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Бирюкова Ю. А. Исповедь в застенках ВЧК. К биографии историка и общественного деятеля профессора протоиерея П. В. Верховского // Вестник ПСТГУ. Серия II: История. История Русской Православной Церкви. 2012. Вып. 5 (48). С. 87-104.
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The author introduces for the first time into a scientific turnover three documents of known church and public figure P.V Verhovskiy. The documents have a personal origin and inform about the little studied period of his life and activity and about some origins of his acts and views after the revolution in 1917. The publication of Yu. A. Birjukov.
P. V. Verhovskiy, the Russian Orthodox Church, state-church relations, clergy, repressions, «the counterrevolutionary organisation of Prince Ukhtomsky», the sources of a personal origin, archival investigative case
Бирюкова Ю. А. Позиция Юго-Восточного русского церковного собора 1919 г. в политическом противостоянии периода Гражданской войны // Вестник ПСТГУ. Серия II: История. История Русской Православной Церкви. 2014. Вып. 5 (60). С. 9-17. DOI: 10.15382/sturII201460.9-17
The article studies the attitude of the Southeast Russian Church Council toward rather an inhomogeneous politically White Movement. This council took place in Stavropol in 1919. Various socio-political forces, represented at the council, tried to take advantage of that assembly in order to use its authority for political causes, but the council successfully ignored such attempts. According to the council the main purpose of the Church was to work constructively in a religious and moral sphere. Since the White Army became an ally of the Church in its struggle with militant atheism, the leader of the White Movement General Anton Denikin was the only political fi gure who received a special support from the council
Russian Orthodox Church, South-Eastern Russian Church Council, the Provisional Supreme Church Authority, the Russian Civil War, the White Russian Movement, General Anton Denikin

1. Butakov Ja. A. Osoboe soveshhanie pri Glavnokomandujushhem vooruzhennymi silami na Juge Rossii (1918–1919 gg.) (Special Conference by Commander in Chief of Armed Forces of South of Russia (1918–1919)), in: http://www.antibr.ru/dictionary/ae_ossov_gk.html (Date: 14.02.2014)).
2. Kostrjukov A. A. 2008 “Stavropol'skij sobor 1919 g. i nachalo nezavisimoj cerkovnoj struktury na Juge Rossii” (Stavropolskij Council of 1919 and Begin if Independent Church Structur in South of Russia), in Ural'skij istoricheskij vestnik, 2008, vol. 4, pp. 71–75.
3. Krjachko N., prot. 2012 “Arhiv Jugo-Vostochnogo russkogo cerkovnogo sobora 1919 g. kak istochnik po istorii Russkoj Pravoslavnoj Cerkvi perioda Grazhdanskoj vojny” (Archive of Russian Church Council of South-East of 1919 as Source for History of Russian Orthodox Church in Period of the Civil War), in Vestnik cerkovnoj istorii, 2012, vol 1/2 (25/26), pp. 158–216.
4. Molchanov L. A. 2008 “My ne dali verujushhim vsego togo, chto dolzhny byli dat' (Vremennoe vysshee cerkovnoe upravlenie na Juge Rossii)” (We Did not Give to Believers All that We Should Give (Temporary High Church Governance in South of Russia)), in Belaja gvardija: Russkaja Pravoslavnaja Cerkov' i Beloe dvizhenie, Moscow: Posev, 2008, p. 34.
5. Puchenkov A. S. 2012 “Denikin i Kuban' v 1919 godu: dva jepizoda otnoshenij” (Denikin and Kuban’ in 1919: Two Episodes of Relations), in Russkij sbornik: issledovanija po istorii Roscii, Moscow: «Regnum», 2012, pp. 385–406.
6. Cvetkov V. 2008 “Zh. Cerkov' i vlast' v gody «Russkoj smuty» (otnoshenie Svjatejshego Patriarha Tihona k antibol'shevistskomu dvizheniju v 1917–1920 gg.)” (“Live Church” and Power in Time of “Russian Revolt” (Relation of Holy Patriarch Tikhon to Antibolshevist Movement in 1917–1920)), in Belaja gvardija: Russkaja Pravoslavnaja Cerkov' i Beloe dvizhenie, Moscow: Posev, 2008 (http://www.dk1868.ru/statii/tixon.htm (Date: 01.02.2014)).
Бирюкова Ю. А. Документы особой комиссии по расследованию злодеяний большевиков при Главнокомандующем Вооруженными силами на Юге России как источник по истории Русской Православной Церкви // Вестник ПСТГУ. Серия II: История. История Русской Православной Церкви. 2017. Вып. 79. С. 55-67. DOI: 10.15382/sturII201779.55-67
This article provides analysis of reliability and value of documents accumulated by the Ad Hoc Committee on Investigation of Crimes of Bolsheviks under the Commander-in-Chief of the Armed Forces in the South of Russia. This analysis includes the study of documents of the Committee as a source for the Church history in the South of Russia, the study of periodicals and memoirs as well the study of the history of the original owner of the documents mentioned above. The Committee on Investigation of Crimes of Bolsheviks was founded on December 31, 1918 with the purpose of forming public opinion about the true nature of Bolsheviks’ power and the purpose of justifying the mission of the White. The aim of the Committee was of course not to carry out investigation in the fi rst hand, but to record crimes of Bolsheviks and then to inform the public, i.e. to use them as means of propaganda. However, this does not depreciate their value and validity because the work was conducted by the best professional experts in the fi eld of forensic medicine and law who strictly followed guidelines of the judicial proceedings, legal norms and principles. In addition, the work was done in the presence of foreign observers. The Committee was interested in obtaining true and authentic information since fabricated evidence would have lost its value. Investigation of the persecution of the Church in the Southern part of Russia was one of the Committee’s focal points. Materials which were collected by the Committee on the Area of Don Army and brought out with the help of the separate Don Branch Committee as a result of cooperation with diocesan bodies and local judicial departments are of special value.
Ad Hoc Committee on Investigation of Crimes of Bolsheviks under Commander-in-Chief of Armed Forces of the South of Russia, source for church history, Civil War, Red Terror, persecutions of Church, Area of Don Army, Don diocese, Don diocesan council, A. I. Denikin, P. N. Wrangel, B. A. Podgorny
  1. Chekhranov P., Dve tiuremnye Paskhi. Iz vospominanii, Publ. N. D. Egorova, available at: http://www.orthedu.ru/ch_hist/hi_rpz/2827dve.htm (20.05.2017).
  2. Fel’shtinskii Iu. G., Cherniavskii G. I., “Krasnyi terror v gody grazhdanskoi voiny. Po materialam Osoboi sledstvennoi komissii”, in: Voprosy istorii, 7, 2001, 3–34.
  3. Fel’shtinskii Iu. G., Cherniavskii G. I., Krasnyi terror v gody Grazhdanskoi voiny (po materialam Osoboi sledstvennoi komissii), Moscow, 2004.
  4. Fondy Gosudarstvennogo arkhiva Rossiiskoi Federatsii po istorii belogo dvizheniia i emigratsii: Putevoditel’, 4, Moscow, 2004.
  5. Lokerman A., 74 dnia sovetskoi vlasti. Iz istorii diktatury bol’shevikov v Rostove-na-Donu, Rostov-on-Don, 1918.
  6. Mel’gunov S. P., Krasnyi terror v Rossii. 1918–1922, Berlin, 1924.
  7. Mikhailov I. V., “Grazhdanskaia voina v sovremennoi istoriografi i: viden li svet v kontse tonnelia?” in: Grazhdanskaia voina v Rossii: sobytiia, mneniia, otsenki, Moscow, 2002, 639–655.
Biryukova Yulia
Academic Degree: Candidate of Sciences* in History;
Place of work: Institute of the Service Sector and Entrepreneurship, Branch of Don State Technical University; 147, Shevchenko Str., Shakhty, 346500, Russian Federation;
Post: Associate Professor;
ORCID: 0000-0001-5321-2574;
Email: yliya-biryukova@yandex.ru. *According to the International Standard Classification of Education (ISCED) 2011, the degree of Candidate of Sciences (Cand.Sc.) belongs to ISCED level 8 — "doctoral or equivalent", together with PhD, DPhil, D.Lit, D.Sc, LL.D, Doctorate or similar.
Бирюкова Ю. А. [Review] // Вестник ПСТГУ. Серия II: История. История Русской Православной Церкви. 2018. Вып. 81. С. 151-155. — Rev. op.: Документы Священного Собора Православной Российской Церкви 1917–1918 годов. Т. 1–6, 19. М., 2012–2016.
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Biryukova Yulia
Academic Degree: Candidate of Sciences* in History;
Place of work: Institute of the Service Sector and Entrepreneurship, Branch of Don State Technical University; 147, Shevchenko Str., Shakhty, 346500, Russian Federation;
Post: Associate Professor;
ORCID: 0000-0001-5321-2574;
Email: yliya-biryukova@yandex.ru. *According to the International Standard Classification of Education (ISCED) 2011, the degree of Candidate of Sciences (Cand.Sc.) belongs to ISCED level 8 — "doctoral or equivalent", together with PhD, DPhil, D.Lit, D.Sc, LL.D, Doctorate or similar.
Кияшко Н. В., Бирюкова Ю. А. Административно-территориальная реформа южных епархий России в период Гражданской войны // Вестник ПСТГУ. Серия II: История. История Русской Православной Церкви. 2018. Вып. 85. С. 73-88. DOI: 10.15382/sturII201885.73-88
This article analyses the reasons for administrative and territorial changes in dioceses of South Russia during the Civil War. It demonstrates that they continued processes of reforms, which took place rather languidly prior to the revolution, as well as the policy of the All-Russian Local Council. They progressed in two directions, i.e. decentralisation and downsizing. In South Russia during the Civil War, there took place a massive formation of independent diocesan units. They consolidated under the single church administration of the Provisional Higher Church Administration of South Russia, which can be regarded similar to metropolitan authority. Decisions as to issues in church life were associated by the churchgoers and bishops with the administrative and territorial reforms, as well as with the acquisition of independence of vicariates that had been outlined before the revolution. Congresses of the clergy and laymen played a prominent role in the administrative-territorial reform of South Russian dioceses, particularly those that took place after the February revolution. They accelerated church reforms and ruined previous foundations of the Russian Orthodox Church as part of the state. The reform of the synodal system, including church administration, was associated by the clergy and churchgoers primarily with the council spirit and elections on all levels. All organs in church administration were supposed to be collegial and consist of representatives of the clergy and laymen elected on common grounds in the same proportions. Both church and secular authorities were interested in implementing administrative and territorial reforms. Thus, Kuban’ regional cossack government strived after the relative independence of the region and maintainance of the balance of power with A. I. Denikin, Chief Commander of armed forces in South Russia. The course of these reforms was painful, mostly due to the necessity of changes in church economy.
Russian Orthodox Church, Civil War, Provisional Higher Church Administration, South-Eastern Russian Church Council of 1919, dioceses of South Russia, reforms of synodal system, administrative and territorial reform, diocese administration, parish reform, congresses of clergy and laymen, All-Russian Local Council of 1917‒1918, bishop Ioann (Levitskiy), archbishop Agafodor (Preobrazhenskiy)
  1. Biriukova Iu. (ed.) (2018) Iugo-Vostochnyi Russkii Tserkovnyi Sobor 1919 goda: Sbornik dokumentov [South-Eastern Russian Church Council of 1919: Collection of Documents]. Moscow (in Russian).
  2. Kiiashko N. (2016) “Eparkhial’naia vlast’ na Kubani i Chernomor’e v usloviiakh Grazhdanskoi voiny (1918–1920 gg.)” [Diocesan Authorities in Kuban’ and Black Sea Region in Conditions of Civil War], in Iug Rossii i sopredel’nye strany v voinakh i vooruzhennykh konfl iktakh: Materialy Vserossiiskoi nauchnoi konferentsii [South of Russia and Neighbouring Countries in Wars and Military Conflicts: Conference Proceedings]. Pp. 448‒455 (in Russian).
  3. Nikitin D. (2010) “Ioann (Levitskii; Ioannikii)”, in Pravoslavnaia entsiklopediia [Orthodox Encyclopaedia]. Vol. 23, pp. 417–418 (in Russian).
  4. Rimskii S. (1998). Pravoslavnaia tserkov’ i gosudarstvo v XIX veke. Donskaia eparkhiia: ot proshlogo k nastoiashchemu [Orthodox Church and the State in the 19th Century. Donskaya Diocese: From the Past to the Present]. Rostov on Don (in Russian).
  5. Rogoznyi P. (2008) Tserkovnaia revoliutsiia 1917 goda (Vysshee dukhovenstvo Rossiiskoi Tserkvi v bor’be za vlast’ v eparkhiiakh posle Fevral’skoi revoliutsii) [Church Revolution of 1917 (Higher Clergy of the Russian Church in the Struggle for Diocese Power after the February Revolution]. St. Petersburg (in Russian).
  6. Tsvetkov V. (2016) Beloe delo v Rossii. 1920–1922 gg.: Formirovanie i evoliutsiia politicheskikh struktur Belogo dvizheniia v Rossii [White Movement in Russia, 1920‒1922: Origins and Evolution of Political Structures of the White Movement in Russia]. Ch. 2.Moscow (in Russian).
Kiyashko Nikita
Place of work: Yekaterinodar Diocese of the Russian Orthodox Church;
Post: Committee for Canonisation of Saints;
ORCID: 0000-0001-7415-2603;
Email: graf1863@mail.ru.
Biryukova Yulia
Academic Degree: Candidate of Sciences* in History;
Place of work: Don State Technical University; 1, Gagarin sq., Rostov-on-don, 346500, Russian Federation;
Post: Associate Professor;
ORCID: 0000-0001-5321-2574;
Email: yliya-biryukova@yandex.ru. *According to the International Standard Classification of Education (ISCED) 2011, the degree of Candidate of Sciences (Cand.Sc.) belongs to ISCED level 8 — "doctoral or equivalent", together with PhD, DPhil, D.Lit, D.Sc, LL.D, Doctorate or similar.
Бирюкова Ю. А. Православное духовенство в условиях «красного террора» на юге России в период Гражданской войны 1918–1919 гг. // Вестник ПСТГУ. Серия II: История. История Русской Православной Церкви. 2019. Вып. 87. С. 40-50. DOI: 10.15382/sturII201987.40-50
This article deals with motives and scale of murders of the clergy in the period of “red terror” in South Russia in 1918‒1919 as well as with the attitude of the population to these events. Numerous facts of atrocities against the clergy are classifi ed in accordance with the reason, way, and accompanying circumstances. Local Soviet authorities were much better disposed to the clergy and even protested against monstrous terrorist activities of the Red Army. Murders were committed because of false information and rumours, when the priest’s duties were carried out, during peacekeeping mission. The reasons for murders were often not indicated, but the circumstances of murders connected with specifi c cruelty and atrocity, both when the victims were alive and after death, devastation of churches and sacred objects show that the reasons are to be looked for in the sphere of mentality. Through the destruction of the clergy the entire system of moral values was being destroyed. The terror was establishing other values and was making free brutal tendencies in the population, previously constrained by Christian standards. This contributed to moral decay. However, the attitudes of the population to the ongoing terrorism ware not uniform, as there were those who took part in the murders and those who served as a restraining factor because the new authorities were afraid to cause outrage in that part of the population who supported the clergy. The article comes to the conclusion that the “red terror” towards the church had a chaotic, spontaneous, irrational and large-scale character. It did not represent a repressive response, a defensive or precautionary measure, because there were no grounds for these. It was carried out against peaceful population, out of any legal dimension, and had features of Lynch’s law, banditism, and mass hysteria.
orthodox clergy, persecutions on Church, the special commission to Investigate crimes of Bolsheviks led by Commander in Chief of the Army in the South of Russia, a source of Church history, Civil war, "red terror", archbishop Mitrofan (Simashkevich), bishop Germogen (Maximov).
  1. Biriukova Iu. (2017) “Dokumenty Osoboi komissii po rassledovaniiu zlodeianii bol’shevikov pri Glavnokomanduiushchem vooruzhennymi silami na Iuge Rossii kak istochnik po istorii Russkoi Pravoslavnoi Tserkvi” [Documents of the Ad Hoc Committee on Investigation of Crimes of Bolsheviks under Commander-in-Chief of Armed Forces of the South of Russia as a Source for the history of Russian Orthodox Church]. Vestnik PSTGU. Ser. II: Istoriia. Istoriia Russkoi Pravoslavnoi Tserkvi. 2017, vol. 79, pp. 55–67 (in Russian) .
  2. Kiiashko N. (2016) “Sistema tserkovnogo upravleniia i polozhenie dukhovenstva na Iuge Rossii v 1918–1919 gg.” [System of Church Administration and the Position of the Clergy in South Russia in 1918‒1919]. Materialy VIII Mezhdunarodnoi nauchno-bogoslovskoi konferentsii studentov SPbDA [Proceedings of the 8th International Conference in Theology of Students of St. Petersburg Theological Academy]. St. Petersburg, pp. 226–233 (in Russian).
  3. Kiiashko N. (2018) “Krasnyi terror v gody Grazhdanskoi voiny na Kubani: Novye dokumenty i materialy” [Red Terror in the Years of the Civil War in Kuban’ Region: New Documents and Materials]. Nasledie vekov, 2018, vol. 2, pp. 28–35; available at http://heritage-magazine.com/wp-content/uploads/2018/06/2018_2_Kiyashko.pdf (07.10.2018) (in Russian).
  4. Mironenko S. (ed.) (2004) Fondy Gosudarstvennogo arkhiva Rossiiskoi Federatsii po istorii belogo dvizheniia i emigratsii: Putevoditel’ [Repository of the State Archive of Russian Federation for the History of the White Movement and Emigration: Handbook], vol. 4. Moscow (in Russian).
Biryukova Yulia
Academic Degree: Candidate of Sciences* in History;
Place of work: Don State Technical University; 1, Gagarin sq., Rostov-on-don, 346500, Russian Federation;
Post: Associate Professor;
ORCID: 0000-0001-5321-2574;
Email: yliya-biryukova@yandex.ru. *According to the International Standard Classification of Education (ISCED) 2011, the degree of Candidate of Sciences (Cand.Sc.) belongs to ISCED level 8 — "doctoral or equivalent", together with PhD, DPhil, D.Lit, D.Sc, LL.D, Doctorate or similar.