But there are ancient monuments that prove that these crosses were common in the Eastern Christian Church already in the 6th–7th centuries. A similar cross also was on the ﬂag of Byzantium. But in the place of crosses there was the sacred abbreviation dedicated to Jesus Christ: «King of Kings ruling over the kings». Since the 16 century similar crosses were placed on the ﬂags of the Russian regular army. Their form goes back to the equilateral cross, the phenomenon of St. Constantine. Five-parted composition can be interpreted as the image of unity of the Orthodox Church. Cross of St. Constantine the Great was imaged in diﬀerent ways already during his life. It is known that Emperor Constantine ordered to reproduce for many times the image of cross that he had seen in his vision. One of the greatest sacred objects for Christians became a precious cross donated by St. Constantine in the Hagia Sophia in Constantinople. It was set on a small podium, and it had short crossbeams on its ends. This cross was imaged on the back of the Byzantine coins for several centuries. Short beams of cross on the coins became to be imaged like T-completions. It is possible that the images on these coins had an inﬂuence on the iconography of the Teutonic and Jerusalem crosses in the 13th century. However, Godfrey of Bouillon brought to Jerusalem in 1099 the ﬂag with cross without T-shaped endings. Probably, it was the ﬂag of his father, Eustace II, with whom he became the hero of the Norman invasion of England. The ﬂag was not a stamp, and the military. Its symbolism went back to Labarum of St. Constantine. Jerusalem Cross became the herb of Godfrey and the Knights of the Holy Sepulchre not earlier than in the 13 century due to the inﬂuence of spiritual activity of St. Francis of Assisi and developing heraldry.
Jerusalem Cross, Orthodox Church, crusades, the Cross of St. Constantine, pilgrim cross
1. Aljard K. Kniga o flagah (Book about Flags), Moscow, 1709.
2. Batalov A. 1994 “Grob Gospoden' v zamysle «svjataja svjatyh» Borisa Godunova” (Grave of Lord in Intention of “Sancta Sanctorum” of Boris Godunov), in Ierusalim v russkoj kul'ture, Moscow, 1994, pp. 154–171.
3. Bichikashvili I. 1998 “O gruzinskom istoricheskom gosudarstvennom flage i gerbe” (About Georgian Historical State Flag and Coat of Arms), in Gerboved, 1998, vol. 29, pp. 134–141.
4. Butyrskij M. N. 2004 “Krest na vizantijskoj monete” (Cross on Byzantine Coin), in Antikvariat. Predmety iskusstva i kollekcionirovanija, 2004, vol. 9/20, pp. 141–143.
5. Vagner G. 1886 “Vizantijskij hram kak obraz mira” (Byzantine Church and Image of World), in Vizantijskij vremennik, Moscow, 1886, vol. 47.
6. Vilinbahov G. V. Gosudarstvennaja geral'dika v Rossii: Teorija i praktika. Dis. … d-ra ist. nauk (State Heraldic in Russia: Theory and Practice. Dissertation), Saint-Petersburg, 2003.
7. Vilinbahov G. V. K voprosu o tradicijah v Gruzinskoj znamennoj simvolike (To Question about Traditions in Georgian Znamennaja Symbolic), Tbilisi, 1977.
8. Vilinbahov G. V. 1985 “Krest carja Konstantina v srednevekovoj voinskoj geral'dike Evropy” (Cross of Tsar Constantine in Medieval Military Heraldic in Europe), in Lukonin V.G. (ed.) Hudozhestvennye pamjatniki i problemy kul'tury Vostoka, Leningrad, 1985, pp. 188–196.
9. Vilinbahov G. V. 1983 “Legenda o «znamenii Konstantina» v simvolike russkih znamen XVII–XVIII vekov” (Legend about “Sign of Constantine” in Symbolic of Russian Banners of XVII–XVIII Centuries), in Trudy Gosudarstvennogo ordena Lenina Jermitazha, Leningrad, 1983, vol. 23, pp. 26–41.
10. Gnutova S. V. «Konstantinov krest» — drevnejshij pamjatnik rannehristianskogo iskusstva na territorii Rossii (“Constantine Cross” — Oldest Memorial of Early Christian Art in Territory of Russia), in http://www.icon-art.info/book_contents.php?book_id=68) (Date: 05.04.2015).
11. Lidov A. 2015 “Ikonichnost' i ikonicheskoe. O prostranstvennyh smyslah ikonnogo obraza“ (Iconicity and Iconical. About Space Senses of Icon Image), in Dary: Al'manah sovremennoj hristianskoj kul'tury, 2015, pp. 25–45.
12. Minin S. A. Pervyj krestovyj pohod v srednevekovoj kul'ture: dogovor Boga i cheloveka v narrative hronistov: Avtoref. dis. ... kand. ist. nauk: 24.00.01 (First Crusade in Medieval Culture: Treaty of God and Human in Chronists’ Narrative: Dissertation Abstract), M., 2009.
13. Polyvjannyj D.I. Kul'turnoe svoeobrazie srednevekovoj Bolgarii v kontekste vizantijsko-slavjanskoj obshhnosti IX–XV vv. (Cultural Originality of Medieval Bulgaria in Context of Byzantine-Slavic Community of IX–XV Cent.), Ivanovo, 2000.
14. Smirnov A. P. 1975 “Vynosnoj chekannyj krest grecheskoj raboty XI–XII vekov” (Remote Minted Cross of Greek Work of XI–XII Centuries), in Drevnerusskoe iskusstvo. Zarubezhnye svjazi, Moscow, 1975, pp. 27–40.
15. Sukina L. B. 2003 “«Korsunskij» zaprestol'nyj krest iz pereslavskogo nikol'skogo monastyrja” (“Chersoneses” Altar Cross from Pereslavskij Nikol’skij Monastery), in Gnutova S. V. (ed.) Stavrograficheskij sbornik, Moscow, 2003, vol. 2: Krest v Pravoslavii, pp. 157–163.
16. Shhedrina K. A. 2003 “Krest imperatora Konstantina Velikogo (k voprosu ikonografii)” (Cross of Emperor of Constantine the Great (to Question of Iconography)), in Gnutova S. V. (ed.) Stavrograficheskij sbornik, Moscow, 2003, vol. 2: Krest v Pravoslavii, pp. 55–66.
17. Riley-Smith J. 1979 “The Title of Godfrey of Bouillon”, in Bulletin of the Institute of Historical Research, 1979, vol. 52.
18. France J. 1983 “The Election and Title of Godfrey de Bouillon”, in Canadian Journal of History, 1983, vol. 18/3, pp. 321–329.
19. Murray Alan V. 1990 “The Title of Godfrey of Bouillon as Ruler of Jerusalem”, in Collegium Medievale, 1990, vol. 3, pp. 163–178.
20. Schick Baurath von. 1894 “The Jerusalem Cross”, in Palestine Exploration Fund - Quarterly Statement for 1894, pp. 183–189.