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Беленцов С. И. Юношеское самоуправление: укрепление дисциплины или формирование сознательности (исторический аспект) // Вестник ПСТГУ. Серия IV: Педагогика. Психология. 2013. Вып. 4 (31). С. 40-49.
The article deals with the problem of the formation of youthful self-government in the context of the time. A thoughtful analysis ofthe relevant processes in the Russian education in the second half of XIX — early XX centuries, can promote the mainstreaming of lessons in this complex a saturated historical period building ideas and approaches to the development of citizens Danske activity of students. Methodological framework were received ciples history tourism, for the consideration of the historical and pedagogical facts and phenomena in specific historical conditions and taking into account the level of social and economic, cultural and political development of the society, systematic, prospective study of the social and edu governmental institutions, structures tour in their interaction and mutual influence; interdisciplinarity, driven oping application of concepts related sciences. The paper examines the main stages of self-government youth. The sixteenth century — the beginning of a samopravleniya associated with the name Valentine Trontsendorfa, a German teacher who organized a school republic. In the eighteenth century in Switzerland Martin Plante founded the seminary, which were chosen by the general meetings of the principal organs of the school authorities. In 1774, in Dessau Basedow has developed an educational project «Filantropin». In 1784, Salzman, one of the followers of Graves, opened in Shnepfentale school, which also introduces an element of self-government. A new development in his school was pay students who occupied the school office. In the nineteenth century, interesting thoughts about the development of student self-government expressed a French philosopher, sociologist Charles Fourier, the German philosopher Fichte and social activist. Enough has been widely known experience of self-government in American schools skih Lah — «urban school system» (school-city-sistem). In the twentieth century, the elements of self-administered in schools in Switzerland, France, England, the United States of America. In Russia the principles of self-control do not cause rejection.
citizenship, youthful self-government, voluntary performance of public functions, the experience of self-government, the history of education, reasonable discipline, respect for individual rights, the pedagogical effect of the introduction of self-govern
1. Belencov S. I. Vlijanie pedagogicheskih faktorov na grazhdanskuju aktivnost' shkol'nikov v Rossii vtoroj poloviny XIX — nachala XX v. Avtoref. dis. ... d-ra ped. nauk (Influence of Pedagogical Factors on Civil Activity of School Pupils in Russia of Second Half of XIX — Begin of XX Cent. Dissertation Abstract), Kursk, 2007.
2. Zorgenfrej G. G. Samoupravlenie v shkolah (Self-Government in School), Saint-Petersburg, 1912.
3. Krupskaja N. K. 1910–1911 “K voprosu o shkol'nyh sudah” (To Question of School Courts), in Svobodnoe vospitanie, 1910–1911, vol. 10.
4. Krupskaja N. K. Sobranie sochinenij (Collection of Works), Moscow, 1959, vol. 3.
5. Spasskaja K. 1917 “O samoupravlenii uchashhihsja v shkole” (About Self-Government of Pupils in School), in Psihologija i deti, 1917, vol. 5.
6. Ferster F. V. Svoboda voli i nravstvennaja otvetstvennost' (Freedom of Will and Moral Responsibility), Moscow, 1905.
7. Holl St. Social'nye instinkty u detej i uchrezhdenija dlja ih razvitija (Social Instincts by Children and Institutions for Their Development), Saint-Petersburg, 1913.
8. 1913 “Shkol'noe samoupravlenie uchashhihsja” (School Self-Government of Pupils), in Dlja narodnogo uchitelja, 1913, vol. 2.
Беленцов С. И. Гражданское воспитание в зарубежной реформаторской педагогике конца ХIХ — начала ХХ в // Вестник ПСТГУ. Серия IV: Педагогика. Психология. 2014. Вып. 2 (33). С. 53-64. DOI: 10.15382/sturIV201433.53-64
The article is devoted to the ideas of civic education sub- rising generation in Russia in the late XIX — early XX centuries . in the foreign Reformed pedagogy. Home study this problem was initiated in our paper «The problem of civic education in Russian pedagogy and school in the late nineteenth — early twentieth centuries», continued — in the «Influence of pedagogical factors on civic participation of schoolchildren in Russia in the second half of the nineteenth — early twentieth centuries». The methodological basis of general scientific principles are the development , integrity , system , determinism , historical and logical unity in the study of pedagogical phenomena provision of educational anthropology of education as a social and cultural phenomenon , cultural- historical and anthropological approaches to the study of educational and socio-educational processes. In the late XIX — early XX centuries russian pedagogical thought and practice intensively enriched by the ideas of the «new» foreign pedagogy —treatment to the purpose, principles and means of civic education sub- rising generation. By L. Gurlitt, E. Demolen, John Dewey , G. Kershenshteyner , P. Natorp, F. Forster, A. Ferrier, Art. Hall, E. Ertl become the property of the teaching community in Russia, argued about the purpose of civic education as the formation of the children of solidarity and mutual responsibility , a sense of respect for the rule of law and public order, the ability to sacrifice their own interests for the benefit of the whole, a willingness to serve social ideals and love for the Fatherland. Appeal to foreign ideas «new» pedagogy showed that the center of education, in general, the work of the school , the child should be with the features of inner peace, uniqueness, individuality of thought. This approach therefore updated the task of educating the «new man». It should be a creative personality, initiative, with the development of the initiative. The ideas of the «new» pedagogy revolved around the fact that people will be the mind, intellect, labor, solidarity with others to strengthen the power of the state. In general education should approximate the young man back to life, to strengthen the appointment of a person in accordance with the needs of the state. As a principled reason the process of civic education were considered the principles of faith in the natural forces of the child, united and work of the school. Following the European and U. S. domestic counterparts teachers recognized the importance of such means of civic education as joint children's games, a creative initiative pupils, pupils' self-government, insisted on their wide application in educational practice.

1. Belencov S. I. Vlijanie pedagogicheskih faktorov na grazhdanskuju aktivnost' shkol'nikov v Rossii vtoroj poloviny XIX — nachala XX v. Avtoref. … d-ra ped. nauk (Influence of Pedagogical Factors on Civil Activity of School Pupils in Russia in Second Half of XIX — Begin of XX Cent. Dissertation Abstract), Kursk, 2007.
2. Belencov S. I. Problema grazhdanskogo vospitanija v russkoj pedagogike i shkole v konce XIX — nachale XX veka. Avtoref. … kand. ped. nauk (Problem of Civil Education in Russian Pedagogic and School in End of XIX — Begin of XX Century. Dissertation Abstract), Kursk, 2000.
3. Demolen Je. Kak vospityvat' i ustraivat' nashih detej (How to Educate and Arrange Our Children), Saint-Petersburg, 1895.
4. Demolen Je. Novaja shkola (New School), Moscow, 1898.
5. Zolotarev S. A. Ocherki po istorii pedagogiki na Zapade i v Rossii (Essays on Pedagogic History in West and Russia), Vologda, 1922.
6. Il'in N. N. O vospitanii obshhestvennosti v shkole (About Education of Community in School), Moscow, 1916.
7. Kershenshtejner G. O vospitanii grazhdanstvennosti (About Education of Citizenship), Praga, 1917.
8. Kershenshtejner G. Osnovnye voprosy shkol'noj organizacii (Main Questions of School Organization), Saint-Petersburg, 1911.
9. Kershenshtejner G. Trudovaja shkola (Labor School), Moscow, 1910.
10. Levitin S. A. Trudovaja shkola — shkola budushhego (Labor School — Future School), Moscow, 1916.
11. Lozinskij E. 1903 “Povorotnyj punkt v razvitii sovremennoj pedagogiki” (Turning Point in Development of Modern Pedagogic), in Obrazovanie, 1903, vol. 8.
12. Natorp P. Social'naja pedagogika (Social Pedagogic), Moscow, 1910.
13. Rumjancev N. E. 1917 “Hronika” (Chronicle), in Vestnik vospitanija, 1917, vol. 6–7.
14. Sokolov P. A. Istorija pedagogicheskih sistem (History of Pedagogical Systems), Saint-Petersburg, 1913.
15. Ferster F. V. Shkola i harakter (School and Character), Moscow, 1910.
16. Social'nye instinkty u detej i uchrezhdenija dlja ih razvitija (Social Instincts by Children and Institutions for Their Development), Saint-Petersburg, 1913.
Беленцов С. И. Социально-педагогические идеи в творчестве Георга Кершенштейнера // Вестник ПСТГУ. Серия IV: Педагогика. Психология. 2018. Вып. 49. С. 78-87. DOI: 10.15382/sturIV201849.78-87
This article analyses the social-pedagogical system proposed by the renowned German educationalist of the latter half of the 19th — early 20th centuries Georg Kerschensteiner, a proponent of civil education. Main approaches to the study of this problem are systematising, historical and culturological. They have allowed us to identify essential characteristic features and specifi cities of the educational process in Germany in the period in question. The fundamentals of civil education were put forward by Kerschenstein in his works Grundfragen der Schulorganisation, Das Grundaxiom des Bildungsprozesses und seine Folgerungen für die Schulorganisation, Begriff der Arbeitsschule,Theorie der Bildung. According to Kerschenstein, the aim of civil education is building a humanistic socium that brings the state closer to higher ideals. Kerschenstein’s works highlighted the concept of civil education as building solidarity, lawfulness, ability to deny own interests, respect for social order, love for one’s home country. The article can be of use to teachers and to organisers of educational work with students and will familiarise them the life and work of the outstanding German educationalist and public fi gure Georg Kerschensteiner.
Georg Kerchensteiner, civil education, labour school, elementary public school, education
  1. Levinson K. A., “Modernizacija i shkola v Germanii na rubezhe XIX i XX vv.”, in: Novoe literaturnoe obozrenie, 2010, 105, 33–56.
  2. Ryzhov A. N., Novye podhody k vospitanij u i vospitaniju rebenka v teorii obrazovanija i praktike zapadnoevropejskih stran i Rossii v konce XIX — nachale XX v., Moscow, 2006.
  3. Tutikova I. A., “Fundamental'nye idei grazhdanskogo obrazovanija Georga Kershenshtejnera”, in: Vestnik Orenburgskogo gosudarstvennogo universiteta, 4, 15, 2006, 14–22.
  4. Vasil'eva Z. I., Istorija obrazovanija i pedagogicheskoj mysli za rubezhom i v Rossii, Moscow, 2006.
Belentsov Sergei
Academic Degree: Doctor of Sciences* in Education;
Academic Rank: Professor;
Place of work: Kursk State University; 28–28, Maiskii Boulevard, Kursk 305038, Russian Federation;
Post: Professor, Department of Continuos Professional Education;
ORCID: 0000-0003-4844-5343;
Email: si_bel@mail.ru. *According to ISCED 2011, a post-doctoral degree called Doctor of Sciences (D.Sc.) is given to reflect second advanced research qualifications or higher doctorates.
The work was prepared with the support of the Russian Foundation for Basic Research (project No. 17-06-00013).