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Губарева О. В. Иерусалимский крест в восточно-христианской традиции // Вестник ПСТГУ. Серия V: Вопросы истории и теории христианского искусства. 2015. Вып. 4 (20). С. 65-85. DOI: 10.15382/sturV201520.65-85
Jerusalem Cross in the Orthodox Church is often called «pilgrim cross». It is widely believed that this cross has no Orthodox roots and came after the capture of Jerusalem, Knights of the First Crusade. But there are ancient monuments that prove that these crosses were common in the Eastern Christian Church already in the 6th–7th centuries. A similar cross also was on the flag of Byzantium. But in the place of crosses there was the sacred abbreviation dedicated to Jesus Christ: «King of Kings ruling over the kings». Since the 16 century similar crosses were placed on the flags of the Russian regular army. Their form goes back to the equilateral cross, the phenomenon of St. Constantine. Five-parted composition can be interpreted as the image of unity of the Orthodox Church. Cross of St. Constantine the Great was imaged in different ways already during his life. It is known that Emperor Constantine ordered to reproduce for many times the image of cross that he had seen in his vision. One of the greatest sacred objects for Christians became a precious cross donated by St. Constantine in the Hagia Sophia in Constantinople. It was set on a small podium, and it had short crossbeams on its ends. This cross was imaged on the back of the Byzantine coins for several centuries. Short beams of cross on the coins became to be imaged like T-completions. It is possible that the images on these coins had an influence on the iconography of the Teutonic and Jerusalem crosses in the 13th century. However, Godfrey of Bouillon brought to Jerusalem in 1099 the flag with cross without T-shaped endings. Probably, it was the flag of his father, Eustace II, with whom he became the hero of the Norman invasion of England. The flag was not a stamp, and the military. Its symbolism went back to Labarum of St. Constantine. Jerusalem Cross became the herb of Godfrey and the Knights of the Holy Sepulchre not earlier than in the 13 century due to the influence of spiritual activity of St. Francis of Assisi and developing heraldry.
Jerusalem Cross, Orthodox Church, crusades, the Cross of St. Constantine, pilgrim cross

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