Organization of training and educational process in the church school of Transbaikalia at the end of 19 th - early 20 th century
Волнина Н. Н. Организация учебного и воспитательного процесса в церковных школах Забайкалья в конце XIX- начале XX в // Вестник ПСТГУ. Серия II: История. История Русской Православной Церкви. 2015. Вып. 1 (62). С. 100-111. DOI: 10.15382/sturII201562.100-111
The articledeals with the problemsof the educationalandupbringing process inparochial schoolsin Transbaikalia in the late XIX - earlyXXcenturies.This type ofschoolswasthe most widespread on the territory ofthe Transbikalregion.Parochial schoolsplayed an importantrole in the culturaldevelopment of the regionin thelate XIX - earlyXX centuries, they became an integralpart of thehistorical andcultural process.The history of their formation, analysis of their activitiesareof great scientiﬁ c andpractical interestfor the history of culture, education, religious studies.The author concludesthat theeducational processinparochial schoolswas organized in the form of uniﬁededucational system, aimedat religiousand moral education ofcomprehensively developed personality. According to “Regulations on the parochial schools” (1884), the main purpose of-such a school is“to approvethe orthodox doctrineof the Christianfaith and morals among people, andto transfer the initialuseful knowledge”.Therefore,the most important componentof the educational systemof church-maintained schoolswas the subjects ofpurely religious education, but comprehensiveeducational componentof church-maintained schoolswas notso narrow too, as evidenced bythe schools’ schedule. In addition tothe Law of God, Church Slavonic languageandchurch musicstudents learnedreading, writing, arithmetic, history, geography, calligraphy, Russianlanguage, drawing. In some schoolsvocational classesand societies of crafts, drawing, choral singing were created. Educational process wasbuildingon the basisof main requirementsof the educational programs, the content of whichwassaturatedand to some extend included detailedlesson plans. Eachsection of the programwas provided by the list ofmanuals andguidelines for teachers. The church-maintained schools were run by parish priest, trustees. Schoolswere often locatedin the homes ofclergymen, but many priestsnoted thatonly havingits own building, the school is ableto organizecomlex educational process. That’s why theimportance and signiﬁcance ofproper organization ofeducational processin schoolswas being anounced bythe heads of Transbaikaldiocese. Graduallythe need of foundation of separate buildingsfor schoolshas also becamean important issue, as well as the construction of temples. In the research paperthe author analyzed thematerial basis, subject environment, curriculum contentandforms of activities realized by the parochial schools, the system of rewards and punishments. The article presentsstatistics on the numberof parochial schoolsin Transbaikaliain the late XIX -early XX centuries
The Russian Orthodox Church, Orthodox parochial school, Transbaikalia, Transbaikal diocese of the Orthodox education.
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