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Богданова А. В. Соляной промысел Соловецкого монастыря накануне секуляризации 1764 г // Вестник ПСТГУ. Серия II: История. История Русской Православной Церкви. 2014. Вып. 1 (56). С. 31-49. DOI: 10.15382/sturII201456.31-49
The article deals with the circumstances ofthe Solovetsky monastery salt production at the eve of the secularization that took place in 1764. The Author’s goal is to examine the economic value of the Solovetsky monastery salt production at the time of its lost as a result of the secularization reform. This examination was based on the study of the archival documents. Therefore the following issues were considered: (1) the structure of the salt business in Russia in the 18th century; (2) the value of the Pomorian salt in the all-Russian salt market in the middle of the 18th century; (3) the value of the Solovetsky monastery salt production share in the all-Russian Pomorian salt delivery; (4) estimation of the volume and profitability of the salt business for the Solovetsky monastery at the eve of 1764. The analysis shows a significant market decline of the Pomorian salt in the 18th century, about half of which was the salt produced by the Solovetsky monastery. First of all it was caused by the appearance of a significant number of competing salt manufacturers with lower salt costs œming from cheaper primecost and cheaper delivery. In particular the market of Vologda, formerly the largest place for Solovetsky salt sales was fully occupied by other suppliers by the middle of the 18th century. The overall Solovetsky monastery’s salt production shrinked to a half of its middle of the 17th century value. By the time of secularization reform the salt production was not earing significant profit to the Solovetsky monastery. Under the strong state monopoly the salt business transformed into a labor-consuming national service obligation. Bereaved of the land estates together with its salt mines the Solovetsky monastery was also set free from a hard economical obligation.
Solovetsky monastery, salt production, secularization

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2. Vodarskij Ja. E. Naselenie Rossii v konce XVII — nachale XVIII veka (Population of Russia in the End of XVII — Begin of XVIII Cent.), M., 1977.
3. Derzhavin G. R. (1872) “Primechanija o Pomorskih soljanyh varnicah” (Notices about Salt Pans of Pomorje), in Idem. Sochinenija, SPb., 1872, vol. 7, pp. 647–650.
4. Dosifej (Nemchinov), arhim. Geograficheskoe, istoricheskoe i statisticheskoe opisanie pervoklassnogo stavropigial'nogo Soloveckogo monastyrja (Geographical, Historical and Statistical Description of Solovki Monastery), Spaso-Preobrazhenskij Soloveckij stavropigial'nyj muzhskoj monastyr', [s.l..], 2011.
5. Zaozerskaja E. I. (1970) “Soljanye promysly na Rusi XIV–XV vv.” (Salt Affairs in Rus’ in XIV–XV Cent.), in Istorija SSSR, 1970, vol. 6, pp. 95–109.
6. Zaozerskaja E. I. U istokov krupnogo proizvodstva v russkoj promyshlennosti XVI–XVII vv. (By Sources of a Big Production in Russian Industry in XVI–XVII Cent.), M., 1970.
7. Ivanov V. I. Buhgalterskij uchet v Rossii XVI–XVII vv. Istoriko-istochnikovedcheskoe issledovanie monastyrskih prihodo-rashodnyh knig (Accounting in Russia in XVI–XVII Cent. Historical Source Study of Monastic Accounting Books), SPb., 2005.
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11. Ostrovskij F. (1882) “Drevnerusskie solevarennye tovarishhestva (k istorii russkoj promyslovoj obshhiny)” (Old Russian Salt Trade Unions (to History of Russian Business Community)), in Ustoi, 1882, vol 5. pp. 85–93; vol 8, pp. 49–84.
12. Rozen B. Ja. Severnaja sol' (North Salt), Arhangel'sk, 1957.
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Богданова А. В. Крестьяне Соловецкого монастыря накануне секуляризации 1764 г // Вестник ПСТГУ. Серия II: История. История Русской Православной Церкви. 2015. Вып. 1 (62). С. 35-51. DOI: 10.15382/sturII201562.35-51
The article deals with the peasants of the Solovetsky monastery at the eve of the secularization that took place in 1764. Description of the monastic estates and the feudal homage of the peasants is the subject of the article. The article uses archival documents stored in the Fund number 1201 («the Solovetsky monastery») and the Fund number 280 («Kollegia Jekonomii”) of the Russian state archive of ancient acts. The author asserts that the estates of the Solovetsky monastery could be divided into three groups according to their geographical location which determined the character of the basic obligations of the peasants. The estates located on the shore of the White sea or near it were allocated into the first group. About 81 % of monastic peasants leaved there. They executed mixed duties: different works in combination with monetary and food products servage. Working in the monastic salt mines was their main duty. They also had to deliver wood and send workers to the monastery. Money servage collected from these peasants was about the tenth part of the cash receipts of the monastic Treasury. The estates located on the banks of the Northern Dvina and Onega, the major Pomorian rivers (11 % of monastic peasants) composed the second group. Majority of peasants belonging to this group were “polovniki” whose duty was to work the monastic arable for half of the harvest. The monastic estates located in the Central districts of the country composed the third group (8 % of monastic peasants). The peasants belonging to this group had relatively weak connection with the monastery due to their geographical remoteness from the Solovetsky archipelago. Performing forced labor they provided bread for the Moscow monastic farmstead and Marchukova hermitage belonging to the monastery.
Solovetsky monastery, patrimonies, peasants, secularization

1. Baranov M. A. Krest'jane monastyrskih votchin nakanune sekuljarizacii (po dokumentam Spas-Evfimieva monastyrja v g. Suzdale). Dis. … kand. ist. nauk (Peasants of Monastery Estates before Secularization (according to Documents of Spas-Evfimiev Monastery in Suzdal). Dissertation), Moscow, 1954.
2. Bogdanova A. V. 2013 “K voprosu o tom, krupnym li votchinnikom byl Soloveckij monastyr' nakanune sekuljarizacii 1764 g.” (To Question, whether Soloveckij Monastery Was a Big Estater before Secularization of 1764), in Rus', Rossija: Srednevekov'e i Novoe vremja. Tret'i chtenija pamjati akademika RAN L. V. Milova (materialy mezhdunarodnoj nauchnoj konferencii), Moscow, 2013, vol. 3, pp. 248–258.
3. Bogdanova A. V. 2014 “O «zimnih vyezdah» soloveckih nastojatelej v XVIII v., ob odnom korablekrushenii i utonuvshih knigah” (About “Winter Departures” of Soloveckije Abbots in XVIII Cent., about One Shipwreck and Sunken Books), in Soloveckoe more: istoriko-literaturnyj al'manah, Arhangel'sk, Moscow, 2014, vol. 13, pp. 87–95.
4. Bogdanova A. V. 2014 “Soljanoj promysel Soloveckogo monastyrja nakanune sekuljarizacii 1764 g.” (Salt Business of Soloveckij Monastery before Secularization of 1764), in Vestnik PSTGU. Ser. II: Istorija. Istorija Russkoj Pravoslavnoj Cerkvi, Moscow, 2014, vol. 1/56, pp. 31–49.
5. Bulygin I. A. 1970 “Krest'jane vologodskogo Spaso-Priluckogo monastyrja v pervoj polovine XVIII v.” (Peasants of Spaso-Priluckij Monastery in Vologda in First Half of XVIII Cent.), in Agrarnaja istorija Evropejskogo Severa SSSR, Vologda, 1970, pp. 108–120.
6. Vodarskij Ja. E. Naselenie Rossii v konce XVII — nachale XVIII veka (Population of Russia in End of XVII — Begin of XVIII Century), Moscow, 1977.
7. Gromyko M. M. 1963 “Krest'jane cerkovnyh votchin Zapadnoj Sibiri v 40–60-h godah XVIII v.” (Peasants of Church Estates of Western Siberia in 40–60-s Years of XVIII Cent.), in Ezhegodnik po agrarnoj istorii Vostochnoj Evropy, Riga, 1963, pp. 262–270.
8. Kabuzan V. M. 2000 “Naselenie Rossijskoj imperii v XVIII v.” (Population of Russian Empire in XVIII Cent.), in Issledovanija po istorii Rossii XVI–XVIII vv., Moscow, 2000, pp. 42–75.
9. Prohorov M. F., Chekunova A. E. 1997 “Votchinnoe hozjajstvo Donskogo monastyrja v XVII–XVIII vv.” (Estate Economy of Donskoj Monastery in XVII–XVIII Cent.), in Monastyri v zhizni Rossii. Materialy nauchnoj konferencii, posvjashhennoj 600-letiju prepodobnogo Pafnutija Borovskogo i 550-letiju osnovanija im Rozhdestva Bogorodicy Pafnut'ev-Borovskogo monastyrja (19–20 aprelja 1994 goda), Kaluga, Borovsk, 1997, pp. 60–65.
10. Semevskij V. I. Krest'jane v carstvovanie imperatricy Ekateriny II (Peasants in Time of Empress Ekaterina II), Saint-Petersburg, 1901, vol. 2.