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Белоусов А. В. [Review] // Вестник ПСТГУ. Серия I: Богословие. Философия. 2012. Вып. 5 (43). С. 119-121. — Rev. op.: Byzantinische Epigramme auf Fresken und Mosaiken / A. Rhoby, Erst. // Byzantinische Epigramme in inschriftlicher Überlieferung / W. Hörandner, A. Rhoby, A. Paul, Hrsg. Wien: Verlag der Östereichische Akademie der Wissenschafte
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Белоусов С. С. Государственная власть, духовенство и органы приходского управления Русской Православной Церкви в Калмыкии в 1957–1984 гг. // Вестник ПСТГУ. Серия II: История. История Русской Православной Церкви. 2018. Вып. 81. С. 105-117. DOI: 10.15382/sturII201881.105-117
This article examines the problem of interaction between state authorities and the governing bodies of the Russian Orthodox Church in Kalmykia in the period of 1957– 1984. The author analyses the state of religious aff airs, the development of relations both between state authorities and Orthodox Church organisations on the one hand, and between the clergy and church authorities on the other. The factors that infl uenced these relations are discussed as well. Another task is to reconstruct the socio-demographic situation of the Orthodox clergy and members of parish councils, as well as to identify and analyse the behavioural strategies of the Orthodox clergy. The article draws on materials of the State Archive of the Russian Federation and the National Archive of Republic of Kalmykia, most of materials being made public for the fi rst time. The study of the religious situation in 1957–1984 has showed that in spite of the strong atheistic propaganda, a certain part of population in Kalmykia steadfastly preserved the Orthodox rites. The main proportion of believers, of regular church-goers and members of local organs of church self-administration was made up by elderly people, mainly women, whereas middle-aged and young people were few. State authorities did not aim to eliminate the existing Orthodox houses of worship, but at the same time suppressed any attempts of believers to set up new churches and parishes. The author of the article comes to the conclusion that the main component of the religious policies was the weakening of the infl uence of the clergy on church-goers and increased supervision of religious life. In these circumstances, the Orthodox clergy in their relations with authorities employed either the strategy of adaptation or confrontation. Confl icts between members of the clergy and church authorities on the one hand and state authorities on the other usually arose on economic grounds and did not have a political character.
Kalmykia, Russian Orthodox Church, church-state relations, Soviet religious policies, Commissioner for Religious Aff airs, clergy, parish, church government, strategy of behaviour, I. S. Shandrygin, V. V. Partolin
  1. Belousov S. S., State religious policy in Kalmykia against Christian faiths in the first half of the XX century (1900–1956), Elista, 2015.
  2. Belousov S. S., Orthodox parishes of Kalmykia in the XIX — early XX century, Elista, 2003.
  3. Borisenko I. V., “As closed Orthodox Church”, in: Izvestiya Kalmykii, 1991, Dec. 4.
  4. Borisenko I. V., “Rectors of the parish of Elistinskaya “, in: Izvestiya Kalmykii, 1993, June, 11.
  5. Borisenko I. V., Orthodoxy in Kalmykia, Moscow, 1999.
  6. Kasparov E. L., Dynamics of fertility and nuptiality in the Kalmyk Autonomous Soviet socialist Republic, Elista, 1974.
Belousov Sergey
Academic Degree: Candidate of Sciences* in History;
Place of work: Kalmyk Research Centre of the Russian Academy of Sciences; 8 Ilishkina Str., Elista 358009, Russian Federation;
Post: Associate Professor, Senior Research Fellow;
ORCID: 0000-0001-7614-3516;
Email: sbelousovelista@mail.ru. *According to the International Standard Classification of Education (ISCED) 2011, the degree of Candidate of Sciences (Cand.Sc.) belongs to ISCED level 8 — "doctoral or equivalent", together with PhD, DPhil, D.Lit, D.Sc, LL.D, Doctorate or similar.
Белоус П. В. К вопросу о религиозной активности прихожан в годы Первой мировой войны на примере таинства Евхаристии (по материалам Тобольской епархии) // Вестник ПСТГУ. Серия II: История. История Русской Православной Церкви. 2018. Вып. 85. С. 30-51. DOI: 10.15382/sturII201885.30-51
World War I led to signifi cant changes not only in the political, economic and military spheres, but also in the social and religious conscience of Russian society. Due to the all-pervading impact of this global confl ict on all sides of the state, social and church life, the questions of world outlook were also undergoing changes. This paper examines these changes with Tobolsk diocese as an example. It attempts to analyse the religious activity of Orthodox churchgoers during the years of World War I. The indicator of religiousness is the sacrament of Eucharist, which is due to its central and decisive meaning in the Christian’s life. Accordingly, the positive or negative trend in the number of those taking part in this sacrament during a certain historical period demonstrates the increase or decrease in relisious life on the whole, which might have resulted in certain events. The aim of this article is to study the trends in the religiosity of believers of Tobolsk diocese in 1914‒1918 with the sacrament of Eucharist as an example. The main source for the study is confession lists of churches in Tobolsk diocese, the data of which have allowed us to trace the situation with the churchgoers’ participating in Eucharist in churches of a number of uyezds (administrative districts): Kurganky, Tyumensky, Tobolsky, Surgutsky, as well as of staff members of Tobolsk gendarme offi ce. The situation with the sacrament in question was extremely varied. The decrease in religious activity in some parishes was in contrast with the increase in others, which confi rms the established opinion about sharp diff erences and splitting in Russian society in the early 20th century and during World War I.
Eucharist, World War I, communion, religiosity, Tobolsk diocese, clergy, Russian Orthodox Church
  1. Florovskii G., archpriest. (2009) Puti russkogo bogosloviia [Paths of Russian Theology]. Moscow (in Russian).
  2. Friz G. (2013) “Pravoslavie, vlast’ i sekuliarizatsiia v Rossii, 1860–1940” [“Orthodoxy, State Authorities and Secularisation in Russia, 1860‒1940”]. Germanskii istoricheskii institut v Moskve: Doklady po istorii XVIII i XIX vv. [German Historical Institute in Moscow: Papers on the History of the 18th and 19th Centuries], vol. 19 (in Russian).
  3. Gaida F. (2013) “Sviashchenstvo i tsarstvo v zhanre fentezi” [“Clergy and Czardom in the Genre of Phantasy”]. Vestnik PSTGU. Ser. II: Istoriia. Istoriia Russkoi Pravoslavnoi Tserkvi, 2013, vol. 5 (54), pp. 131–143 (in Russian).
  4. Gorozhanina M. (2006) “Deiatel’nost’ Pravoslavnoi Tserkvi v gody Pervoi mirovoi voiny” [“Activities of the Orthodox Church during the Years of World War I”]. Doklady Akademii voennykh nauk, 2006, vol. 5 (23), pp. 255–264 (in Russian).
  5. Kiprian (Kern), arсhimandrite (2001) Evkharistiia [Eucharist]. Moscow (in Russian).
  6. Kostriukov A. (2005) “O nekotorykh usloviiakh sluzheniia voennogo dukhovenstva v gody Pervoi mirovoi voiny” [“On Some Conditions of Service of Military Clergy in the Years of World War I”]. Vestnik PSTGU. Ser. II: Istoriia. Istoriia Russkoi Pravoslavnoi Tserkvi, 2005, vol. 1, pp. 39‒40 (in Russian).
  7. Porshneva O. (2000) Mentalitet i sotsial’noe povedenie rabochikh, krest’ian i soldat Rossii v period Pervoi mirovoi voiny (1914–1918 gg.) [Mentality and Social Behaviour of Workers, Farmers and Soldiers of Russia during World War I (1914‒1917)]. Ekaterinburg (in Russian).
  8. Russkaia Pravoslavnaia Tserkov’ (2000) [Russian Orthodox Church], in Pravoslavnaia entsiklopediia [Orthodox Encyclopaedia], Moscow (in Russian).
  9. Samokhin K. (2006) “Transformatsii krest’ianskogo mentaliteta v gody Pervoi mirovoi voiny” [“Transformations of Rural Mentality during WOrld War I”]. Doklady Akademii voennykh nauk, 2006, vol. 5 (23), pp. 251–252 (in Russian).
  10. Sergeev E. (2014) “Novye podkhody k issledovaniiu Pervoi mirovoi voiny” [“New Approaches to the Study of World War I”], in Velikaia voina: sto let [The Great War: 100 Years], Moscow; St. Petersburg (in Russian).
  11. Toinbi A., Ikeda D. (2007) Izberi zhizn’. Dialog Arnol’da Toinbi i Daisaku Ikedy [Choose Life. Dialogue of A. Toinbee and D. Ikeda]. Moscow (in Russian).
  12. Shkarovskii M. (2010) Russkaia Pravoslavnaia Tserkov’ v XX veke [Russian Orthodox Church in the 20th Century]. Moscow (in Russian).
Belous Pavel
Academic Degree: Candidate of Sciences* in History;
Academic Rank: Senior Research Fellow;
Place of work: Nefteyugansk Historical and Arts Museum; 10 mkr., 14 Nefteyugansk, 628303, Russian Federation;
Post: Senior Research Fellow;
ORCID: 0000-0003-0744-8759;
Email: ThinkerTGS@gmail.com. *According to the International Standard Classification of Education (ISCED) 2011, the degree of Candidate of Sciences (Cand.Sc.) belongs to ISCED level 8 — "doctoral or equivalent", together with PhD, DPhil, D.Lit, D.Sc, LL.D, Doctorate or similar.